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Status and Relationships of the Chinese Endemic 

Platycraspedum (Brassicaceae) 

Ihsan Al-Shehba 


Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

Cheo Taiyien and Lu L'uiuli 
Herbarium, Jiangsu Institute of Botany, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210014, People s Republic of China 

Yang Guang 
Piroche Plants, Inc., 20542 McNeil Road, Pitt Meadows, B.C., Canada V3Y IZl 

Abstract. The generic limits and relati()nb»hips of unpublibhed) distributed primarily in China. Both 

Platycraspedum are discussed, and the new species genera have fleshy fusiform roots, a whorl of scale- 

R wuchengyii is described. It is most closely relat- like leaves at the root base, petiolate cauline 

ed to Taphrospermum, from which it differs by hav- leaves, bractcate inflorescences, white petals, ba- 

ing toothed filaments of median stamens, 2-lobed 

ally dilated median filaments, and flattened re- 

stigmas, palmately veined leaves, unequal sepals, pi^ms. Platycraspedum is readily separated from 
and minutely reticulate sei 


Taphrospermum by its palmately veined cauline 

leaves and bracts, minutely reticulate seeds, strong- 

As delimited here, Platycraspedum 0. E. Schulz ly flattened and toothed median staminal filaments, 

consists of two Chinese species endemic to eastern unequal sepals with the lateral pair saccate, poorly 

Xizang (Tibet) and neighboring Sichuan. Schulz developed lateral nectaries with the median ones 

(1922) compared the generic type, P tibeticum, l^^-king, and 2-lobed stigmas. By contrast, Taphros- 

with Ddophia Thomson and later (Schulz, 1936) ^^,^„^,^ has pinnately veined cauline leaves and 

placed both e;enera in the tribe Lepidieae. However, i . r i . i _ ,. -u . i ♦ *..♦ . 

^ ^ ^ _ ' bracts, loveolate or rarely papillate seeds, terete 

Platycraspedum does not have anerustiseptate fioiits, i ^ .i i ci * i i 

-^ nil 1--11P ^"*^' toottiiess tilaments, equal and nonsaccate se- 

a feature Schulz (1936) used primarily to define the 
limits of Lepidieae. In our opinion, Platycrasped- 
um., along with Diloph ia, Taphrosperm um C . A . 
Meyer, Lignariella Baehni, and several other gen- 
era, should be closely associated with Cardamine 

pals, well-developed annular lateral nectaries con- 
fluent with median ones, and entire stigmas. 

Platycraspedum can easily be confused with 
some species of Eutrema R. Brown sect. Wasabia 

T iiri,uu XI ** J 1 r* (Matsumura) 0. E. Schulz, but it can be separated 

L., all oi which share tlattened replums, a feature v / ' i^ 

very rare elsewhere in the Brassicaceae. The pres- ^y ^^^ ^^rongly flattened and 1-toothed median fil- 

ent paper does not aim to present the tribal align- aments, flattened replums, non-mucronate leaf 

ments of these genera; nonetheless Schulz's (1936) teeth, subsessile fruits, unequal sepals with the in- 

placement of Platycraspedum in the Lepidieae is ner pair saccate, 2-lobed stigmas, and lack of septa. 


Eutrema has slender and toothless median fila- 

Platycraspedum is most closely related to Taph- ments, terete replums, mucronate teeth or leaf-vein 
rospermum^ a genus of seven species (Al-Shehbaz, endings, stipitate fruits, equal sepals with the inner 

NovoN 10: 1-3. 2000. 



pair nonsaccate, entire stigma, and complete sep- Herbs (6-)10-20(-60) cm tall, glabrous or 

turn. sparsely pubescent with trichomes to 0.8 nun long. 

Although the two species of Platycraspedum are Root fusifomi, to 5 mm diam. Stem several- 
quite different in fruit mor})hology (see key), we branched from single short base. Cauline leaves 
believe that their shared characters (fleshy taproots, petiolate, glabrous or pubescent; petiole (0.1-)0.5 
fully bracteate inflorescences, petiolate, palmately — 2(-3) cm long; leaf blade suborbicular to cordate 
veined cauline leaves, non-miicronate leaf marginal or broadly ovate, (4— )7-15 X (l-)5-12(-15) mm, 
teeth, white flowers, unequal sc^pals with inner pair reduced in size in inflorescence, base cordate, mar- 
saccate, flattened and toothed median filaments, 2- gin repand-dentate to repand or palmately 5-lobed, 
lobed stigmas, flattened replums, absence of septa, the teeth or lobes not mucronate, apex obtuse. Se- 
and accumbent flattened seeds) provide ample ev- pals 1.5—2 X 0.8-1.5 mm, glabrous, margin mem- 
branous and to 0.2 mm wide; outer pair oblong, 
narrower than inner, not saccate at base; inner pair 
broadly ovate, saccate at bas(\ Petals white, nar- 

idence to treat them as congeneric. 
Platycraspetluiii 0. E. Schulz, Repert. Sp. Nov 

Regni Veg. Brih. 12: 386. 1922. TYPE: Pla- . \ , \ i n- r /i ^ v o q k 

° ° . . rowly obovate to subelliptic, 4—6 X 2-3 mm, base 

tycraspedum tiheticiim 0. E. Schulz. 

cuneate, apex rounded. Filaments white, 1.1—2 mm 

Herbs biennial or perennial. Trichomes simple. long; outer pair slender; inner pair strongly flat- 
Roots fusiform, fleshy. Stems erect, short, and sim- tened basally and 0.4—0.6 nun wide, with ovate to 
pie at base, with several, long, decumbent to as- oldong lateral tooth 0.2-0.4 X 0.1-0.2 mm; anthers 
cending branches. Basal leaves absent. Cauline oblong, 0.4-0.6 mm long, apex obtuse. Ovar>- 6- to 
leaves petiolate, repand-dentate to palmately lobed, 9-ovuled. Fruiting pedicel slender, ascending to (li- 
the lobes not nmcronate, base cordate. Racemes varicate, straight to recurved, (3-)5-12(-20) mm 
several-flowered, terminal, cor>^mbose, bracteate long. Fruit narrowly oblong, 4-angled and longitu- 
throughout, elongated considerably in fruit. Sepals dinally 4-winged, curved, not tomlose, (6-)8-15 X 
oblong (outer pair) or broadly ovate (inner), decid- 2.5-3 mm, base cuneate; valves glabrous, with a 
uous, glabrous, unequal, base of inner pair saccate, well-developed, winged midvein with wing to 0.5 
margins membranous. Petals white, narrowly ob- mm wide; replum longitudinally winged with a wing 
ovate to subelliptic. Stamens 6, tetradynamous; fil- to 0.5 mm; style thick, 0.5-1.5 mm; gynopliore to 
aments white; (nedian pair strongly flatttnied, lat- 0.5 mm. Seeds ovate to broadly oblong, flattened, 
erally 1-toothod; anthers oblong. Nectar glands 2, (2.8-)3-3.5 X 1.5-2 mm. Flowering June-August, 
ammlar, lateral; nuulian nectaries absent. Ovules 3 fruiting July-Septeml)er. 

to 9 per ovary. Fruit dehiscent siliques, linear to 
oblong, terete or 4-angled, short stipitate; valves 
obscurely veined or witli a prominent, narrowly 

Alpine areas at 4100-4800 m 

SpccLfuens examined. CHINA. Sii'luian: Kantinp; 

winged midvein, keeled or not keeled; g>'nophore Cra-liionlu), Chno, la, Harry Smith 11042 (\1(), S Ul'S); 

, I , _ , 1 n 1 latsien-lu, Cunningham 124 (h); latsicnlu (hslcd as h- 

short and rarely to 1 nun long: replum flattened. Let), u.iter Gebuseh an. Ahslieg vom Passe Gila narh de.n 

wuiged or wnigless; septum absent; style to 1.5 mm Haus Tajialsuka, 4100 m, Umpmht 1667 (WRSL, WU); 

long; stigma 2-lubetl. Seeds uniseriate, wingless, Dawo, Felsgrale iles Ressirnna (>1)t'rhall) ties rass^sSsirka 

oblong to ovate, flattened; seed coat minutely retic- 
ulate, not muciUiginous w^hen wetted; cotyledons 

KvA vo vwK Spkciks ok l^iAT)(:H\srf-:ni \f 

la. Fruit 4-angle(], narrowly 4-winge(K not tomlose. 

westlich Tsrhlisse tsnng, 4840 m, Limprirht I9.'i ! 
(WKSF). Xizaiig (Tibet): Hala!!^. Yargon^, Soulle 30B8 

(P); Ton^olo, Kiala. Soidie 1024 {V), 

Although Platycraspedum tiheticum was based on 
three syntypes, all of which were allegedly collect- 
ed from eastern Tibet (Xizang), their actual locali- 
ties are in Sichuan, and perhaps for that reason the 
species was not included in the Flora of Xizang 
(Kuan, 1985). However, as cited above, the species 
does occur in Xizang. Of the three syntypes cited 
1. Platycraspedum tibeticum 0. E. Schulz, Re- by Schulz (1922), Limpricht 1838 has flowers and 
pert. Sp. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 386. 1922. fruits and is herein designated as the lectotypc. 


2.5—3 mm wide; [»etals 4-/) X 2—3 nnn; seeds 

(2.[5~).3— 3.5 mm lung }. P. tlbelieuni 

Truit terete, wingless, torulose, ea. 1.5 mm wide; 
pelals 3—4 X 1 — 1.5 mm; seeds 2—2.5 mm long 
2. P. wnchengyii 

TYPE: China. Sichuan [as Tibet]: Tatsienlu, 

The illustration of Platycraspedum tibeticum in 

zwischen den Steinen des Mani auf der Pas- Kuan (1987) is inaccurate in the number of mar- 

shohe Gila, 4400 m, 4 Oct. 1914, W. Limpricht ginal leaf teeth, as the species was shown to have 

1838 (lectotype, here designated, WRSL; iso- up to eight marginal teeth when in fact the maxi- 

lectotype, WU). mum it has is four. Furthermore, Ying et al. (1993) 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Al-Shehbaz et al. 

Chinese Endemic Platycraspedum 


and the median ones as linear, and the reverse is 


incorrectly described the lateral stamens as toothed Wet grounds by rivers, slopes of ravines in Jun- 

iperus forests, and woods at 4000-^500 m. 

Paratypes. CHINA. Sichuan: U|)|K'r Yalong basin, 
Cliula Shan, Degc-Garze, Manigango, 31T>2'N, 99°07'E, 
G. & S. Miche & Wiiudisch 94-433-22 ((;()F:r); Deige 
Xian, Bahang Xiang, Anonymous 7389 (PK #1 137899). 

Platycraspedum wuchengyii is named in honor of 
Wu Zhengyi (Wu Chengyi), Director Emeritus of the 


Plalycraspedum wuchengyii Al-Shehbaz, T. 

Y. Cheo, L. L. Lu & G. Yang, sp. nov. TYPE: 
China. Xizang: Mangkang Xian, wet grounds 
by river, 4000 m, 27 June 1976, Qinghai-Xiz- 
ang Expedition 12038 (holotype, KUN; iso- Kunming Institute of Botany, Editor-in-Chief of the 
type, PE). Chinese Flora Reipublicae PopularLs Sinicae, and 

Co-chair of the Flora of China, in recognition of 
llcrba 5-25 cm alta. Radix fusiformis rarnosa. Folia j^jg outstan(Hng contributions to the flora of China. 
caulina rxniolata, suborbiculata, cordata, vel suhrenifor- jir wr ^^i^uui* ro L 

, *, nil..- 1 .11 o 1 x/ Professor Wu annotated the holotype oi r. wucfi- 

iiiia. rclala alba, subelli[>tica vel aiiguslc ol)l()nga, ,^-4 X .. ., . 

1-J.5 mm. Filameiila mediaiia coniplanala, unidL'ntala. engyii ds r, tibeticum, 

Friutiis lineares, teretes, lorulosi, nonalati, 6-15 X ca. Two collections, the type and Anonymous 7389 

1.5 mm. Srmina oblonga, compressa, 2-2.5 X ca. 1.5 mm. (pg #1137899), were cited by Wang (1993) as Pla- 

Ilerbs 5-25 cm tall, glabrous or sparsely pubes- 
cent with trichomes to 1 mm long. Root fusiform, 
fleshy, to 2 mm diam. Stem single at base, with few 
to several, slender, ascending to decumbent 

tycraspedum tibeticum. It appears that the remark- 
able differences in the fruits of the two species (see 
key) were overlooked. 

Acknowledgments. We are grateful to Qin Hain- 

branches. Cauline leaves petiolate, glabrous or very ing (PE), Sun Hang (KUN), Pete Lowry (MO at P), 

sparsely pubescent; petiole 0.5"2.5(^) cm long; and W. Till (WU) for their help during visits to their 

leaf blade suborbicular to cordate or subreniform, herbaria. Zhu Guanghua and Song Hong are 

4-12 X S-15 mm, reduced in size in inflorescence, thanked for translating Chinese text and herbarium 


se c 

ordate, margin repand to shallowly and ob- labels. We thank G. Dickor^ and G. and S. Miehe 

tusely palmately 5-lobed, the lobes not mucronate, (GOET) for sending to the senior author many Chi- 

apex obtuse. Sepals 1-1.5 X 0.6-1 mm, glabrous, nese collections for determination, 
margins membranous and to 0.1 mm wide. Petals 

Literature Cited 

white, narrowly subelliptic to narrowly oblong, 3—4 

X 1-1.5 mm, base cuneate, apex rounded. Fila- Kuan, K.-C. 1985. Cruciferae. In: C. Y. Wu (editor), Fl 

Xizang. 2: 323^H 1. Science Press, Beijing. 

.1987. LepiHieae. h: T.-Y. Cheo (editor), Fl. Rei- 

nu^its white, 1.1-1.5 mm long; outer pair slender; 
inner pair strongly flattened basally and 0.3—0.5 
mm wide, with ovate to oblong lateral tooth to 0.2 

X 0.1 mm; anthers oblong, 0.3-0.4 mm long, apex Scliulz, O. E. 1922. Cruciferae. In: W. Linipriehl, l^otan- 



obtuse. Ovary 3- to 6-ovuled. Fruiting pedicel slen- 
der, ascending to divaricate, straight, 5-15 mm 
long. Fniit linear, terete, wingless, torulose, 6-15 
X ca. 1.5 mm, base cuneate; valves sparsely and 

ische Iteisen in den Hochgehirgen Cliinas und Ost-Ti- 

hets. liepert. Sp. Nov. Regni Veg. lieili. 12: :585-;590. 

. 1936. Cruciferae. hi\ A. Engler (editor). Die Na- 


von Willielni Engelniann, Leipzig. 

miimtcly pubemlent, obscurely veined, wingless; Wang, W.-T. 1993. Cruciferae. In: W.-T. Wang el al. (edi- 

replum wingless; style thick, 0.5-1.5 mm; gyno- 
phore to 1 mm. Seeds oblong, flattened, 2-2.5 X 
ca. 1.5 mm. Flowering June-August, fruiting July- 

tors). Vascular Plants of the Hengduan Mountains. 1: 


Ying, T.-S., Y.-L. Zhang & D. E. Bouffonl. I99;i. The en- 
demic genera of seed plants of China. Science Press, 


Carica palandensis (Caricaceae), a New Species from Ecuador 

Victor M. Badillo 

Herbario Maracay, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Agrononifa, 
Inslitulo de Botanica Agrfcola, Apartado 4579, Maracay 2101, Venezuela 

Veerle Van den Eynden and Patrick Van Damme 

Department of Tropical and Suhtropical Agriculture and Ethnobotany, University of Gent, 

Coupure Links 65,3, 9000 Gent, Belgium 

AltSTHACT. A new species of the genus Carica, 
foutul ill forests in southeast Ecuador, is described. 

^ . r 7 • r» 1-11 \r ^ T^ \ a ^r inutus srualis Irianmilis 1-2 rntn Iim^is, 0.5-1 nnii latls; 

Laricd palandensis naciiilo, V^an den Lvnacn & Van . ii n , i i - oo i i - i i . i i 

^ , ... "^ curulla flava, tubo lo-22 mm longo. I.o— 1 mm lali>, lub- 

axillaris, anguslr paiiiculala mulliflora. pnhcnila, us(|ii(* 
ad 16 crn lon^a. florihus hrcviu^r pcdicellatis, Flos slam- 
iiiatus srpalis Irian^ulis 1-2 mm lim^is, 0.5-1 nnii latls; 

Daniine is clearly dislitiguished from all other Car- 
ica species by its always compound leaves with 5- 
to 9-petioluIate k^aflets. 

Rksimkn. Se describe una nueva especie del ge- 
n<*ro Carica encontrada en los bosques del surestc 
d<'l Ecuador. Carica palanderisLs BatHllo, Van den 
Eynden & Van Danitne se distingue elaramente de 

uhs ol)loTigo-lanceolatis 15-21 mm longis, 2^ mm lalis; 
stamlnll)iis 10 hiserialis, S suprrioriim antheris glahris, 2— 
2.5 mm Kmgis. filamcTitis 2-2.5 mm longis. hreviter vX 
la\f pilosis. 5 inferiorum aiitlu-ris glahris. 2-2.5 mm litri- 
gis, eonncetivo 1 mm, (llaimMilis 1 mm loiipis. hiflorcs- 
rcnlia pistillata axillaris, paiicidora, florcs terminalem un- 
icnm <'l latcrales nonrmllos [XMlicellatos g<M<Mite. usque ad 
9 cm longa. leviter piihesccns. Flos pislillalus scpalis 
triaii^idi>. 2-3 mm longis, 1.5-2 nmi latis: [x-talis flavis 

las demds especies de Carica por sus liojas siempre pulxMulis, oblonge iriangnlis, 45-()0 nnn longis. 9-12 mm 

eoinpuestas con 5 a 9 folfolos petiolulados. 

lalis; ovario supero, 5-lociilari, 5-angulari, 1 1-19 mm Ion- 
go. 7—13 mm lato, apicem versus altemiato; oviilis nu- 
nuMosis [)]aeenlalione paiielali: slylo 3—4.5 mm longo; 

In the course of an ethnobotanical inventory of sligmalibus 5, 7-10 mm l.tngis. pulxMulis, apieem versus 

hifidis, ramulis 2-3 mm longis. Fmclus bateatus luteus 
subglobosus, 7-8.5 cm longus (M 0.4^^ cm latus, pcdiccllo 
9.5-1 1 cm litngo iusidens; scminlbus elli])soidcis 7-^^ mm 
longis et 4-5 mm lalis. in greges (piirupie pulpa amantia- 
ca circumcinelas aggregatis, unoquo(jue scminc .sclcros- 
li'sta lubcrculis ronicis ornala praedilo (^1 sarcotcsta 
g(*latinosa eircumcincta. 

wild edible plants in southern Ecuador, a new spe- 
cies of Carica was collected in Palanda in the Am- 
azonian provinc(* of Zaniora-Chinchipe. After the 
initial collection of a female plant In December 
1995, a second visit was paid to the same area in 
June 1997, and as a result more material was col- 
lected of both male and f(Mnale plaiUs. The urea 
where this species was discovenxl is under great 

Dioecious tree to 6 m tall; DBH 5-10 cm; bark 

ri]i r.-i 1.- b^bt brown, covered with leaf scars; stipuh^s ab- 

pressure Irom land clearance lor limber j)nt(luction, t -n i 

. .1 4 , .1 . *i •* f .u rfc L irknr sent. Latex opaque milkv. Leaves membranaeous, 

to tbe extent that the site of the December 1995 i i ' r 

n ,• „ 1 » 1 1 JIT ino-7 alternate, crowded at top of tree, palmately com- 

collection was conq^letely cleared by June 1997 i ■ i i . 

and the species no longer existed at this site 

Carira palandriisiM Badillo, Van d(*n Eynden & 
Van Damme, sp. nov. TYPE: Ecuador. Prov. 
Zamora-Chinchipe: Palanda, barrio Agua Dul- 
ee, sector I^s Cedros, 1850 m, 4''41'03"S, 
79^10' 16"W, 8 June 1997, V Van den Eynden, 
£*. Cueva & 0. Cabrera 998 (holotype, QCA; 

isotypes, LOJA, MY, QCNE). Figure 1. 

pound; petiole to 64 cm long; petiolules 6-25 mm 
long; h'iiflets 5 to 9 (5 to 7 on male plants, 5 U> 9 
on female plants), glabrous and bright green above, 
lighter green below with sh(»i1 slight pubescence on 
veins; 4 to 8 basal leaflets entire, 8-^t2.5 X 3.5- 
13.5 cm, narrowly elliptic to narrowly ovat<\ base 
acute, apex acuminate; central leaflet trilobed, 2 
lateral lobes 14—29 X 4.5-8 cm, elliptic, apex acu- 
minate, central lobe appearing to be a petiolulate 
leaflet but actually subtendtM] by an exti'iision of 

Arbor Irunco recto simplici usque ad 10 cm diamelro the main vein, 20-36 X 7.5-12 cm, elliptic to 

el 6 m alio. Folia (Hgilata 5 ad 9-foliolata; foliolis acu- ovate, base acute, apex acuminate; veins raised be- 

nunalispetioItdali..supmglal.ris, infra secus,m ^^^^|^^ ,,,i„^ ^.^.j^^ ^^f^^.^ ^^.^jj^^j^^ j^^^j^. j^^^j^^^.^^, 

crulis, lali-ralilms ii—VZ..^ cm longis et 3..-)-13.,> cm latis. .„ - i . i -. ^ 

integris, c.mtrall conspicue trilohato, lohis lateraliln.s 14- ^^"^''^" axillary, many-flowered panicles, to 16 cm 

29 cm longis, 4.5-8 cm latis, cenlrali pscudopcliolulato, l^"g» pubescent; peduncle 3-9 cm long, to 2 mm 

2<)-.% cm longo, 7.5-12 cm lalo, Infioresccnlla stamlnala diam.; lat(Tal branches 1-5 cm long; pedicels 2—6 

NovoN 10: 4^. 2000, 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Badillo et al. 

Carica palandensis from Ecuador 


Figure 1. A-J. Carica palandensis Badillo. Van d^ri Eynden & Van Damme. — 
— C. Male flower, longitudinal view with perianth removed. — D. Lower stamen. 

A. Tree. — B. Male inflorescence. 

■E. Upper stamen. 

F. Female 

inflorescence. — G. Female flower, longitudinal view with perianth removed. — H. ihar)' in cross section. — J. Fruit in 
cross section. Drawn from photographs, pickh^l material, and specimens: Van den Eynden el al. 998 (female plant), 
Van den Eynden et al 999 (male plant). Van den Eynden el al 1000 (female plant), and Van den Eynden et al. 1001 
(female j)lant). 



mm long, with a few small bracts to 1 mm long. 

Carica palandcnsis is readily distinguished by its 

Male flowers 5-merous. Sepals green, triangular, always compound leaves with 5- to 9-peliolulate 

1-2 X 0.5—1 mm. Corolla green-yellow (i-olor 144 leaflets. The only other Carica species to have 

B of the RHS Color Chart); tube 15-22 mm long, (sometimes) palmately comj^ound leaves are Carica 

2^ mi!i wide at base, 1.5—2 mm wide in the mid- goiidotiana (Triana & Planchon) Solms-T.aubach 

die, 2—3 mm wide at apex; lobes oblong-lanceolate, and in a few cases Carica microcarpa Jacquin, but 

15—21 X 2—4 mm, apt^x acute. Sepals and petals never arc there 7 or 9 leaflets nor are they all pe- 

alternate. Stamens 10, in 2 series, attached at apex tioluhite (Badillo, 1993). FuilluM-inort^ this species 

of corolla tube, versatile, 2 thecae each, opening is characterized by its seeds being anangt^d in 5 

witli h)ngitudinal sbts, inlrorse; upper stamens with groups, each surrounded by ])ul]). When opening 

loosely pilose filaments 2-2.5 mm long, anther gla- the fruit, the seeds fall apart in these 5 groups (ef. 

brous, 2-2.5 mm long, anther connective not pro- an orang<*). 

Uses, The sweet pulp surrouncHng the seeds 


longed above anther; lower stamens with filament 1 

mm long, anther glabrous, 2-2.5 mm long, anther can be eaten by putting tlie whole mass of 

connective prolonged for 1 mm above anther. Ru- and pulp in the mouth, sucking, and subseqn(Mitly 

dimentar)' g)'noecium 6-7 mm long. Female inflo- spitting the seeds out. The seeds and pulp can also 

rescences axillai-y, cymose, few-flowered, to 9 cm be mixed uilh water and sugar. After stirring and 

long, slightly pubescent; peduncle 3^.5 cm long, straining off tlie seeds, a fruity drink nv'^ults. 

3 mm (barn.; pe(h(^els 5—15 mm long, witli a few 
small bracts 1 mm long. Female flowers 5-merous. 

Li)cal name. Papaillo. 

Pnratyprs. K('UAI)()|{. Zaniora-Chiiichipf*: Palan- 

Se[)als green-reddish, triangular, 2-3 X 1.5-2 mm. da. harrio Agiia Dulce, caniind a las finras. hos(jue liu- 
Petals green-yellow (color 145 B-C of the RHS Col- ""^"^do |)rnnontaii(). i-enianenU- dc hostjue | iiUerveiiido, 

or Chart) to reddish outside, green inside, pubes- 
cent, free, obhnig-triangular, 45-60 X 9-12 mm, 
apex obtuse. Sepals and petals alternate. Ovaiy su- 
perior, 5-locular, 5-angular, 11-19 X 7-13 mm, at- 
tenuate toward ape^x; numerous anatropous ovules 
on [)arictal placentas; style 3—1.5 mm long; stigmas 

4"4i'S, 7*ri()'W. 1790 ni, 21 Dec. 1995. I. Wm den Eyn- 
(len, E. Cucra & 0. Cabrera 519 (bOJA, QCA, QCNI-;) 

(female plant); Malarida, liarrio Agiia Dulcr, sector bos 
Ceilnis. icinaiieiUe de l>()s(|ii(\ 1)<)s(jmi' liiirnedd prernori- 

lanu. -ni'O.'V'S. 79°10'16"W. 1850 tn. 8 June 1997. V 
Van den Eynden, E. Cueia & (). Cahicni W9 (I.OJ A, 
QCA, (^K^.NK) (tnal(^ j)lant); Palanda, barrio Agua Dulcr, 
seetor Los C(mIi()s. nMiianenle (l(^ hoscpu-. ()osqur huniedo 

5, 7-10 mm l(mg, sboHJy pubescent, apically often (>,vniunlano, 4"II'03"S, 79°10'lf>"W, 1830 in. 8 Jun< 

split In 2 ends of 2-3 mm eacb. Fruit a subglobosc 1997, I. Van den Eynden. E. Cueia tH (). Cabrera 1000 

berry, yellow-orange (color 22 A of tlie RHS C(»lor (b<^JA, (,>(-A) (f(MiiaIe plant); Palanda, l.arrio Agua Dulce, 

r-L ^\ t 3 J . • * • sector l.os ('edros. renianenle de hosque, hosiine liuniedo 

Lhart), base rounded to emargmate, apex acunn- , .io^i//ve'^ 70^10' i/"\v' io-/i o ? 

^ o ' 1 preinonlano. 4 41 0,5 S, 79 10 id W. 18.>0 m. 8 June 

nate, 72-85 X 64^-82 mm; pericaq) 7-9 mm tliick; 1^7, ^ v;,,, ,/,.,^ Esnden, £. Cuera .K: 0. Cabrera 1001 

pedicel of fniit 9.5-11 X 6-7 mm. Seeds dark (I-OJA) (fcinalo plant). 

brown, 7—8 X 1—5 mm, tdlipsoidal, sclerotcsta with 

Acknowledgments. This work was supported by 

numerous conical protuberances, each seed sur- \ti rn /iri t . . ... on 1 

/ VLIK (Vlaamsc InterunivtMsilaire Kaad) and 

rounded by a gelatinous sarcotesta, seeds ananged 
in 5 groups sinrounded by orange^ pulp. 

VVOB (Vlaamse Vereniging voor On<hM'wijs en 

technisclu* Bijstand) grants to Veerle Van den Eyn- 

tr 1 7 I' 4 J t' T"! ■ • I den. We thank Paul Goeti:;licbeur for help with the 

tcolitgr and (lustrihuttofL Ine species is knowii ^ i i i v. 

only from the an>a around Palanda, after which it ^'''*'" <l'^^''"P'i<'" ^"'1 f'^" "^^-f"' comments on the 

is named. is situated at 4°41'S, 79^10' W "i^-^^uscnpt, Gwylnn Lewis for help with the eoneet 

in the province of Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador. It 

terminology, and Patricio Mena for checking ih* 

• f J • *i '1 1 • 1 -1 . r Sparush summar\\ 

is lounci ni the wild in huinitl premontane forest at ^ 

1790—1850 m elevation. Plants are not cultivated. 
Phenology. Plants have been collected in flow- 
er (and in but!) and fruit in June and in fruit and 
with fertilize*] flowers in December. 

Litenilun- C'\\ri\ 

Badillo, V. M. IWii. Carieaeeae. Segundo Ks<]iu'ina. He- 
visla Fae. A^ron. Univ. Ccnlr. \ene/ucla, AlL-ance N° 

Two New Species of Leymus (Poaceae: Triticeae) from 

Qinghai, China 

Cai Lian-hing 

Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, 

Qinghai 810001, People's Republic of China 

Abstract. Two new species of Leymus, L pen- The genus currently includes about 40 species, ap- 

dulus and L obvipodus, are described and illus- proximately 20 of which occur in China. The genus 

trated. These two species are endemic to Qinghai is mainly characterized by perennial, usually 

province, China, occurring at the margins of wood- spreading rhizomes. Basal leaf sheaths of most spe- 

lands, wastelands, mountain valleys, and the bases cies become fibrous with age. Inflorescences are 

of walls, at 2280-2900 m elevation. Leymus pen- erect and spiciform or spicate-paniculiform with 

dulus is unusual in its lax, long, pendent spikes. It single or multiple spikelets at the node. These 

is closely related to L flexm, but differs from that spikelets bear linear-subulate to lanceolate glumes 

species by pendent spikes, longer rachis inter- with 1 to 5 veins, scabrous to pubescent lemmas, 

nodes, and shorter glumes and lemmas. Leymiis oh- 

awnless or shortly awned at their apex, paleas equal 

vipodus is unique in the genus in having all spike- to or slightly shorter than the lemm^as. Chromosome 
lets pedicellate. It resembles both L. divaricatus numb 

ers are 


28, 42, 56, 70, 84, and the 

(Drobow) Tzvelev and L. aristiglumus L. B. Cai but haplomes are N (Zhang & DvoMk, 1991). The ge- 

differs from the former by lanceolate glumes with ^us has close phylogenetic relationships to Psathy- 

1 to 3 nerves, longer spike-like panicles, taller rostachys, Hordeum, and Elymus (s. str.) of Triti- 

culms, and lanceolate lemmas with 5 obscure ««a«' ^^ ^^^l ^^ ^f''""^^ ^"^ Brachypodmm ^^h^ch 

11 . - J f ™ +u 1 ff . are outside the tribe (Kuo & Wang, 1981; Wang & 

nerves and pubescent marguis, and irom the latter "^ &' ' o 

by lax, longer spike-like panicles, pedicellate ' ^' 

spikelets with 4 to 8 florets, narrower glumes, and 
longer, lustrous lemmas. 

Because of its wide geographic distribution and 
economic importance, Leymus has been the focus 
of considerable research in recent years (Cai, 1995, 
1997). As part of this ongoing work, several spec- 
Leymus, a perennial genus of Triticeae, is widely imens and seeds were collected in the Qinghai area 
distributed in the temperate regions of the Northern of China In autumn 1998. Among this material. 
Hemisphere. It can also be found in South America specimens belonging to two previously unrecog- 
in alpine belts of tropical or subtropical zones near nized species o{ Leymus were found. One of the two 
the equator. Its species grow in a wide range of new taxa has the slender rachises, long intemodes, 
habitats, usually on mountain slopes, grasslands, and pendent spikes that are only found in closely 
margins of woodlands, roadsides, flood beds, and related species of Leymus, but it differs from the 
around lakesides, and are highly resistant to cold, known species in the characters of spikelet, floret, 
drought, alkali, diseases, wind, and rain. Most spe- rhizome, and leaf sheath. The second new taxon, L 
cies of the genus are forage grasses, and some of obvipodus, has spikelets always pedicellate and a 
them are planted over large areas for pasture as paniculate or almost racemose inflorescence that 
they have a high nutritional value. In gross mor- resembles those found^ in Bromus anA Brachypo- 

phology, all members of the genus have well-de- 
veloped, perennial root systems and are used for rescences of L. o/;^./>oJzav differ from those found in 
soil and sand stabilization. Furthemiore, some of ^'"^'^"^ ^"^ Brachypodium m their spike-like ap- 
these resilient taxa possess the characteristics of P^arance, with the presence of two spikelets at each 

long thick spikes and stout caryopses and consti- 
tute important gene resources for crop and forage Leymus pendulus L. B. Cai, sp. nov. TYPE: Chi- 

dium^ rather than members of the Triticeae. Inflo- 


Leymus was first described by Hochstetter in 
1848. It has been accepted by most recent taxon- 
omists (e.g., Pilger, 1954; Keng, 1959; Tzvelev, 
1976; Melderis, 1980; Barkworth & Riley, 1984). 

na. Qinghai Province: Xining, Nan Mts., near 
the Xining Botanical Garden, alt. 2320 m, 

36°36'N, 10r46'E, 12 Aug. 1998, L fi. Cai 
& L Zhi 98022 (holotype, HNWP; isotype, 

MO). Figure 1. 

NOVON 10: 7-11. 2000. 



< (^ u 

Kigure 1. fjpynius penduliLs L. li. Cai. — A. IMant. — B. junction of .-.lieafh and hiadc to sliow liguU'. — C. Splkclct 
— D. Tirsl glunu\ — E. St'coiul glurnt'. — F. Dorsal view of the first florol. — G. Wntral view ui the first floret, — H 
Anthers. — I. Caryo|)sis. 

Volume 10, Number 1 


New Species of Leymus 


Ciilrni 60-1. "SO vm alti. 4- ad 6-no(]es. S[>icae 2.'^— 32 cm 
luiigae. perlaxae, petidulae; rhachidi gracili, partiuiii inv- 
dianac infcriurisqiie intemodiis plemmquc 1S-"^(I mm 
longis; glumis licrliareis, 9—11 mm longis; lemmalc j)rimo 
6-9 mm longo (arista rxrlusa) ; paleis ad carinas sparsim 

Perennial herbs, with extended rhizomes. Culms 
erect or slightly geniculate below, loosely caespi- 
tose or solitar), 60-150 cm tall, ca. 2-3 mm diam.. 

baceoiis, 9—11 mm long; lemma 6—9 nun lung 
(excluding awn); palca spinulale on the keels; 

culm 4- to 6-nodcd L prndulus L. B. Cai 

lb. Spike slightly flexnons, 15— 2.> cm long; rachis 
internodes 8—15 mm long in I he lower half; 
glumes membranous at the margins, 11-14 nnn 
long; lemma 9-10 mm long (exehidiiig awn); pa- 
lea ciliate on the keels; enhn 3- to 4-nofl(^d . . 
L Jlf'.Mis L. B. ('ai 

Parahpe. CHINA. Qiiigliai: Xining to Datong high- 

smooth, 4- to 6-noded. Leaf sheaths glabrous or ^^,^^^ ^^ ^^ p^^^^^,,^ f.^^,,,,,^, ,^^^ 2280 m, 36°49'N, 
scabrid, the lower ones longer and the upper ones loi°45'E. 2 Aug. 1998, L. H. Cm 9805 (HNWP). 
shorter than the internodes, the basal sheaths per- 
sistent, sometimes disintegrating into fd)ers; ligules Leymus obvipodus L. B. Cai, sp. nov. TYPE; Chi- 
na. Qinghai Province: Dulan County, Farm Nu- 

omuhong, alt. 2900 m, 36°29'N, 96**27'E, 25 
Aug. 1998, L B. Cai & L Zhi 980H4 (holo- 

type, HNWP; isotype, MO). Figure 2. 

Cuhni 40—75 cm alti. ludorescentia ex panicula spici- 
formi 8—18 cm longa eonstans; rliaehidi e (juofjue nodo 

2-3.5 mm long, hyaline-membranous, ()l)luse; leaf 
blades green, flat or involute, lower blades 22— S.3 
X 0.4^.7 cm, upper blades 5-15 X 0.2-0.5 cm, 
both surfaces scabrous, the margins sparsely spi- 
nulate or ciliate. Spikes very lax, pendent, brown- 
ish, 23—32 cm long; rachis slender, densely pubes- 

cent; mid and lower mternodes generally 15-30 ^^^j^.,,,^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^, ^,^^^^ „,,,nifestc pe<lnncnlatas 4- ad 8- 

usually in twos or threes at each node of the rac liis. 

floras gerente; glumis lineari-lanceolatls vel lanceolatis, 1- 
ad 3-nervibus; lennnatibus laneeohilis, nitidis, oljscure 5- 

5- to 7-flowered, 11-15 mm long; rachilla inter- nervibus, secus vel prope margines pnbescentibus, 

1 1 T r 1 1 1 11*1 lemmate primo 7-10 mm longo. 

nodes 1-1.5 mm long, densely pubeioilent; glumes ^ ^ 

herbaceous, linear-lanceolate, 1-nerved, scabrid on 

Perennial herbs, with extended rhizomes. Culms 

the back, sparsely ciliate at the margins of upp<^r solitary or loosely caespitose, erect or slightly ge- 

half, nearly equal, 9-11 mm long; lemmas lance- niculate below, 40-75 cm tall, 2-3 mm diam., 2- 

olate, obscurely 5-ner\^ed, sparsely spinulate on the to 3-noded, densely pubescent just below the spike. 

back, pubescent along or near the margin, the first Leaf sheaths sometimes puberulent, the basal 

lemma 6-9 mm long, with a gracile 2-3-mm-long sheaths persistent, becoming fibrous; ligules 1-2 

awn at the apex; paleas equal to or slightly longer nim long, membranous, obtuse; leaf blades invo- 

than the lemmas, apically pointed or bifid, 2- lute, 6-18 X 0.2-0.4 cm, upper and lower surfaces 

keeled, sparsely spinulate along the keels, scabrous densely pubemlent. Spike-like panicles erect, lax, 

between the keels. Anthers yellow or purplish, 2.5- greenish, 8-18 X 0.6-0.8 cm; rachis internodes 

3.5 mm long. Caryopses brown, ca. 5 X 1.2 mm, generally 5-20 mm long or basal ones up to 50 

pubescent at the apex, adherent to the lemma and nim, all densely pubescent; spikelels 1 or 2 at each 

palea. node of the rachis, all pedicellate, 4- to 8-flowered, 

Distribution and habitat. LeymiLs pendulus is ^^'^^ '"'" ^""S (excluding pedicel); pedicels 

known only fn.m the type collec-tions. It is endenii.- <l''"^ely Pubescent, 1-14 n.n, long; rachilla niter- 

a * ^ c n- u ' u • n ■ . nodes 0.5-2 mm lone, densely puberulent; 2;lumes 

to the eastern part ol (^mghai rrovuice, Lhnia, '^^^*^- ^^ b' : i i i 

1 -, . .1 * f n 1 linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, 1- to 3-ner\"ed, ela- 

where it grows at the margins of woodlands, moun- ' ' ^ 

tain valleys, and the bases of walls at an altitude ^^''^^^ «'" ^^'^^^"^' <>" '^'*^ ''^^•^' 'n^ml"-anous along 

of 2280 to 2320 ni on soils that are red.lish and the margins, gradually tapering into an awn 2-4 

sandy to clayey. 

mm long; first glume 5—6.5 nun long (excluding 

rri • • • • 1 I 1 • 11 r awn), second glume 6—7.5 mm lone; lemmas lan- 

ilus species is recognized morphologically from ""'V' -^^^^ "^^ & &' 



species of Leymm by its slender ia<hises, ^'^''^^te, lustrous, glabrous or scabrid on the back. 

long internodes, and pendent spikes. The general 

pubescent along or 

the m^irgins, obscurely 5- 

c •] ' r /} . ner\'ed; first lemma 7—10 mm lone;, with a short 

appearance ol spikes in L. fiexiis suggests some "^^vc^u, 4 « ♦ b' 

• 1 •■ a r / / t + r /7^^, u, 1, .. . ^ mucro 1—3 mm lone;; paleas sliehtly shorter than 

similarity with L penaulus, but L jtexus has longer ^ *^ . i 

1 11 1 . u* * f 1 1 the lemmas, 2-keeled, bifid, sparsely spinulate 

glumes and lemmas, shorter rachis internodes, cil- ' ' 1 1 i 

1 1 r u*i fl •! Ti » along the keels, glabrous between the keels. An- 

late paleas, and slightly nexuous spikes. Ihe two " fe ' b 

I *i J- f-^„.;.u^j I ,r *i. . f^ii^,., thers yellowish, ca. 4 mm long. Caryopses brown, 

species may be easily distinguished by the toliow- J ' n 

ing key: 

la. Spike pendenl, 23-32 cm long; rachis inlrniddes 
15—30 mm long in the lower half; glumes her- 

pubescent at the apex, ca. 4.9 X LI mm, adherent 
to the lemma and }jalea. 

Distribution and habitat. Leymus ohvipodus is 



^ kJ 


Figure 2. I^^ymus ohripodus I,. H. Cai. — A. Plant. — R. Junction of sheath and blade to sliow ligule. — C. Spikelet. 
— 1). Dorsal view of ihe hrst floret. — E. Ventral view of tin- hrst floret. — F. Anthers. — G. Car^'opsis. — 11. First glunie. 

1. Seeond t];]inTit'. 

Volume 10, Number 1 


New Species of Leymus 


known only from the type collections. It is restrict- 
ed to the middle and eastern parts of Qinghai prov- 
ince, China, growing at the margins of woodlands 
and in wastelands at an altitude of 2280 to 2900 
m on soils that are blackish and sandy. 


Paralype. CHINA. Qinghai: Xiiiing lo Huiing yuan 
hi^liway 4 km, Xining, alt. 2280 m, 36"36'N, 10r44'E, 
.30 Aug. 1998, L B. Cat & B. H. Ma 9828 (HNWP). 

Acknowledgments. I thank Zhao Xin-quan for 
help in the preparation of the manuscript, Ma Bi- 
hua and Zhi Li for assistance with ficldwork, and 

divaricatiis, but differs by its always pedicellate Yang Zhi-xia for making the type collections, 
spikelets, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate glumes 

Lileraturt^ Cilcd 

((/ramineae: Triticeae) in North America: Taxonomy and 
(listrihulion. Amer. J. Bol. 71: 609-625. 

with 1 to 3 neiTes, longer spike-like panicles, taller 

culms, and lanceolate lemmas with 5 obscure Barkworth, M. K. & R. J. Riley 198t. h-ymus Ihuhst. 

nerves and pubescent margins. In geographic 

range, moreover, L divaricatws is distributed m q^-^^ l. B. 1995. New laxa o[ Leymus from China. Acta 

central Asia and L obvipodus in China. Leymus oh- Phytolax. Sin. 33: 491-496. fin Cliincse.l 

vipodiis is closely related to L aristigliimus from ■ 1997. Material for the genus lA^ymns (Poaceae). 

^ Hull. Hot. Res., Harbin 17: 28-32. flu Chinese.] 

Hochstetter, C. F. 1848. Nachtra^licher Cortuncnlar zu 
niciner Ahhandlung: "Aufliau der Craspflanze etc." Flo- 
ra 7: 105-118. 




like panicles, pedicellate spikelets with 4 to 8 flo- 
rets, narrower glumes, and longer, lustrous lemmas. 
It may be distinguished from these species by the Keng, Y. L. (Fditor). 1959. Pp. 431-134 in Flora Illus- 

r 11 '• 1 trahs Plantaruni Primanim Sinicarum Craniineae. Sci. 

lonowing Key. r> 1 1 u n • • u r\ ■ ^ 

Puol. House, licijuig. [in Lhuiese.J 
Kuo, R C. & S. J. Wang. 1981. Researches on the evo- 
lution of llie inflorescence ami the generic relationships 
of tlie Triticeae in China. Acta Hot. I^oreai.-Oceid. Sin. 

1: 12-19. [In Chinese.] 
Melderis, A. 1980. Uymiis. In T. C. Tutin el al. (edilors), 

la. Spikelets 1 or 2 at eacli node of ihc rachis, ped- 
icellate or pailly pedicellate, 4- to l()-no\verccl; 
Icnnna lustrous, usually 7-10 mm long. 
2a. Spikelets partly pedicellale; glumes linear- 
suhulale, obscurely 1 -nerved; lemma broadly 
lanceolate, 5- to 7-ner\ed. glabrous; spike 
6-10 cm long; culm 20-40 cm high 



L. divaricatus (Drobow) Tzvelev 

2b. Spikelets always pedicellate; glumes lincar- 
lanceolale or lanceolate, 1- to 3-nerved; lem- 
ma lanceolate, obscurely 5-nerved, pubes- 
cent along or near the margins; spike-like 
panicle 8-18 cm long; culm 40-75 cm high 

Pilger, K. 1954. Das System der Cramineae. Bot. Jahrb. 

Svsl. 76: 281-384. 

Tzvelev, N. N. 1976. Poaceae USSR. Nauka, Leningrad. 
Wang, S. J. & P C. Kuo. 1982. Researches on ihe origin 
of the inliorescence and the tribe relationships of Tri- 



L obvipodiis L. B. Cai Zhang, H, B. & J. Dvorak. 1991. The genome origin of 

lb. Spikelets 2 or 3 at each node of the rachis, ses- 
sile, 3- lo 4-flovvered; lennna not lustrous, usu- 
ally 6-7 mm long L. aristighimus L. B. Cai 

tetraploid species of Leymiis (Poaceae: Triticeae) in- 
ferred from variation in repeated nucleotide sequences. 
Amer. I. Bot. 78: 871-884. 

A New Varietal Combination in a Central American 

Hydrolea (Hydrophyllaeeae) 

L. y. Davenport 
Department of Biolog)\ Samford University, Birmingham, Alabama 35229-22;^4, U.S. A 

Amy Pool 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

AiJsrUACr. Tlie new e()inl)iiiati()n Hydrolea spi- within a single varietal circumseription, a new tri- 
nosa var. cerrantesii (Brand) L. J. Davenport & A. noniial eoml)i nation in Hydrolea spijwsa is needtul 

Pool is proposed for the illegitimate name Hydrolea and so is proposed below. 

spinosa var. major (Brand) L. J. Davenport. 

In the proeess of editing tlie Hydropliyllaeeae for 
the Flora de Nicaragua, tlie junior author discov- 
ered a range extension into Nicaragua (Estelf, Mo- 
reno 25138, MO) of Hydrolea spinosa var. rnaior 
(Brand) L. J. Davenport. This taxon — native to 
stream and pond margins, like oUier members of 

Hydrolea spinosa L. var. eervaiilesii (Brand) T.. 

J. Davt^uport & A. Pool, comb. nov. Basionym: 
Hydrolea cervanlesii Brand var. cerrantesii, in 
Engler, Pnanzenr. iV. 251 (Heft 39): 184. 
1913. TYPE: Mexico. Cervantes s.n. (not seen; 
possibly with other Cervantes material at BR, 

B, MA, or MEXU [Lanjouw & Stafleu, 19541). 

e g<*mis — was previouslv reported only from the u i i , •• • n i • i' i i>n 

^ 1^1 J Hydrolea ceriHintcsu var maior Brand, in JMiglcr, i ilan- 

Paeifie slope of Mexico and Guatemala. Along with " /e^nr. \\. 25! (Heft 50): IH4. 1913. Syn. nov. Hydro- 
lea spinosa \ar. ni(iH>r (Rrainl) I.. J. Daveiipoil, Hlio- 
(lora 90: 187. V)VA\, WVVa Mexico. Mirhoaran or 
Guem-ro: Kl Ocotc, 12 Xov. 1898, hiu^lass^ 619 

[he range extension, an error iu the original pub- 
lieation of its name was noted. 

In Daven[>orts (1988) monograph o{ Hydrolea, he 
proposed th<* new eombination Hydrolea spinosa L. 
var. maior (Brand) L. J. Davenport based on Hy- 

(holotyjie, (i not s(mmi; isolypcs, Gil, IS). 

Acknowledgments. We thank W. D. Stevens for 

drolea rervantesii Brand xar. nKuor Brand. Hydrolea his advice ami encouragement. 
cerrantrsii was eited as a synonym of this new com- 

Literature {!it<Ml 

bination; i.e., the type of//, cervanlesii was Includ- 
ed within the eirenmseription of the varietal taxon. Brand, A. I9|:^, lly(lroi)hyl]aceao. hi: A. Engler (ctlilor), 

When Brand (1913) proposed his variety maior. 

\)a> I^flari/rrnvich IV. 2r>l (Heft 39): 1-210. 

he automatieallv t^stablished the autonym Hydrolea r>avcnpori, I J. 1988. A monograph oUlulrolea [Uyhn- 

.. ^ ,, . A . ; ., ^ [)liyllaccac). Hluxlora (X): 169-208, 

cerrantrsii var. cerrantrsii. ho owins; Article 11.6 r-^.-i - w v i? u • nun i . w c ii i 

_ .^ . __ Lrreuter, W., r. 1(. liarrie, II. M. HuRlet, U. l?. Liialoncr, 

V. Demoulin. D. I., liawksworlh, I* M. j0rg<Misrn, 1). H. 

Nicolsoii. P. ('. Silva. P. Trchanc ^^ J. McNeill (editors). 

1994. International Code (tf Molanical Nornenclalure 

(Tokyo Code). Kegnuni Veg. l.'H: i-389. 

Lanjon\\\ J. iK^ K A. Stafleu. ]^>rr]. Index llerl)ari{)rurn, pt. 

2: (-oIK'ctors (A-D). Internalional Rure;iii for Plant Tax- 

ononn and Nomenclature. Llreclu. 

of the Inlernation(d Code of Botanical Nomencla- 
ture (Greater et al., 1994), the autonym has priority 
over names of the same date that established it. 
Then^fore, //. cervanlesii var. cervanlesii has priority 
over //. cenrtntesii var. maior at varietal rank. Sinee 
the types of both cervanlesii and maior are included 

NovoN 10: 12. 2000. 

A New Name in Chinese Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae) 

Ding Zhizun (Ting Chih-tsun) 
Herbarium, Jiangsu Botanical Institute, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210014, People's Republic of China 

Michael G, Gilbert 

Missouri Botanical Garden, c/o Department of Botany, The Natural History Museum, 

Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, U.K. 

Nicholas /. Turland 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166, U.S.A 

Abstract. During preparation of the account of Gilbert & Turland is proposed here. Dioscorea sin- 

Dioscoreaceae for the Flora of China^ it was no- oparvi/lora is most similar to D, zingiherensis C. H. 

ticed that one species is illegitimately named, being Wright, which is also endemic to China, occuiring 

a later homonym: Dioscorea parviflora C. T. Ting in Gansu, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, 

(1979), not Phihppi (1864). The following new and Yunnan provinces. Dioscorea sinoparvijlora dif- 

nanie (riomen novum) is therefore proposed here: fers from D. zingiherensis in having perianth lobes 

£). sinoparvijlora C. T Ting, M. G. Gilbert & Tur- 0.8-1.2 X 0.6^0.8 mm (vs. 1.2-1.5 X 0.8-1 mm) 

land. and capsules longer than wide (vs. ca. as long as 

wide). Both species can be readily distinguished 

Dioscorea sinoparviflora C. T. Ting, M. G. Gil- from others in China by the peltate attachment of 

bert & Turland, nom. nov. Replaced name: most leaf blades. Moreover, D. zingiherensis is the 

species reco 




g monoe 

Dioscorea paniJJora C. T. Ting, in C. Pei et al., only Chi 
Acta Phytotax. Sin. 17(3): 69. 1979. Not Phi- cious. 
lippi, Linnaea 33: 257. 1864. TYPE: Cbina. 

Yunnan: Yongsheng Xian, Xinghe, 1600 m. Literature Cited 

Mar. 1963, Q, K Liang 63009 (holotype, NAS). Greater, W., F. R. Barrie, H. M. Rmdel, W. G. Clialoiier, 

Dioscorea parviflora C. T. Ting (in Pei et al., 
1979: 69-70) was deseribed from Yongsheng Coun- 
ty (Xian) in northwestern Yunnan Province, China. 
Unfortunately, the name is illegitimate under Arti- 
cle 53.1 of the Tokyo Code (Greuter et al., 1994) 
because an earlier homonym exists: D. parviflora 
Philippi (1864), described from Chile. The Chinese Rhilinni, R. A. ]H6i. I'lantarum novariim Chilensium. 

V. DemoLilin, 0. I.. Hawksworth, F. M. j0rgensen, D. H. 

Nieolson, l\ C. Silva. P. Trehane & J. MeNeill (editors), 
1991. International Code of Rotanleal Nonienelature 
(Tokyo Cod*'). Regiiuni Veg. 131. 
Pei, C, C. T. ring, II. C. Chin, I* Sn, S. Y. Tang iK II. C. 
Chang. 1979. A prehniinary syslernalie study of Dios- 
corea L. stH't. SU'/iopIiora Uline. Aeta. Phytotax. Sin. 
17(;]): 01-72. 

species will be accepted by Ding and Gilbert, as 
endemic to Yunnan Province, in their foitheoming 
account of Dioscoreaceae in the Flora of China (in 
press). Therefore, a new name for D. parviflora is 
required, and D. sinoparviflora C. T. Ting, M. G. 

Centnriae iiielnsis quihusdain Mendoeinis et Patagoni- 
cis. Linnaea 33: 1-308. 
Ding, Z. Z. |Ting. C. T.] & \1. C. Cllhert. In press. Dlos- 
eoreaeeae. In: Z. Y \\'u & P. H. Itaven (editors), Flora 
of China, Vol, 24. Seienee Press, BtMJing. and Missouri 
Botanical (ianlen Press, St. Louis. 

NovoN 10: 13. 2000. 

New Species of Moraea (Iridaceae-Iridoideae) from 

Southern Africa 

Peter Goldblatt 

B. A. Krukoff Curaltu* of African Botany, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, 

Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A. 

John C. Manning 
National Botanical Institute, P. Bag X7, Clarcmont 7735, South Africa 

AlisrUACr. Moraea nielanops, M. dehoidea, M, amosa, to vvliirh the new M. vrspcrtina l)rl<)ngs, is 

vespcrtina, and M, vigilans are new species of the restricted to the southern /Vfrican winter-rainfall 

southern African g<'iius Moraea (ca. 195 species), zone and now includes six spfnics. Two more new 
of sid)family Iridoideae of the Iridaceae. Moraea species belong in the southern African and largely 
vespcrtina belongs to subgenus VLsciramosa^ now winler-rainfall subgenus Vieussseuxia and appear to 
comprising six species, h lias the charactt^istic be allied to a coniplt*x of species, tlie most wide- 
branched stems, viscous secretion on the nodes and spread and conunon of which is the small-flowered 
inlcrnodes, and free, connivent anthers of the sub- M. ungulculata Ktu" Gawler. Moraea deltoidea, 

genus, but is distinctive in its white flowers that which has vestigicd style crests and undivided, lan- 
opcn for a few hours In the late afternoon, and basal ceolate inner tt^pals, is restricted to the mountains 
fan of four to six, firm-textured leaves. Moraea del- around Hermanus on the southern coast of Western 
toidea, from the Klein River Mountains in Western Cape Province. Moraea vigilans occurs in the high 
Cape Province, and M. vigilans, from the noilh<'rn DrakensbtTg of Free State and KwtiZulu-Natal 
high Drakensberg of Free State and KwaZulu-Na- Provinces of South Africa and noilhcastem Lcso- 
tal, belong in subgetms Vieusseuxia anil are allied tho. Also restricted to the southern African winter- 
to the M. unguiciilata complex of the subgenus. rainfall zone is Moraea melanops of s(^ction Gal- 
Moraea deltoidea has vestigial style branches and axia, which now includes 16 sptu-ies, evenly shared 
inner tepals that art* mort^ or less entire to ol)scure- among two series. The new M. melanops belongs to 
ly three-lobed. Moraea melanops is the eighth spe- series Eurystigma, most species of which, like M. 
cies of sectioti Galaxia series Eurystigma, one of melanops, have broadly lanceolate lo ovate leaves 
two stories of the exclusively western soutlieni Af- and flowers in shades of pink to lilac, 
rican section of 16 species distributed from the 
Bredasdorj) District of Western Cape Province to 1. Moraea vespertina Goldblatt & J. C. Manning, 

northern Namaqualand in Northern Cape Province. 
Vegetatively resemlding otiier Western Cape spe- 
cies, including M. harnardiella and M. versicolor, 
M, melanops can be distinguished by its purj)le to 
lilac perianth with a dark purple-black center, and 
stamens partly to entirely free; like M. harnardirlla 
it has laxly spreading tepals that do not form a floral 


Moraea, with some 195 species (Goldblatt, 
1998). is the largest African genus of tribe Irideae 
of Iridoideae, one of four subfamilies of the Irida- 
ceae as currently recognized. The genus is defined 
by l»ifacial, chanru'led to flat leaves and a unique 
type of cormous rootstock consisting of a singlt^ en- 
largtnl intt^rnodt; that is derived entirely from an 
axillary bud. The g<Muis is currently diviih'd into 
five subgenera (Goldblatt, 1986). Subgeruis Viscir- 

N()V()^ 10: 14^21. 2000. 

sp. nov. TYPE: South Africa. Northern Cape 
Province: Calvinia District, rocky hills E of 

Nieuwou.hville, 31 Oct. 1996, Goldblatt & 
Manning 10580 (holotyp<\ NRG; isotypes, K, 
MO, PRE). Figure lA. 

Planlac 70-1 (>() cm altar, conuo glohnso 15-25 nun 
(liarnctni tiinicis n'liculatis fil)n)sis hninricis olitccto. Injiis 
usilate 4—6 liiieaiilms S— f^ nirn lalls. caiilc jicrraniosit. 
spallia iiitcnu- iiifldrcsceritis 40—45 iiiiii loiigis, floriljus 
alhis (lav is nolatis, lepaloruni obluiiguriiin Lmgiilciilalonmi 
liinhis rt'flexis. extt^nionini nngnilius arcualis ca. I 1 mm 
longis. limhis .'iO-.'^o X ca. 15 mm. inlcrnonim liml)is ca. 
30 X ca. 9 mm. filamcntis 7—8 mm lunj^is infernc in cul- 
umnam grat. ilem connivcnlilms >uf)(Miu' [)cr 1.5 mm (li\- 
ergcntihus, antlicris all)is ca. 6 mm longis, slyli raniis ca. 
8 mm lorigis cristis aiigusic liiicarilius crcctis ca. 15 mm 
luiigis oniatis. ovario cxserto a!i^ust(^ clavalo Iruiicalis ca. 
10 mm loiii^o. capsiilis o\oi(Jcis. 18—25 mm Idiigis. 

Plants 70-100 cm higli. Corm glohose, 15-25 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Goldblatt & Manning 

New Moraea from Southern Africa 


Figuro 1. 

A. Monica vespertina (Goldhhill & Manning 10580), — B. Morac(t dehoidea {Hanekom s,n.). S<-alr liar 1 

cm. Drawn hy J. C. Manning. 



ini!i (liaiiu, the lunlrs of coarse, red-brown fibers evening,*" referring to flower phenology, opening in 
connected in herrlngboiu* fashion by fine cross fi- the late afternoon and lasting until sliortly after 
l)ers. Cdtdphylh paj)ery, U[)pennosl reaching short- 
ly above the ground, becoming (hy and dark l)rown 


Distrihution and biology, Monica vespcrtina is 
by flowering time, then often irregularly broken. endemic to the Bokkeveld Fsrarpment near Nieu- 
Foliage leaves usually four to six, the lower thn"<" woudtville in the Calvinia District of Nortlu'rn Caj)e 
to five basal, disliclious, the blades channeled. Province, South Africa. It oc<-urs in a very special- 
arching outward, mostly S-8 mm wide, llu- upper- ized habitat and is currently known only from two 
most cauline and shttrler than the l)asal. .S7em erect, relatively small ]>opulations a short distance east 
[\\c main axis lightly (lexuose, viscous behtw the and noillieast of the town of Ni(*uw^oudtville. Plants 

nodes for half tb<' length of an internode, l)earing gi(,w in heavy red doleritic clay soil in low outcrops 
an entirely sheathing bract-like leaf at each of the of dolerite. Drainage is poor and the ground re- 
upper nod(>s, these 4^6.5 mm long, green below, mains waterlogg<Ml for most of the growing season, 
dr) and light brown above, the apices attenuate and soiiu'times even into flowt^ring time in early Novem- 
diy, bearing one or rarely two lateral branches at ber. This peculiar habitat is home to a character- 

eacli of th<^ upp<T three or four nodes, those at the 

lower nodes s(»uietlnies two internodes 1 



istic suite of species, including Rerkheva glabrata 

(Thunberg) Fourcade (Asteraceae), Sparaxis pillan- 

also branched, the l)ranches enut and parallel to ^ii L. Bolus (bidaeeae), and Zanteriesrhia odorata 

the stem below, flexes] outward above the sheathing R p^iTj' (Araceae), which are rare elsewhere, and 

leaf, lujloresrence a rliipidium, terminal on the Cyanella aipiatica G. Sc-ott (Tecophilaeaeeae), 

branches, several-flowered; spathes unequal, dull which occurs nowhere else. 

green, becoming somewhat purplish with age, the 

Relationships. Tlie sixth uuMuber of the taxo- 

margins dry and itiembraiious, with dr)-, brown at- nonucally isolattnl subgenus Visciramosa (Gold- 
tenuate apices, the outer 20-25 mm long, the inner [.[.^^^^ 1975^ 1935)^ Moraea vespcrtina has the typ- 
40-45 mm long. Flowers white, almost trausluct^nt, jp^l attributes of the subgenus, incluihng sticky 

the outer tepals each with a yellow nectar guiiU 

internodes, multiple leaves, branched stems, rela- 

stivaked with darker veins at die limb base, lightly ^j.^^jy ,1^,,^.^ infloreseenee spathes, and free, eonni- 
lemon-scented, tlie tepal claws arching upward and ,.,,„t filaments. It is distinctive in having four to six 
forming a cup enclosing the filaments and andier £,,1;,^^.. i^^,.^^^ whereas oth.-r species of the sub- 

bases; tepals clawed, the outer larger than the inner, g,.„^^^ ,.^^,.],, }^.^,,,. ^^^^^^ ^]^^^ j^^,^ ^j,^ .^ 1.^,^^. ,,4^i^^^ 
the claws arcuate, erect above, 10-11 mm long, li^i.tiy scented flower that opt^ns in the late after- 

noon. The flowers are fairly typical of the g(Mius in 

claws of the outt*r t<'pa1s n*aching to about th<' mid- 
dle of the anthers and with a large basal green nee- ],,,yi,,^ larger outer tepals whh a spreading limb 
tai7, the limbs lanceolate, narrowly acute to atten- bearing a nectar guide at the base, smaller, un- 

uat<', spr<\iding horizontally or dipping up to 45 

marktnl inn<M' t<*pals, and broad style crests with 

below tlu^ horizontal, die out<T ;W-35 X ca. 15 mm, pn,niinent, erect crests. Tin- oidy odier white-flow- 

die inner 28-30 X 8-9 mm. Filaments 7-8 mm ,.,,.,] .p^^;^^ ,,f ,h^ subgenus, M viscaria (L.f.) Ker 

long, free but connivtmt below and forming a sKmi- Qawler, is a smaller plant that has small, strongly 

der column, diverging in the upper 1 .5 mm; anthers ^scented flowers that open in the middle of the af- 

ca. 6 mm long, oblong Init wider below and with ternoon. At present, we cannot suggest any species 

die comurtive evident on die abaxial side, ap- within subgenus l/.sr/ramo.svi as being obviously al- 

presstnl to the style branches, white, the pollen [j,.,] to M. vespcrtina. The presence of multiple 

white. Ovary exserted, narrowly club-shaped, ca. 1^.^,.^^ j^ ^ft,.,, ^ plesiomoiphie character, and on 

10 mm long; style (flviding at the apex of the fila- tj,;^ i,.^,;^ /^ vespcrtina might be regarded as the 

ment column, the branclies ca. 8X8 mm, asc<md- j^^.^.t derived species in the subgenus. Other spe- 

ing, the stigmatic flap bilobed with a sterile acute ..j^^ ^^^.^ ^^,^^^ ^^ ,..^j.^|y ^i^,.^.^,^ ]^^^,^^^ .^^^ f^^.^^^. 

central appendage, tlu^ crests linear, erect, ca. 15 well-<lrained habitats, usually in sandy soil. 
mm long. Capsules narrowly t)void to oblong, 18— 

25 mm long, suberect to nt^arly horizontal; seeds 
angular, the angles ± ridged to wingctl, ca. 4—5 X 
3 mm, dark brown. 

Fl(»w('ring October and early Ntivember; flowers 

open at 4:00-k;?() i'.\i. and wilt at 7:30-8:00 P.M. 

Etymology. From the Latin vespcrtina, "early 

2. Moraea delUiulea Goldblatt & J. C. Manning, 
sp. nov. TYPE: South Africa. Western Cape: 

Klein River Mountains, Vogelgat Nature Re- 
serve, near Maiiistrt^am, 2,*} Nov. 1996, Uane- 

hom s.n. (hololype, NBC; isotypes, MO, PRE). 
Figure IB. 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Goldblatt & Manning 

New Moraea from Southern Africa 


Plantae 3()-^i() cm allae, rormo globoso 8-14 nun rlia- 
melni. folio s(tlitario prodiicto lineari ranaliculalo I..S-2 
nnn lato. raule ramoso flexuoso, spatha interna infloic^- 

Tlu' few specimens of Moraea deltoidea collected 
in the past were included in the widespread, and 

.. ,- -M 1 . 1 ■, r • !• r lairlv variable, M, un^mculata Ner Ij^awier, which 

centis 4.^-o() mm lon^a externa luiigitLuIine circa dnnidio ^ J ^ t> ' ^ 

inrlnsa constante, floribus cremeo-flavis tepalis externis occurs almost throughout the southern African win- 
ter-rainfall zone (Goldblatt, 1986). The two have the 
same general aspect and vegetative appearance, in- 

S mm loniiio connatls, anlherls 4-6 mm luneis lutcis, styli i i. i i. i r 1 ! 1 ♦ ..*, 

. r r 1 • • -. I 1 I -. r 1 1 ■. eluding the solitary, narrow leal, branclied stem. 

atropunctatis 1^)-21 nun longis, intrrnis ohlanceolatis ca. 
14X4 nnn. filamrntis 5-6.3 nirn longis in eolumnam 4— 

ramis 5-6 nmi longis cristis deltoideis fere 1 mm longis 
ornatis, capsulis clavato-elhpsoideis 8-10 mm longis. 

and fairly slender habit. The differences between 
the two are restricted to the flowers. Monica del- 

Plants 30^0 cm high. Corm globose, 8-14 mm ^^^^^j^^^ ^^^ oblanceolate inner tepals with a broad 

diam., with tunics of light brown, finely textured ^j^^, ^^^^j ^ ^j^^^^ somewhat attenuate limb extend- 

fibers. Cataphyll usually dry and brown at flower- j^^^ ,,,,xys-ar<\ or reflexed to the same degree as the 

ing, usually irregularly torn into fibrous strips. Fo- .^^^^ ^^^^j j.^^j^^ j^ ^ unguiculata the inner te- 

liage /ea/ solitary, linear, channeled, exceeding the ^.^j^ ^insistently have a fairly narrow claw and tri- 

stem, usually bent and trailing above, 1.5-2 mm ,^^^^^ y^^^^y eonsisting of two shorter, obtuse lateral 

wide. Stem erect below, usually curi^ing outward be- j^^^^^ ^^^^j ^ ^|^^^j^^^ tapering central lobe that coils 

low the nodes, usually 3 internodes long, branching .^^^^,^^,^, (Q^i^blatt, 1986; Goldblatt & Manning, 

at each node or only at the uppennost, with up t 


1995). The style crests of M. unguiculata are usu- 

3 l)ranches per node, the branches sometimes also ^jj^ ^^^j, developed and lanceolate, thus longer 

branched, with sheathing, bract-like leaves 35-15 ^,^^^^ ^^,.^^^ j^^ j^ deltoidea the crests are deltoid, 

mm long at the nodes. Inflorescence a rlupidium, ^^^^, ^jj^^^ ^^^^^^ j^j^j^^ ^^^^^^ unguiculata Ls most 

terminal, several-flowered; spathes unequal, atten- f^^^^^j^tiy fo^j.^ on clay slopes, less often on dry 

uate, green below, dry and membranous toward the ^^^^j.^^^^ ^^ij,^ whereas M. deltoidea occurs exclu- 

apices, the inner 45-50 mm long, the outer about ^^^^^j^ ^^^ well-watered, south-facing rocky sand- 

half as long. FUnvers pale creamy yellow, the outer ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ Available information from amateur 

tepals widi dark speckles at the base of the^ limb ^^^^t^.^ij^ts indicates that it flowers only after wild- 

and on the claw, the claws spreading at ca. 60° from r ,^ 

the vertical, forming a wide cup including the sta- ^^^^^^^,^^ deltoidea may also be confusc^l with M. 

mens and style branches, the hmbs lightly reflexed; ^,jV,^,v">^"«" D. Delaroche, which typically has larg- 

outer tepals broadly ohovate, 19-21 mm long, the ^^^ ^.^j^^ ^^ ^^^^^ f{ov.-eTS. The trilobed inner tepals 

Innb 10-12 X 8-9 mm; inner tepals oblanceolate, ^^ ^j^.^ ^^^^.j^^ ^^^^ ^j^^^^^ ^^■^^^. j^,.^,^^|^ ,,,,,^^^. ^^^^^^ 

ca. 14 X 4 mm. Filaments united in the lower two j^,^^^^ .^^^^, ^ ^j^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^,.^1 ,,,,,^ ^^^^ ^.^.^^^ 

thirds in a slender column, 4-5 mm long, free and j^^^.^^j obliquely, but is not coiled as is typical of 

diverging in the upper 1-1.5 mm; anthers 4-6 mm ^j^^^ ^^^^^^^j .^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ j,^ j^ unguiculata. 
long, widely diverging, cream, the pollen orange, 

slightly exceeding the stigmatic lobes and occa- raniiypcs. SOUTH AHIICA. Wcsieni Cape: M\9 

sionally just exceeding the crests. Ovary ituauded (Calciloii) Klriiimond (AC), 15 Oct. I'W), Mosirrt 200 

1 ^1 A 1 ^ 1 ] I (MU;); Onnis Moimtains. Glen F'riiiii. on liurnl. peaty 

or partly exseitcd, ca. 4 mm long; style branches \ ^^ !^ ; 

slightly wider than the anthers, 5-6 mm long, crests 
broadly deltoid, slightly less than 1 mm long. Cap- 
sules club-shaped to ellipsoid, 8-10 mm long, w*'ll 
exserted; seeds narrowly prismatic, ca. 2X1 mm. 

Flowering October and November. 

saiidsKHie slope, Nov. 1991, Barker 30!^ (K, MO, MUJ, 
IMIK); Vogrlgal Nature Reserve (AD), 12 Nov. 1986, Wil- 
liams 3731 (NH(;), 20 Oct. 1982, Williams 3330 (NIU;). 

F(^nikloof Nature Reserve, Drockloof. 1.3 Nov. 1996, 
Drvwe 1016 (NBG); Ferukloof Nature Reserve, Gandoger's 
marsh. 23 Nov. 1996, Drewe 1073 (MO, NIU;). 

Etymology.^ From the Latin Je/^oiV/eu^s "broadly 3^ Moraea vigilant Goldblatt & J. C. Manning, 

sp. nov. T\PE: South Africa. Free State: slopes 

triangular or D-shaped," referring to the shape of 
the reduced, very short style crests. 

Distribution and biology, Moraea deltoidea is 
restricted to the southern coast of Western Cape 
Province between Kleinmond cUid the Klein RivtM- 
Mountains, near Ilermanus. Most of the collections 
are from the immediate vicinity of Hermanus, eidicr 
in Fernkloof Nature Reserve or Vogelgat, but we 
suspect the species has a wider range in these 
mountains, which extend eastward to Stanford and 

of The Sentinel, 15 Feb. 1999, Goldblatt & 
Manning 11046 (holotype, NBG; isotypes, K, 
MO, PRE). Figures 2, 3. 

PlatUae 30-70 cm altae, eornio globoso 8-ir)(-2()) inm 
<lianielro tuiiiris fil>rosis ol)te<'to. folio producto solilario 
eanalieulalo litieari. eaule ramoso flexuoso, iufiorescentiae 
spatlia exlenia 30-35 mm lon^a, iulerna 50-55 mm longa, 
floribus leviler ocloratis, tepalorum exlerrionim 24-28 nun 
lon<^oruni. ungue 7-9 mm longo. limbo obovato-rolundato 
albo bniter vel dense malvino-maculalo. lepalis inlerriis 





e 3. TnruT lc[)al> and slanuMi-slyle braneh appiim- 
lus of Moraea (A) ami I/, ligilans (B), {Coldhlmt 
&' Manning 1 1(^6). Scair l>ar 5 mm. Drawn l)\ J. C Man- 

Figure 2. Comparison of llir I1o\v(Ms of Moniai vigilaris 
(left) and M. htrrist}!a (riglil), pliotographnl in \hr fu'ld. 

Iiinispidalis. Iirurmcis H.S-IO mm longis. filanH-nlis in 

the claw ascending, 7-9 tnin long, witli a small oh- 
long nectary at the base, the nectarj^ covered by a 
flap of tissue ca. 2 mm long, the limb orbicular to 
broadly ovate, held slightly above the horizoiilal, 
18-20 X 14—17 mm; inner tcpals 8.5-10 mm long, 

eolunmam .Vmm longa connatis api(■rm'^ . "rsus per ]-\^ ^'^^' ^''^^^^ ^"''- '^^^ '"'" ^^"g' ^'"^^^^ ^^'^ ^""'> »''^'^^- 

mm lil>eris. raniis >l\Ii ea. 1 mm longis crl^li^ hninneis pidate, with outer h)l)es spathulate and erect, 5-6 

mm long, inner lobe filiform, archiiig outward, 
mostly 4—6 mm long. Filnments united in a column 
ca. 3 mm long, diverging in the upper 1-1.5 mm; 

3—1 mm lomris ornatis. 

Plants 50-70 cm high. Conn gh)b()se, 8-15(-20) 

mm (ham. with fibrous tunics. Folian;c leaf<,o\ildv\\ ,i ^^.^l'^.^^^^^ a 

, , , , ^ r (intners appresseu to the style branches, ca. 4 rmn 

produced (dose to the ground, (duumeled and (tften 
about as loiig as llie stem but usually b(mt and 
trailing above, linear, 3—1 mm wid*\ Stem 3 or 4 
internodes l<»ng, usually bratn bed at tht* 2 uj)per 
inteniodes, with up to 4 branches per node, each 
luxlc bearing a sheathing, bract-like leaf 4.2— 5 cm 
long, this green with a dry, brown, acute apex. 
Rhipiilid l<'rminal on the branches, flexed at the 
base, 3— 4(— 5)-flovvered; spathcs green, with dry, 
brown, acute(-attenuale) apices, the outer 30—35 

long, bluish, with acute apex, pollen yellow. Ovary 
oblong, 5-6 mm long; style dividing at the top of 
the filanuMit column, the branches 4—5 mm long, 
reaching the apex of the outer tepal claws, the 
crests narrowly triangular, 3^ mm long, brown. 
Capsules oblong, 12-15 X ca. 5 mm; seeds angular, 

ca. 1.2 mm h 


Flowering January to mid F<d)niary. 
Etymology. From the Latin vigilans, "vigilant. 

mm h>ng, the inner 50-55 mm long. Flowers usu- watcliful," referring to the type locality. Sentinel 
ally white, often faintly tinged with mauve espe- Peak in the notlhem high Drakensberg Range. 

cially on the outsi(h% the outt^r t(^j)al lind)s with 

Distribution and biology. Moraea vigilans is ev- 

bluisli bands or spots toward the base and speckled idently a local endt^mic of the high Drakensberg 

with mauve over the lower third, som<'liines over presently known only from the slopes of The Sen- 

the lower two-thin)s, randy over the entire surface, tinel, whicdi lies close to the borders of KwaZulu- 

ihe (daws banded with mauve, the inner tepals Natal and Free Slate Provinces of South Africa and 

brownish, speckled with cream, liglitly sweet scent- the northeast comer of the landlocked kingdom of 

ed; outer tepals 24—28 nun long, evidently glabrous, Lesotho. Plants are locall) common on steep, moist 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Goldblatt & Manning 

New Moraea from Southern Africa 


■- ■ ' '"'v' *■ 

slopes in basalt outcrops where tliey grow in peaty 
loam. In this well-watered part of the Drakensherg, 



10 ground reniauis moi 

ist tl 


irougnout tl 

le growing 

season, November to Mareh. We have no obser^va- 
tions on the pollination of M. vigil ans but assume 
that, like its relatives M. hrevistyia (Goldblatt) 
Goldblatt and A/, trijida R. C. Foster, it is polli- 
nated by antliophrine bees in searcli of the small 
quantity of nectar held at the base of each outer 
tepal claw (Goldblatt et al., 1989, and unpublished 
data). It is puzzling, however, that while we have 
seen the larg<^ bee, Amegilla capensis, visiting M. 
hrevistyia on three separate occasions and M. trifulu 
once, no visits occuiTed to M. rigihius, although 
that bee was active when the plant was in bloom 
and it was growing within a few meters of the other 
two Moraea species. 

Relationships. Moraea vigilans has the relative- 
ly small flower that lasts at least tw<) days, and re- 
duced, tricuspidate inner tepals characteristic of 
subgenus Meusseuxia of the getuis. Within tlie sec- 
tion it is evidently allied to other Drakensberg sp(^- 

cies of the subgenus, and is perhaj)s most (dosely 
related to the common and widespread Drakens- 
berg species M. hrevistyia (Goldblatt, 1986), with 
which it is easily confused. Herbarium specim<'ns 
of the two species can only be distinguished by 
careful measurement of the floral parts, but wlu-n 
seen alive th(^ difference in tepal ori<Mitation and 
coloring makes it inunediately clear that these are 
separate species (Fig. 2). They actually grow within 
a few meters of one another on tlie slopes of The 
Sentinel: M. hrevistyia grows on deeper soils on 
grassy slopes and M, vigilans is confined to basalt 
outcrops. Their llowcring times overlap, and they 
can readily be compared with one another. It then 
becomes obvious that they are separate sptK'ies. 
The most striking (fifference between the two is diat 
the broadly ovate to orl)icular ou{cr tepal limbs of 
M. vigilans are spreading or held up to 30*^ above 
the plane defined by a right angle relative to the 

Figure 4. 

F'lourring plants of Morned mrlanops [Cold- 
hlatl &^ ^'annl 10219). Scale bar I nn. Drawn hy J. C. 


branches usually exceed the outer tepal limbs by 
up to 3.5 mm, while the white style crests extend 
upward a furtlu'r 5 mm (Fig. 3). Although the two 
species appear virtually identical vegetatively, the 
stalks of M. vigilans are more willowy and tend to 
lean tow^ard the ground, whereas the main stem and 

branches of M. hrevistyia are often stiffly erect. 

Despite its l)eing locally cotniiion and growing 
along a well-used hiking trail, Moraea vigilans ap- 
pears to have been overlooked in the past. As far 
as we have been able to determine, the first collec- 

..... . T 1 1 tion of the species was made by th<^ Denver liorti- 

rhipidium-ovarv^ axis, in contrast, tin' naiTow^er, on- . . _ ^ ■ t^ i ■ i- • li^r.^ tt ^ 

, ^, . ,,., ^,.,. cultunst Fanayoti Kelaidis in 1997. He drew our 

attention to the plant, and two years later w^e made 

lanceolate-obovale outer tepal limbs of M. hrevis- 
tyia are weakly to strongly reflexed, and tlic limbs 
are usually pinched inward in the proximal third. 
Less apparent are the shorter outer tepal (daws of 

the type collection. 

Faralyju's, SOLTll AFRICA. Free Stale: 2828 
M. vigilans, 7-9 mm long, and the shorter filament (Bethlehem) ^sloix's of Jhe Sentinel (1)15). Jan. I*)')7, Kc- 

column and style branches, the latter reaching op- 

laidis s.n. (MO). 

j)osite the apex of the outer tepal limb. The short, 
brownish crests extend upward above the base of 
the tepal limbs for up to 4 mm. The outer tepal 
claws of M. hrevistyia are 9-11 mm long, the fila- 
ments and anthers are longer than those of M. vi- 
gilans (12-15 mm combined length in M. hrevistyia 
vs. ca. 8,5 mm in M. vigilans)^ and the style 

4, Moraea iiielaiiops Goldblatt & J. C. Manning, 
sp. nov. TYPE: South Africa. Western Cape: 
Bredasdoip District, Fail-field Fami, 18 Aug. 
1995, Goldhlatt & Nanni 10249 (holotyi)e, 

NBG; isotypes, K, MO). Figure 4. 

Plantae acauh'sccnles us(jiie ail 4 ctn ahac. ((imio »il<)- 



l>()so l()— 15 mm (liaiiu'tro, foliis olio\alis us(jue oblanceo- 

ran^ eudcitiit" of the Calrdon and BredasHorj) Dis- 

lalis i)rosliatis 20-3S X l()-14 mm marjiinihus inidiilatis. ... r \v; * n r> * c .i at • t'I 

(,.,'. ^ ., , II- r 1 ■ tiicts oi Western Lape rrovmee. South Alriea. llu 

Mot 1 1 HIS 111 lasciculo laxo. sjtalMis i)ract(MS(]ut' tohaeeis ' 

inurgi.iibus uiidulali^, llurilius Ii>|)(k raLTifonnibus pur- l<>vv-gi<)wiiig plants are inconspicuous and 

r\ 1*11 i^»t» 

even in 

jiLin-Is III ci'titri) atr()[)urpiir('is. luho [x'rianlliii 18-27 mm 
Kingo ('\ lindrico, tepalis pat<'ntil)us \o! Kniter cuptilalis 
()l)()\atis ca. 1() X 9—10 mm. filamnitis lil>rris vel iiilitiu^ 
roiiiialls supniie dutTgeiililtiis. anllicris ca. 3 mm Kmgis. 

flower may be missed hecaus(* of their close resem- 
blance to co-bloomin*!; species of purple-flowered 
Romulea rosea (L.) Eeklon (bidaeeae), Oxalis pur- 

.1 . 7 1 ,1 ' 1 purca L. (Uxalidaceae), and a species of Uroscra 

stvio enu'lo ca. 7 mm lori^o. aiilliens per ea. 1 mm 8U- ' ^ /' r 

prrantilnis, styli lulnilis piimu ercctis cohariviitihu.- dcln- (Droseraeeae). It grows in lieavy clay soil in reiios- 

(le supra aiillieras expan^is. 

Plants acaulescent, forming small tufts up to 4 
cm high. Conn globose, asyninietrie below, 10—15 
nun <liam., the tunics of cartilaginous layers, with 
age decaying into fibers aiTaiiged in herringbone 
pattt^rn, or w^ith hard vertical claw-like ribs sepa- 
rated l)y fine cross fibers, accumulating with age in 
a dense mass. CataphyUs membranous, persisting 



iccumulating with the remains o 

f the past sea- 
son's stems tu form a fibrous neck around the un- 
derground part of the stem. Ijcaves not clearly dis- 
tinguished from the floral l)racts, only the low^ermosl 
inserted well below the groutid shortly above the 
conn, this fairly short and inconspicuous, only two 
other leaves not associated with a flower, these in- 
serted at ground level, the !)asps pailly enidosing 

the inflorescence, the blades loosely prostrate, ob- 
ovate to lanceolate, 20—35 X 10—14 mm, un<lulate, 
the margins occasionally crisp<Ml, especially on the 

proximal edges, leaves each sul (tending a flower. 

oblong or naiTowly lanceolate, ± falcate and chan- 
neled, the margins usually crisped. Inflorescence a 
loose cluster of 2 to 5 flowers, each subtendtnl by 

a leaf-like bract and a short sheathing bract; the 
floral bracts 22-24 mm long, pale and membranous 
in the lowe*r half and the slieaths closed, broader 
above and green, obscurely bicariiiate. Floucrs hy- 
pocrateriform, light to dark purple, dark purple- 
l)la(*k in the center; perianth tube cylindric, 18-27 
mm long, ca. 1.8 mm wide, closed at the apex; 
tejxils suluHjual, laxly sj)rt\iding, obovate, ea. 16 X 
*^-10 mm. Filaments free or fused in the lower half, 
initially erect and contiguous, later (hverging, ca. 3 
mm long, yellow; anthers ea. 3 mm long, yellow, the 
pollen yellow. Ovary oblong-cylindric, ca. 4 mm 
long; style straight and erect, reaching ^a. 1 mm 
beyond the anther apices, dividing into three shoi1 
lobes, initially the lobes upright and appressed to 
one another, later becoming liorizontal and lying 
just above the anthers. Capsules and seeds un- 

ter\eld and flowers wtU only in disturbed sites 
where the vegetation has been burnt or heavily 
graz<nl s(» that the sun'ounding shnibby vegetation 
does not shade out the plants. The species may well 
be more common than is currently believed, but is 

so far known only from Fairfield Estate near Napier. 
Teslaarsdal, some distance west of Fairfield, and 
north of the Potberg, to the east. Plants of the latter 
collci'tion are in fruit, so identification is provision- 
al. Plants from the Teslaarsdal site, collected in 
1976, were assigned to tlu* reflated M. barnardiella 
Goldblatt (as Galaxia harnftrdii G<»ldblatt) by Gold- 

blatt (1979). It seems reasonabh* to assume that M. 
mclanops grows in similar liabitats along die foot of 
the Kl<Mn River Mountain-Rnnlasdori^-Potberg axis. 
Moraea barnardiella is known onl) from Caledon 
and west and north of the town as far as Villiersdorp 

(Goldblatt, 1979, and later herbarium records). 

The purple ll(»wers with a dark center and 
spreading, rather than cupped, tepals recall partic- 
ularly Moraea barnardiella, and it is to that species 
that M. melanops is m<tst closely allied. Vegetative- 
ly, they appear to be identical and only the flowers 
differ. While M. melanops has free, slightl) diverg- 
ing filaments and the style exceeding the anthers 
and with fairly narrow lobes, M. barnardiella (Gold- 
blatt, 1979) has the filaments free in the upper 
third and strongly diverging above, the style divid- 
ing o|)|)osite the middle of the anthers, and the style 
h)lH's theinselves broader than in M, melanops. 

Examination of living plants of this sp(H'i<^s has 

suggested to us an int<Tj>retation of the "inflores- 
c(Mice" in Moraea sect. Galaxia, Individual flowers 
are subtended by two foliar structures, a shorter 

inner and longtT outer one, both with eloseil 
sheaths and instiled a short distance below the 
base of the ovary, i.e., at the base of a pedicel. The 
flower and these two foliar stnictures share a short 
stalk, a branch or peduncle (the distinction doi-s 
not exist in subfamily lrid(»idea(^). At the bast^ of 
tlie branch/peduncle^ there is a scah^-like membra- 
nous pr((})hyll with two kc*'ls, exactly the organ one 
Mould expect at the base of a branch in the Irida- 
Etymology. From the (/reek mclanos, "black" ceae. This unit seems to us consistent with an in- 

and ops, "eye," referring to the dark central pig- leipretation that considers the flower and two as- 

mentalion of the flower. 

Flowering mid August to early September. 

sociated foliar stnictures homologous with th( 

Distribiitum and biology. Moraea melanops is a branch and rhipidium, the inflorescence type of all 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Goldblatt & Manning 

New Moraea from Southern Africa 


Iridoidt^ae. The rhipidiuni is in this case single- 
flowered (a rhipidiuni is a type of monochasial 
cyme in which the inflorescence axis is collapsed, 
the flowers are thus I>orne in umbels, and the entire 
structure is laterally compressed and enclosed by 

km \W of Napier, Fairfield Karm, poorly drained elay on 
gentle slope (BC), 27 July 10<)5, Kemper IPCHl 1 (NBC). 
3420 (Bredasdorp) PoltclK:r^ Norlh, recenllv hurnl lower 
slopes (BC), 11 Oct. 1967 (fr). Taylor 7798 (NBC). 

Acknoivledgments. We thank Neil MacGregor 

J 1 ri-i 1 . .u *u \ c- 1 fl f^i" hospitality and help in the field at Nieuwouilt- 

opposeu leai-like bracts, the spathesj. ^ingle-ilow- -n • ■ 

1 1 • . ]. . ' a 1 r -1 u * ville, Inerid Nanni for help findin;^ Moraea melan- 

ered rliipidia are not common ni the sublamny, but . ... 

occur in depauperate plants in several genera, and 
are apomorphic in Moraea cooperi Baker (Goldblatt, 
1986). The single flower on each of the branches 
of this species is subsessile and enclosed by op- 
posed leathery spathes. The spathes are unequal. 

ops on Fairfield Estate, Panayoti Kelaidis for draw- 
ing our attention to the existence of M. vigilans, 
and Roy Gereau for checking the Latin descrip- 
tions. Our fieldwork was funded by the National 
Geographic Society. 

the inner one longer than the outer, and both are I.iieralure Cited 

entirely sheathins;. We suo;i»;est this is homologous r i ii i u r> lo-r ft.- i i i i 

-^ ^ ^^ ^ i/ol(ll)lalt, 1. JviO. hvolution, cyloJo^v and siu)generie 

with the pattern described for each flower in section ela^bification in Moraea (Iridaccae). Ann. Missouri Bot. 

Galaxia. In species of Iridoideac that have rliipidia Card, 63: 1-23. 

with more than one flower, each additional flower ■ ^9"^- ^'^'^^'y ^»"d syslemalies of Galaxia (Iri- 

is subtended by a membranous two-keeled bract. 
Thus we interpret the cluster of flowers bonie at 
ground level in a basal rosette found in section Gal- 
axia as a compound structure of two or more rhip- 
idial inflorescences, each w^ith a single flower, and 
airanged in umbellate fashion. 

dacea*^). J. S. African Bot. 45: 385-423. 

. 1986. Tlie Moraeas of Southern Africa. Ann. Kir- 

slenhosch Bot. Card. 14: i-224. 

~. IW8. Reduction of Barnardlella, Galaxia^ Gyn- 

an/lriris, Hexaglottis, and Homeria in Moraea (Irida- 
ceae: hideae). Novon 8: 371—377. 

i5v J. C. Manning. 1995. New species of southern 

African Moraea (Iridaeeae: hidoidcae), and the reduc- 
tion of Rheome. Novon 5: 262-269. 

Paratypes. SOUTH AFRICA. Weslerii Cape: 3419 
(Caledon) 2 km E of Shaw s l*ass on llie road to Teslaars- 
dal (AD), 13 Sep. 1976, Goldhlait 1093 (MO. NBC); 15 

, R Bernharfll t^ J. C. Manning. 1989. Notes on 

the jiolhnatlon mechanlsnis o{ Moraea inelinata and M. 

brerisiyla (Iridaceae). PI. Sysl. Evol. 163: 201-209. 

Two New Species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from the Atlantic 

Coastal Forest in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Sarulni Jules Gomes da Silva and Maria Candida Henrique Maniede 
Tnslitiilo (It- Bolaiiica, Caixa Postal 4003, CEP 01061-970, Sao Paulo, SP, Hra/il 

AltsrilAcr, Bcgnnin .udesopolensis and B. jurcicn- 
sis, known onl\ from a montane forest in the state 
of Sao Paulo, Brazil, are described and illustrated. 
The former belongs to section Ewahlid. hut it is 
distinguished Irom the other taxa of this section by 

lldH's alhi. riui^rii. Capsular cariKisae. coiiacrae in sicro, 
alls imllis \ rl ohsoK'tis. 

Herbs to suhsluuhs. glabrous, 0.3-1.5(-1.8) m 
tall. Stems erect, internod(*s {l-)3— 5.5(— 8.1) cm 
h)ng. Stipules tardily deciduous, ovate to ol)ovate. 

its (leshy eaosules with nidimentarv or absent ^ i . /o •? \o i c ^ /i i \o o 

-^ ' 1 'i • erect, apex mucnumlate, (z-.i-j.wkr) X (1.4— jz-o 

win^s. Tlie flattened stvle branches, obconical an- - , . , i r u /^i c \n ^r rt on 

^ , , . .1 ^ .• ^■"*' petioles terete, reddish, (4.5-)9-16.5(-zl) cm 

tilers, and tiie bilamellate placentae, ovuliferous 
tluctughoul place B. jurelensis in section Prrrini, 

and the peltate, glabrous K-af blades distinguish it 

from the (»ther species of this section, B. rdnuauloi 

long. Lamina basifixed, eutii-c, transversely ovate, 

strongly asymmetric, (11..5^)l.S-24.3(-28) X (6-)7- 

12(-13.5) cm, palmaii nervous, 6 to 10 ]>rimaiy 
veins, prominent on the uppt*r surface, basal lobe 
rounded, (4.7-)6-9(-ll) X (5. 7-)7-l 1 .5(^13.5) 
l{i:.sLMO. Begonia saIesopolensi.s e B. jureien^Ls, ^^. margins undulate, apex acuminate, upper sur- 
eonluu-idas ap<Mias para a Serra do Mar no Estado face dark green, opaque, lower surface light green 
de Sao Taulo. sao descritas e ilustradas. A primeira to w^ine-colon-d. Cymes 3 to 5(6) dichotomously 
dislingue-se das d«'mals especies da Se^ao EuaJdin branched, peduncles (12-)17-32(-3(:)) cm long; 
pelas cdpsulas carnosas com alas rudimentart^s on bracts caducous, white to lightly pink, obovale, eon- 
ausenles. Os ramos do estilete achatados e as an- duplicate, apex retusc, (l.l-)1.5-2(-3) X (0.6-)l- 
teras obeonieas etHjuadram B. jurelensis iia se^^ao 1.4(-L8) cm. Stamlnate flower's: tepals 4. white, 
Pereini^ e suas folhas peltadas e glabras difcrcn- outer ones rounded-ovatt^ to obo\ate, 15-25 X (5- 
clam-na da outra i-speeie desta sec^-ao, />. edmundoi )ll-24 mm, inner ones obovat*' to oblong. (6-)10- 
Brad(\ 17(-19) X (2-).3-6(-8) mm, staim-ns (25-)30 to 

40(^5), anUicrs oblong, (1.8-)2-3(-3.5) mm, lon- 
Tlu* gt^nus Begonia is well rt4)rescnted in Brazil, yiiudinally ridged along ilehiseence sutures, fila- 

esjM'cially in the Atlantic coastal fon^st. Sriiilh et 
al. (1986) publisluMl two recent treatments of iIr 

ments free, (0. 8-) 1—1.5 mm, connective prominent, 
(0.3-)0.4-0.6 mm. Pistillate (lowers: bractcolcs 2, 

germs, which attributed 240 taxa to Brazil, and in- hardily caducous, white, ovate, apex retus(% (7-)10 

eluded synonyms and a key for all species of Be- 

12 X (,5— )7-10(-LI) mm; tepals 5, white, four ovatt 

^^o;wV/. The noristic study uf the genus in Atlantic ^'' obovate, (10-)14-23(-26) X (7-)10-18(-23) 

mm, the remaining one elliptic to obovate, 10— 

forest in the state of Sao Paulo consisted of 40 taxa, 

15 of which are endemic to Sao Paulo and 14 14(-19) X 5-6(-8) mm, Iwpaiithium 7-7.5 mm 

shared with Rio de JantMro State (Comes da Silva, long, ovar) 6-6.5 mm long, placentae entire, style 

f this survey, we branches cylindrical, toituous, stigma spirally 

discovered two new species of Begonia, which are band-shaped. Capsules globose, fh^shy, strongly co- 
riaceous when dried, (0.7^)0.9-1. 1(-1.4) X 
(0.6— )0.8— 1(-1.2) cm, wings absent or only rudi- 

1998). During the preparation o 


]<'scrIbtMl Ix'Iow. 

B«-onia salesopolensis S. Gomes .la Silva & Ma- '"^^"1^0^ unequal, tho largest, if present, semilu- 

mede, sp. nov. TYPE: Brazil. Sao Paulo: Mun. 

nate, (l-)3^(-6) X (2-) l-6(-7) mm. St^-ds cylin- 

Salesrtpolis, Biological Station of Borac^ia, 3 ^'^'i^'^^'' minute, 
jun. 1992, S. y. Gomes da Silva & E. P. Pi- 

aeendn 307 (holotype, SP; isotypes. K. MO, 
RB, SPF, UEC). Figure lA-I. 

Distribution, This s])eei<'s is known only from 
the type localit), Salcsrtpolis Municipality, Sao Pau- 
lo, Brazil, lu'twecn 700 and 900 m. gnnving in 

llt'rl>;ie ad snrfniliees ghihri. KoHa [xMioln l)asi(i\(i. la- 
rtiinae cur iacrae, (lansversf o\aIia. \ aide a>\ inctricae. 

clcariiiirs in the forest where tr 

arc shorter than 



Ni>\()N 10: 22-25. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Gomes da Silva & Mamede 
New Begonia from Brazil 


Figure 1. A-I. Begonia salesopolensis S. Gomes da Silva X Mamede. — A. Hmrieli witli fruits. — B. ()ut<M- aiid inner 
tepals of staminale flower, dorsal view. — C. Stamen. — D. Staniinate flower. — E. Bract, ventral vir^w. — K Tepals of 
the pistillate flower, dorsal view. — G. Apex of the style. — H. Capsule. — I. Ovary in tran>verse section. J-Q. Begonia 
jurvieims S. Gonies da Silva & Mamede. — J. Staminate flower. — K.. Outer and inner lej)als of the staniinate flower, 
dorsal view. — L. Stamen. — M. Tepals of the pistillate flower, dorsal view. — N. Gynoecium. — (). Apex (tf tlie stvie 
liranch. — P. Rraeleole of the pistillate flower, dorsal view. — Q. Habit. (A, from Comes da Silva & Piace/ilifi 257; B- 
T. from Gomes da Silra & Piacenlin 307: \-\\ from Rossi el uL 563; Q, from Gofnes da Silva el ai JH9.) 



Phenology, Collected in flower from December dichotomously hranclied, peduncles (2-)3. 


to March, in huit from December to Jidv. 

em long; bracts catlueous, white to lightly pink. 

Etymology. The specific epithet alludes to the ovate, apex mucronulate, 13-14 X 7-8 mm. Sta- 
s[)eciflc type locality (Sales6[)olis), a j)resei'\'ed area minate flowers: tepals 4, white, glabrous, outer ont^s 
of Alhuilic coas(a] forest in die southern part of Sao widely ovate, 17-21 X 18—19 mm, inner ones ob- 

Paulo State, Brazil. 

ovate, 10-17 X 5—7 mm, stamens ca. 30, anlliers 

This sptu'ies can be easily recognlztnl by its al- obeonieal, (0.7— )0. 8— 1.1 mm long, ]ongitu<linally 

most wingh^ss capsules with tliick mesocarp, ridged along dehiscence sutures, fdaments free, 

strongly coriaceous when dried, and by its large 1.1-1.9 mm long, connective tnuicate. Pistillate 

flowers uj) to 5 cm in diameter. The stigma spirally flowers: bracteoles 2, persistent or deciduous, 

batul-shapiHl, the leaf blades etitire and palmately white, ovate, ca. 15 X 10 mm; tepals 5, while, gla- 

veined, and the shrubby habit place this species in brous, two ovat(% ca. 16 X 13 nun, one obovate 

section Euahlia. It is moi-phologically most similar asymmetric, ca. 15 X 7 mm, two obovate to elliptic, 

to B. {(ddi'iishini A. DC. by its ereut habit, leaf ca. 12 X 5—6 mm, bypanthium ca. 11 mm long, 

l>la<h^ sha])e, rnunber of stannous and anth<T shape, ovar)^ ca. 7.8 mm, placentae bilamellate, ovulifcr- 

slylc braiuhes, and te[)als. !Iowev<u-, B. valdetisium ous Uuoughout, style branches flattened, almost 

differs in having a trichome ring on the petiole, kidney-shaped, stigma papillose along margins and 

proximal to blade, flowers up to 3 cm in diameter, a[)cx. Capsuhvs not seen. 

and papciy capsules with vvell-developi'd wings. 

Distnhutiotu This species is known only from 

Phenology. Collected in flower in February and 


Pimtl)pes. Hl( A/IL. Sao Paulo: Mun. Sal('s6[K)lis, two colh^'tions, both from the type locality, where 

biological Stiiiioii 1)1 Honu'cia, IS Kcl). lOoO (fl), W. kuhl- it is rare, growing on rocky slopes, at ca. 100 m. 

mann 2330 (SP), 19 JuK 10:,7 (fr), I/. Kuhlnwnn 4216 
(SP SPI- 1, 10 Jiiiu- PA")9 (n. fr). 0. Ifandro 864 (SP). 4 
Mar. P)()2 (ft). O. R Trarassos 343 (Rni U) \|>r. VHA 

(fl), J, Mattos 11775 (SP), 21 Nov. Vmi] (fr), X Cusuklio Etymology. The specihc epithet alludes to the 

Eilho n^nnSVl l Jan. IWl (fl), A Cnstddio FiUw 2IHH type locality (Jiireia Mountains), a well -presented 

(SP), 6 Apr. i'KIl ifl. fr). 1. CiistiUlio Fllho 2309 (SI'). 13 area of Atlantic forest in the southern coast of SSo 

S<'p. 19P>1 (fr), S, Romuninc ISIclo c?- .1. Custodio Filho 219 P-niln Siii^a Ri-i'/il 

(SP), 1 Vrh. l^mn (fl), G. \. n. C. Franco X' .1 Custodio 

Filho 131 (SP, SPSK), 21 Mar. P><>| (fl, (r), 1/. Kirlzana 

2104 (SP), 24 Nov. 1991 (fr). N. J. Cnmrs da Silra ,<' E. 

R Piavvndn 237 (SP). 4 June 1992 (fl. fr). S. ./. Comes da paulensis A. DC. sIk 

Sdra X F. !\ riairnlin 315 (SP). r> St^p. P/J 1 (II. fr), R, fj-^^^ fj^j^ j^^.^. species by its hispid leaf blades and 

T Sliirasuna ct al. 31 (IIUC^P, SI*, Si*F). * i i \ v i ■ i j • n ^ i \7 

^ ' style branches cvlnuirical and spirally eurled. Veg- 

etatively, B. jureiensis resembles B. pilgerano 

Begonia jureiensis S. Gomes da Silva & Marnede, Irmscher, an t^idcmic species from Santa Catarina 

sp. nov. T^ PK: Brazil. Sao Paulo: Mun. 1-ua- State, whi<-h is readily distinguished by its entire 

There are 14 Brazilian species of Begonia with 
peltate blades. In ihe state of Sao Paulo, <ndy B. 

this character; it differs 

})t\ Jurela-Itatins Ecological Station, 20 Feb. 
1991 (fl), 5. /. Gomes da Silva, I. Cordeiro, L 

placentae, apex of petioles pubescent, staminate te- 
pals pilose, and style branches bicornute. The flat- 

Rossi, I W, Godoi & 5. A. Nicolau 1H9 (holo- tened, kidney-shaped style branches found in B. 

t\pe, SP; isolype, UEC). Figure IJ-Q. 

Ih'rhac iU)-30 cm allae, prlahrac. I'\)lia prltala; laminar 

jureiensis are not common within the genus, occur- 
ring in se(iions Eilicihegonia (Africa), Mriscihrgon- 

ovales. ia<-vitcr asuiictricar. Klorcs icpalis alhis^ -lahris. '^' ^"^^^ Ermineo (Madagascar), and in the monotypic 
Aiillirrac i.hcoiiicac. Rami st\li laminares. CapsiHac ig- section Pereira (Brazil). The other species of this 


Herbs glabrous, 30-50 cm tall. Stems <*rect to 

prostrate but 

•t at Ijranch apices, inlernodes 

section, B, edmundoi Brade, is characterized by its 

large flowers and basifixed, plniiatcly veined 


Parat}pc. HH A/lL. Sao Paulo: Mini. l^iia[K\ Jur^ia- 

56:^ (SP). 

Acknowledgments. We thank Tarciso S. FilgutMr- 

(0.7— )3— .'i,5(-13.5) cm long. Stipules deciduous, 

ovate, apex mucronulate, ca. 3 X 1.5 cm; petioles hatmsEt'.)!ogical Station. ir>Mar. 1990 (fl), L Rossi vt ai 

glabrous, (6-)8.5-12.5(-17.5) cm hmg. Lamina gla- 

br(»us, j)eltate, t^ntire, ovale, sMghtly asymmetric, 

18-23.5(-24.5) X (lO-)l 1.5-1 1(-14.8) cm, pal- as for help with the Latin diagnoses; Jefferson Prado 

matinervous, 7 to 8 primary veins, blade bases for revisiot) of the text; and Maria Cecflia Tomasi for 

roundrd, margins dentate, narrowing to acuminate preparing the illustrations. We also thank the cura- 

at aj>ices, up}H»r suiface green with white veins, tors of tlu^ herbaria cited in the text. The fieldwork 

lower suiface green to purjdish red. Cymes 1 or 2 for this study was supported by a CNPq predot-toral 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Gomes da Silva & Mamede 
New Begonia from Brazil 


fellowsliip and in part by a grant from The John D 
& Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. 

LileratiiR' Cited 

Cnmes da Silva, S. J. 1998. Re^oniareae da Mata Atlaii 
tica na Serra do Mar do Eslado de Sao Paulo. Brasil 

Disserta^ao de Mcslrado, Universidadt^ dc Sao Paulo, 

Sao Paulo. 
Sinitli, L. B., D. C. Wasshausen, J. Golding & C. Kare- 
geaunes. 1986. Begouiaceae. Pail I: IlluslraU^d Key. 
Part II: Annotated Speeicb List. Sniithsouian Contr. Bot. 
60. Smithsonian Institution Press, \^asliinglon, D.C. 

Xanthosoma riparium (Araceae), a New Species from Goias, Brazil 

Eduardo G. Gongalves 

Depto. de Bulanica, Uiiiversidade de Brasflia, Caixa Postal 04457, CEP 70919-970, 

Brasilia, DF, Brazil 

AliSIKAcr. A n<*vv species of a caulescent Xan- Xantho80iiia riparium E. G. Goii^alves, sp. nov. 

thosoma {X. riparium) from SeiTU Dourada, state of 
Goiiis, Brazil, is described and illustrattHl. Xantho- 
soma riparium is most similar to X mafaffoidcs G. 
S. Bunlinp, X, undipcs (Jaccjuin) SclioH, aiul X 
maximiiianii Schott, hut differs from all these spe- 
cies in having fe\v(*r primaiy lattM'al veins that arise 

TYPE: Brazil. Golds: Reserva Ecoldgica da 

Universiihide Federal de Goids 



erra uour- 

ada, proximo h represa, 16"00'S, 50^07'W, 20 
Jat). 1996, £. G. Gon^alves 42 (holotype, UB; 
isotypes, K, MO). Figure 1. 

\(1 seclidiiein Xanthosoma perlincns. I*larita rijKiria 

at a mmv acute angle. Moreover, the primary lateral ^^^„,,i^.^ niuilloso rpi..,co us<,ue 51 en lor,^.,. Vagina in 
veins in .Y. riparium are close to each oth(M- near (ij.ras rnurinas soluta. Folia trian^iilari-sa^ittata vcl ovato- 
thc simis, becoming iTiore scattered toward the sagitlata. partiin condniillcata. Neni latetales priiiiaril 

apex, not n^gularly scattered along the midrib like 
in X, mafaffoides, X, maxitnilianii, and A', undipes. 
This n<*w sptx'ies appears to be the only caulescent 
Xanthosouia known to be native to central Brazil. 

4—5 (raro 6) angul(» acuto (.'3r>— 1^5°) et costa orienlcs, propo 

siniirn ajjproxitTiati. rcmotcsccns versus ajiiceni. Spathac 
Iiilnis inlns alhiis, extus viridis. 

Ilt^b caulescent, erect, up to 1.5 m tall, growing 

in clusters along stream banks, producing a milky 

latex whi'u cut. Stem: thick, covered by old grayish 

shredded leaf sluuiths, 20-51 X 3-7 cm. Leaf:;>ef- 
gentina to Mexico and the West Indies, bicluding -^/^ ^^^.^^^^ 5^5^! X 1-2 cm, slightly flattened 

about 60 species, it is the second largest neM)trop- adaxially, sheathed for V3 to V2 of its lengdi; leaf 

ical genus within the subfamily Aroideae (ciassifi- /,/,,,/^ gi^.^y green adaxially, paler semi-glossy 

cation^ after Mayo et al, 1997). It belongs to the abaxlally, dried leaves greenish or ochre, becoming 

m<Mubranaceous, 42-53 X 19-30 cm, triangular- 

The germs Xanthosoma Schott ranges from Ar- 

tribe Caladieae Schott and shows a remarkable var- 

iability of life forms, ranging from caulescent pe- sagittate to ovate-sagittate, partially condupHcalc in 
rennial herbs to seasonally dormant tuberous living plants; a«^enV>r rZ/Vrvr^i^^ 29-33 X 19-30 ('m. 

plants. Some spt^cit^s of Xanthosoma have edible 

apex acuminate, acumen 0.5—1 cm long; primary 

leaves or tubers, e.g., X sagittijolium (L.) Schott /a/t-ra/ leirus 4 to 5 (rarely 6) per sidt% diverging at 
and X viohiceum Schott. They are widely cultivated 3.5-45° from midrib, close to each otht^r near the 
in die Neotropics (Plowman, 1969), as well as the sinus, becoming scattered toward the apex, collec- 

Pal(M)tropics (Quynh & Uyen, 1987; Okckc, 1992). 

tive vein 0.5-0.7 em from the margin; /)o.s7mor di- 

Spccics of this genus usually occur as understoiy vLsions Ll^lO X 18-29 cm, lobes slightly extrorse, 
herbs in forests, along the margins of streams, in with rounded apex, basioscopic poilion well dcved- 
opcn marshy anvis, or on the ground in deciduous npnl 3-4.5 cm wide, with 2 to 3 veins, acroscopic 

or s<'mi-d<'ciduous forests, where they can be ^ 

growijig rxcn in humus-fillcd limestone crevices. It 

portion with 2 to 4 veins, sinus broadly parabolic, 
basal ribs deimded for 1-2.5 cm. Inflorescences: 

has lu'i'u presunu^d that the caulescent life form ;;rf/unr/p.s 2 to 3 per leaf axil, 12-20 X 0.8-1.0 cm; 
was primitive in tht^ genus (Madison, 1981), and spathe constricted, 11.5-21 cm long, tube ovoid, 
that die invasion of drier areas forced some species 3-6 X 1.8^3 cm, green outside, white inside, lamina 
to evolve mor[)hoh)gical and theological adaptations ovate, greenish white outside, white inside, 8.5-13 
like tulxTosity and seasonally induced dormancy. cm long; spadix 11-17 cm long, fertile male jxniion 
The discovery of a caulescent Xanihosonui in the 8-13 X 0.,5-l cm, cylindrical, tapering to the apex, 
state of Goicls, central Brazil, is somewhat surpris- sterile male portion 2-3 X 0.4-0.7 cm, female por- 
ing because most cauh.scent sp<'cies of this genus tion bright yi-llow, basally adnate to spathe for Vs 
occur in Central Anii'rica and nortluMii South of the length, subsessile, stipe obliqiu^ up to 1 
America. Since this Xanthosoma does not conform nun, 1.2-3 X 0.6-1 cm. FlowtMs: synandrium 
to any of the kn(»vvti caulescent species, if is de- prismatic, 2-3 X 2 nmi, 4- to 5-androus, thecae 
scribcij here as a new sp<H'ies. elongate, opening by an apical })ore; stani- 

iN()\()N 10: 26-28. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 1 


Xanthosoma riparium from Brazil 


us ^^ 


t'i^ure 1. XafUhosonid riparium E. (i. (^orK^alvcs. — A. llahit. — B. hifloresceiuo, spatlic lube cut lu sliow llic finnale 
portion of the spadix. — C. Leaf blaile. — D. Synaiulriuni, side view. — E. Ovule. — K Gynoeeium, cross section. — (i. 
GyruHH'iuin, lontiitudinal section. — H. Infructescence. — I. Seed, side view. Drawn from Gon^alres 42 by the author. 

inodes inegularly shaped, upper ones much l)roader pentaphyllum Eugler), with all of these acaulescent 

than lower; gynoecium prismatic, ca. 2 X 1 mm, and tuberous. This may be due to the pronounced 

style discoid, lobed stigma; lociilcs 4, ovules many diy season from May to August, winch may elimi- 

per loeule, axially disposed, funiculus Vi the length nate most of the mesophytic caulescent species 

of the ovule, lacking trichomes. Fruits: berries glo- froi^ understory habitats. Xanthosoma riparium, 

bose, cream or greenish white; seeds longitudinally ^^ith its caulescent habit, may have persisted be- 

striated, ovoid, ca. 1.5 X 1 mm. 

cause of its adaptation to a semi-acjuatic environ- 

Xanthosoma is poorly represented in central Bra- "i^"t. The new species occurs in small clusters of 

zil. All species previously reported as native from 2 to 3 adult stems and some young propagules on 

this region are seasonally dormant plants from the rocky banks along streams. Growing on riverbanks, 

section Acormas Engler {X. striatipes (Kunth) Mad- the plant has access to water, even (kn-ing the drier 

ison, X. hellehorifolmm (Jacquhi) Schott, X. platy- months of the yean It is noteworthy that the area 

lohum (Schott) Engler, X, ploivmanii Bogner, and X. where A^. riparium was collected has a slightly high- 



er average rainfall (1600—1800 inin/year) when are regularly seuUereil along the midrib, unlike X, 

compared to the suiTounihng region, which receives riparium. 1 have also obsen ed in living plants that 

around 1400-1600 mm/year (Assad, 1994). Inter- X, maximilianii has brownish, shreddctl old leaf 

estingly, the type locality is very near the "Ara- sheaths in the stem, whereas they are grayish in X. 

guaia" Pleistocenic forest refuge proposed by riparium. Some depaupi^rate forms of X. undipes 

Prance (1982). One can speculate that the caules- (Jacquin) Schott can also be confused with X. ri- 

ccnt species of Xanthosoma were widespread in pariuni, mainly those growling in disturbed areas 

most of Soudi America during warmer and humid under full sunlight. However, all material of X. iin- 

periods, and they were eliminated (or became re- dipes I have so far observed has primary lateral 

stric^ted to smaller areas) when the climate became veins regularly scattered along the midrib and a 

more seasonal. puiple inner portion of the spallie (not white as in 

Xanthosoma riparium seems to have been over- X, riparium), 
looked for a long time. There is a specimen col- Paratypos. RRAZIf,. Coias: 1844 Weddetl s.n. (P); 

lected by M. A. Weddell (s.n.) in 1844 that can Serra Doiimda. <a. 30 km SE of (Joias Vclho. elev. 700 

certainly he refeixed to this species. It was auto- "i- 21 Jan. 1966, Iruin, Souza & Santos 1I9I5 (SP, UB 

graphed by Engler as 'Wanthosoma spec,,'' but he 
did not describe it as new. The species was re- 

IlOt SlTIl). 

Acknowledgments. I thank Tarciso S. Filgueir- 

coUected by H. S. Irwin et al. in 1966 and again as, George Eiten, Thomas B. Croat, and Simon J. 

by me in 1996. 



riparium neiongs to tiie section 


Mayo for helpful suggestions on the manuscript. I 
am also grateful to the Coordena(^*ao de Aperfei^oa- 

Xanthosoma Engler (formerly known as sect. ''Eux- mento de Pessoal de Nivel Su[)erior (CAPES) for 
anthosoma^ Engler). This species is most similar financial support during this work. 

to X mafaffoides C S. Bunting, a eaulescent spe- 
cies known only from southern Venezuela. How^ev- 
er, the primary basal veins in X. riparium are close 
to each other near the sinus, becoming more scat- 
tered toward tlic apex. In X. mafaffoides^ the pri- 
mary lateral veins are regularly scattered along the 
midrib (see illustration in Bunting, 1988). More- 
over, X, riparium has fewer primary lateral veins 

PittMalun^ (-ited 

Assad, V]. I). 1994. Cliuva ti(>s Cerrados — Analise e es- 

paeializac^'Ait. Kinl)ra[ta-CP\(]. BiaMlia. 
Hunting, (i. S. 1988. New ta\a of Vene/iielan Araceae (II). 

Phytt)l(^gia M-\ 1f)f)-478. 

Madison, M. P)H1. Notes in Cdladiuni and its allies. Sel- 

byana 5: 342—377. 

Mayo, S. .).. J. Bogner & R C. Boyee. 1997. Tlu' Genera 
of Araceae. Ro)a! Botanie Gardens, Kevv. 

(up to 5 or rarely 6, instead of 7-8), and these veins okcke, S. K. IW2. The eorreel nonienclalure of the Ni- 
arise at a sharper angh^ (ca. 35-45"^ instead of 55- 


gerian speeies of Xanthosomn (Araceae). Bot. J. I. Inn, 

Soe. 110: 267-275. 

\r .1 • • II i^lovMiian, T. 1969. Folk nses of N(*w World aroids. Eeon. 

Xanthosoma riparium also shares some resem- „ . ^■> r^i io.> 

blance with X maximilianii Schott, from Bahia Pranre, (;. T 19H2. Korest n-fnges: Kvidence from woody 
(eastern Brazil), hut differs in having the outer sur- angiospeniis. Pj). 137-158 /*// G. T. Prance (editor). Bi- 

face of the spathe tube green (instead of purplish ological Diversifuation in tlie IVopIcs. Colunihia I'niv. 

\ 1 1 • • I a 1 • Press, New York. 

sea-green), never purple-red uisuie, spathe lanuna .. . \. rr p m i? n wu*- * • i • i 

, . 1 (^iivnn, !N. I. & N. V. Uycn. V)Vu. Aroid propagalion By 

without red margnis, and partially conduplicate ^i^^,,^ ,.„|,„,,. I shoot tip enllnre and propagation of 

leaves. The primaiy lateral veins inX maxiniilianii Xanthosoma liohucum. Ilorlstienee 22: 671-672. 

Nomenclatural Changes in the Genus Mimosa (Fabaceae, 
Mimosoideae) in Southern Mexico and Central America 

Rosaura Grether 

Departamenlo de Biologia, Division de Ciencias Biologicas y de la Salud, 
Universidad Aulonoma Metropolitana-Izlapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-535, 

09340 Mexico, D. F. Mexico. 

ABSTRACT. As a result of a taxonomic study of the denia, Habhasia, Batocaulon, Calothamnos, and 

genus Mimosa L. for Flora de Nicaragua, Flora Mimosa; each of these includes series. Section Mi- 

Mesoamericana, and Flora de Mexico, six new com- mosa has been divided into three series, and 

binations at the infraspecific level, two new names Mimosa into 37 subseries. 

at the specific level, and two changes of series cat- The aim of this paper is to formalize and validate 

egory at the supraspecific level, are herein pro- new combinations, new names, synonymies, and 

posed. Tliese taxa occur mainly in southeastern lectotypifications at the series, species, and variety 

Mexico (states of Veracruz, Tabasco, Oaxaca, Chia- level to accompany the taxonomic treatment of Mz- 

pas, and the Yucatan Penfnsula) as well as in Cen- mosa in Flora de Nicaragua, Flora Mesoamericana, 

tral America. 

and Flora de Mexico, 

Rksumen. Como uno de los resultados del estudio 1. Series Acantholobae Bameby 

taxon6mico del genero Mimosa L. para la Flora de 

Series Acantholobae is characterized by shiiibby 

Nicaragua, la Flora Mesoamericami y la Flora de or arboreous species with lanceolate-oblong, ob- 

Mexico, se proponen seis combinaciones nuevas a long, or elliptic legumes, these 1-2.5 cm wide and 

nivel infraespecifico, dos nombres nuevos a nivel witli entire valves; the inflorescences are capitate 

especifico, asi como dos canibios en la categoria de or spicate. The group mainly occurs in Mexico and 

serie a nivel supraespecffico, para los taxa existen- Central America, although Mimosa acantholoba 

tes principalmente en el sureste de Mexico (estados (Humboldt & Bonpland ex Willdenow) Poiret var. 

de Veracruz, Tabasco, Oaxaca, Chiapas y la Pen- acantholoba extends to Ecuador and Peru, 
insula de Yucatan) asf como en Centroamdrica. Barneby (1991) considered series Acantholobae 

to comprise five varieties of M. acantholoba. Within 

The genus Mimosa is characterized by biparipin- this species, he accepted variation of inflorescences 

nate leaves; haplostemonotis or diplostemonous from globose to subglobose capitula or spikes and 

flowers, these disposed in capitate or spicate influ- variation of legumes from lanceolate-oblong to ob- 

rescences; and articulate or unarticulate legumes long or elliptic, witli valves glabrous, setose, or ech- 

with persistent margins. It comprises 480 to 500 inate. How^ever, he described M. seticuspis as a dis- 

species, of which 90% are American with the rest tinct species. 

distributed in Africa and Asia. Most of the diversity 

Within series Acantholobae, the following new 

is found in the tropics as well as in arid and semi- combinations are proposed: 

arid regions at elevations from sea level up to 2250 
m. Several species grow in temperate areas at 
2000-2750 m (Grether, 1978; Lewis & Elias, 1981; 
Bameby, 1991). 

A taxonomic treatment of the genus for Flora 
Mesoamericana included 47 species wh\\ 28 vari- 
eties (Grether, 1997). In Nicaragua, 19 (40%) of 
these species have been found. Mexico is consid- 
ered the second distributi(mal center of the genus 
after Brazil: 100 to 110 species are known to occur 
in the countr}', and about 60% of them are endemic 

Mimosa acantholoba (Humboldt & Bonpland ex 
Willdenow) Poiret var. seticuspis (Bameby) R. 
Grether, comb, et stat. nov. Basionym: Mimosa 
seticuspis Barneby, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 
65: 109. 1991. TYPE: El Salvador. Depto. 
Santa Ana: 15 km W of Metapan on low-lying 
ground N of Lago de Guija, 22 Feb. 1989, C. 
£. Hughes 1256 (holotype, NY; isotype, 


In my opinion, this taxon should be treated at 
to different regions of it (Grether & Martinez-Ber- the infraspecific level because of its capitate infio- 
nal, 1996). According to Barneby (1991), the genus rescences. The main difference with Mimosa acan- 
in the New World comprises five sections: Mima- tholoba var. acantholoba is the narrower legume, 

NovoN 10: 29-37. 2000. 


No von 

41). r<^^uiiit'> laiu<'tjlaU'-()l)l(nig. 6-45 X 

1—1 . 1 cni; leaflets ()l)li<iiH'l\. nar- 
niuly ohloTig, (11)17 lo 2() pairs; 
pliitiat' ( l).*) lo 11 pait>: Mexici) 

(Oaxaca) and I"! SaKador 

]]. acantlioloha var. sviicuspis 


always *;lal)r<)us, with margins unamu'd or slightly 

prickly, aiitl the apex usually rostrate with the ros- 
trum up t(t 1.1 em long. M'unosd acantholoha var. 
setuuspLs was earlier known only from type speci- 
mens, hut it has subsequently been found in the 

Isthmus of Tehuantepoc, particularly in th<* n^gions 
of San Miguel Chiniaj)ala and La Venlosa, near sea 
1ov<d, in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. Because of 
its flow(*rs dispostMl in subglobose capitula, this va- 
'iety parallels M. {wantholoha var. molinamnK from 
whic-h it is distinguished by its longer and narrower 
lat»ceolalt*-(tblong fruits, and by its narrowly oblong 

Mimosa (irdnlholoha is characterized by its gla- 
brous to jxibemlent flowers disjiosi-d in ea])itula; T 
rccogniz(^ four varit^ies: M. acantholoha var. acan- 
tholoha, variety eurycarpa (B. L. Robinson) Bar- 

neby, variety rnolinarurn BartHd>y, and variety seti- 

uspis (Barneby) R. Grether. I regard variety liesneri 2. Series GlaiHliilifrrar Rentham 

Banu4)y as better placed under Mimosa platycarpa Series Glandulifcrac comprises 12 species oc- 

Bcnlham, herein rec-ognized at the specific rank; it curring mainly in South Amerii-a; Mimosa watsimii 

is dislinguislu'd lr(»m M. acanthoh)ha by its always B. L. Robinson is the only species of this group 

pubcruhMit flowers disposed in spikes. found in southern Mexico and Cetitral America be- 
sides M. guilanrlinac (DC.) Barneby var. paterata 

Mimosa platycarpa Bentham var. liesiieri (Bar- Barneby, which ranges from Colombia to Costa 

II). Flowri-s in lax sj)ik<'s, 2^ cni l(ing . . M. phitycdrpd 
Sa. I.e^urnes lanceolale-ohltm^ to <»l)l(Hig or el- 
liptic, 3— f5 X 1-2..') (Ml. \alves ^lahioiis with 
[►roniliii'iil \('riali<nu pinnae 1 lu 10 pairs; 
leaflets ohliiiuely Hnear-nltlong, 8 to 20(26) 
pairs; Mexico (Oaxaca and (!liia]>as). (^la- 
letnala. 1 Idiidnras. Nicaragua, and (-osta 

Rica W. i>I(il\((ir{Ki miv. phihcurpd 

31). Legume?. al\va\s lanccolalc-ohlon^. 4..')-f).5 
X 1-1. }■ cm, valve> kugcly setose uitlinut 
proinirwMit \ (-nation; [)irHiae (2)3 to 6(8) 
pairs; leaflels ohli(pi«dy linear. (8)10 lo 

ir^flT) [>airs; Costa l{ica 

M. f>l<a)car{Kt var. licsurri 




neby) R. Grether, con)b. nov. Basionym; Mi- 
mosa acantholoha var. licsneri Barneby, Mem. Grether (1987), based on consistent inflores- 
New York But. Card. 65: 1U8. 1991.^ TYPE: ccnce, flowtT, fruit, and leafht characters, included 
Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Santa Rosa National Mimosa recordii Britton & Rose, M. resinifera Brit- 
Park, 2 km N of headquarters on road past ton, and M, rckoana Britton In the synonymy of M. 

watsouii, mentioning tin- great variation in the num- 
ber of pinnae and h'aflets. 

Barni^by (1991) consid(!red it useful to recognize 

T.agoona, 1 Feb. 1978, R. Liesner 1800 (holo- 
type, NY; isotypes, CR, MO). 

Species and varieties of series Acanlholohac can (jj^. <>xtreme variations in size and number of leaf- 
lets and pinnae at the varietal level, distinguishing 
variety watsonii by its leaves with 2 to 3 pairs of 

be distinguished by the following key: 

la. Flowers in dcns<' capilula, R— I.") nun diani . . . 

, M. (ic<tn!h<)lt>h(i 

2a. Il()\v*'r6 in glol>uac lu mi!»^1(>1ji>.sc t apitula. 
8-10 mm diam.; let^umes with \al\<*s gla- 
hrons lo sluirtlv setose or ecliinat*'. 1.5—2..^ 
cm w idt;. 

.la. I.e^nme^ 3—8 cm lung witli \aK<'s t^la- 
hroiis to shortl) si'tose; [>innac I to 12 
[)airs; leaflels 10 lo 20 pairs; Mexico, 

Nicara«2;na. Kcnador. and V<r\\ .... 

1/. (icunfhohfhd \ai. <ic<jfUh(>h}h(i 

Mi. Legumes .1.5—5.5 em lon<i with vaKcs 
always ecliinate in the middle; pimiae f) 
lo H pairs: leaflets 15 to .10 jtair^; Mex- 
ico (Oaxaca) 

4 4 

M. a((iii!hi>li>h<i var. curudipa 

2h. Flowers only in sul)g!ohose capitiiku 12-1.) 
mm diam.; lejznmes witd \al\es ahsavs «rla- 
hrons. 1—1 .7 em uidi'. 

hi. L( 


^nmes uDiun*; tu eiii| 

lliptic. l-t.5 X 

1.1-1.7 cm; leaflets obliquel\ !in(*- 
ar-ohlong. (*^)12 to 22 |)airs: piimae 
(2)1 to 8 pairs; Honduras .... 

M. aca/illiiilobii \ar. moHnnnou 

pinnae and 2 to 4 pairs of leaflets, the distal pair 
of them (3-)t— 11 X 2..S-6.S cm, and variety recor- 
dii by its leaves with 1 to 7 j>airs of pinnae and S 
to 9 pairs of leaflets, the distal pair 1.5-3 X 0.8- 
2 cm. He reported a <hscontinuous distribution 
rang(^ for variety icatsonii in Oaxaca and Veracruz, 
Mexico, southeast Guatemala, and northwest Hon- 
duras, while variety recordii was known from Belize, 

southern and central Guatemala, and from Chiapas 

and Oaxaca in Mexico. 

Based on examination of material from the entire 
distributional range of this species, including the 
state of Guerrero in Mexico, El Salvador, Nicara- 
gua, and Costa Rica, T consider it impossible to 
delimit infrasptn-ific taxa. The leaves vary frotn 2 
pairs of pinnae with 1 to 3 pairs of leaflets, as in 
the type of M. watsonii, to 2 to 3 pairs of pinnae 
with 2 to 5 pairs of leaflets ov 2 to 4 pairs of pinnae 
with 4 to 7 pairs of leaflets, all the way up to 5 to 

Volume 10, Number 1 


Nomenclatural Changes in Mimosa 


6 pairs of pinnae with 4 to 9 pairs of leaflets. Var- gee is a synonym of M. lactiflua Delile ex Benthani. 
iation is also observed in size of leaflets, 2.5-12 X However, Barneby (1991) considered it in the syn- 
1.5—6 cm; intermediate combinations are frequent. onymy of A/, caerulea Rose. After reexamination of 
Additionally, analysis of geographical distribu- type specimens and material from Mexico, includ- 
tion range, altitudinal range, and vegetation types ing the type locality oi Mimosa mixtecana, Chehai- 
where this species occurs, as well as flowering and bar and I confirm that it is a synonym of Mimosa 
fruiting time, do not allow one to delimit varieties. lactiflua and not of M. caerulea. The latter is dis- 
Therefore, I include M, watsonii B. L. Robinson tinguished by its leaves with 1 to 2 pairs of pinnae 
var. recordii (Britton & Rose) Barneby in the syn- and 5 to 12(11) pairs of leaflets, obliquely linear- 
oblong to lanceolate, as well as by its herbaceous 
or suffruticose habit. 

onymy o 

f thi 

IS species 

3. Series Lactifluae (Barneby) R. Grether 

I propose to treat this group of section Mim^osa 
at the rank of series: 

Mimosa Series Lactifluae (Barneby) R. Grether, 
Stat. nov. Basionym: Series Mimosa, subseries 
Lactifluae Barneby, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 
65: 571. 1991. TYPE: Mimosa lactiflua Delile 
ex Bentham. 

The groups Xantiae, Psilocarpae, Michelianae, 
and Chaetocarpae (nom. nud.) were included in the 
key for the genus, but not formally named as series 
by Britton and Rose (1928). Barneby (1991) elected 
to recognize none of these. 

The Lactifluae are mainly a Mexican group, ex- 
tending to the province of Guanacaste in Costa 
Rica. The greatest diversity of species is found in 
the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the state of Oaxaca, 
Mexico, where the following taxa are frequent: Mi- 
mosa deamii B. L. Robinson (endemic to that re- 
gion), M. goldm^anii B. L. Robinson and M. lactiflua 
Delile ex Bentham (states of Puebla, Morelos, 
Guerrero, and Oaxaca), M. melli Britton & Rose 
and M. psilocarpa B. L. Robinson (states of Oaxaca 
and Chiapas), and M. tricephala Chamisso & Schle- 
chtendal (wide distribution from Baja California, 
along the Sierra Madre Occidental (Sinaloa to Chia- 
pas), central Mexico and the state of Veracruz, ex- 
tending to Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica). 
Other species endemic to Mexico are M. sicyocarpa 
B. L. Robinson (Sinaloa to Michoacan) and M. ca- 
erulea Rose (states of Mexico and Morelos). 

In my opinion, the Lactifluae must be treated at 
the rank of series, considering that they form a 
well-delimited group because of their habit, mainly 
shrubby or arboreous, and their morphology, as well 
as by their geographical distribution range. 

Within this series, several new synonyms and two syntypes: Nelson 2775, a flowering specimen 
new combinations, which are part of a Master's the- from Oaxaca, Mexico, and Palmer 88, a fruiting 
sis on the Xantiae group and allied species by Te- specimen from Guerrero, Mexico. However, Bar- 
resa Chehaibar, are proposed here. neby (1991) mistakenly cited the specimen coT 

On the basis of examination of type collections lected by Nelson as holotype and the Palmer spec- 
and many other specimens from Mexico, Grether imen as paratype of this taxon. Nelson 2775 is 
(1987) concluded that Mimosa mixtecana Brande- selected here as lectotype of this taxon, which pre- 

Mimosa tricephala Chamisso & Schlechtendal 
var. ligiiosa (Micheli) Chehaibar & R. Greth- 
er, comb, et stat. nov. Basionym: Mimosa lig- 
nosa Micheli, Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 34(3): 
278. 1903. TYPE: Mexico. Michoacan [or 
Guerrero]: Las Higueritas, July 1898, Lang- 
lasse 232 (holotype, G not seen; isotypes, F, 


Mimosa lignosa Micheli had l)een considered a 
synonym of M. nehonii B. L. Robinson (Britton & 
Rose, 1928); however, Barneby (1991) segregated 
it as taxon B in the key to the members of the M. 
xanti complex. Chehaibar and I have examined the 
isotypes, the original description, and illustration of 
M. lignosa, as well as recent flowering and fiiiiting 
collections from the state of Michoacan. Based on 
that material, we agree with Barneby in considering 
this to be a distinct taxon; nevertheless, we place 
it at the infraspecific level. Mimosa tricephala var. 
lignosa is distinguished from M. tricephala var. nel- 
sonii (vide infra) by its completely glabrous leaflets 
with prominent reticulate venation, smaller floral 
bracts and calyx, and by pubescent, not setose, le- 
gumes. It is endemic to the Balsas Basin in the 
state of Michoacdn, Mexico. 

Mimosa tricephala var. nelsonii (B. L. Robinson) 
Chehaibar & R. Grether, comb, et stat. nov. 
Basionym: Mimosa nelsonii B. L. Robinson, 
Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 33: 314. 1898. TYPE: 
Mexico. Oaxaca: between San Geronimo and 
La Venta, 13 July 1895, E. W. Nelson 2775 
(lectotype, selected here, GH; isolectotype, 

Mimosa nelsonii B. L. Robinson was based on 



senes cun*eiit us^o; iiioreover, tlu* Palmer collection both M. guanacaslcnsis and A/, chactocarpa in the 
is M. trirrphdia var. xanti, because of itsfniits with synonymy of M. tricephala van tricephala. 

valves and marp;in strigosc to hispid and pubescent. 

Varieties of Mimosa tricephala can be distin- 

Mimosa tricephala var. nelsonii is distinguished giiislied by the following key: 

from the othtT three varieties mainly by its legumes 
widi valves and margin pubescent, densely and 

sboilly setose, v\ilh rigid and erect setae 1-2 mm 


lirMiU' or se- 

Miniosa tricephala var. xanti (A. Cray) Cheliai- 

bar \k R. Crt^lier, comb, et stat. nov. Basion- 
ym: Mimosa xanti A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 
Alls 5: 157. 1862. TYPE: Mexico. Baja Cali- 
fornia: Cabo San Lucas, Aug. 1859— Jan. 1860, 
L J. Xantus 29 (holotype, CI I; isotypes, K, 

NY, US). 

Mimosn zacajHiua S(aiullt\ & SlcxtTinark. Puhl. Field 
Mus. Nat. Hisl., Hot. S(M-. 2\\: ?>1 . 1944. Svn. nov. 
T^ ri": C/uatcinala. Zacapa: rocky slopes near Santa 
Hosa]fa. 4 Oet. WM), J. .1. Swyvrmark 2901H (ho- 

lot\ jie. F). 

Examination of the type specimen and collection 
of a toj)otyi)e of M. znrapana Standley & Sleycr- 

mark [R. Grether et al 2294, UAMIZ) led Clicluii- 

bar and mc to conclude it shouhl be synonymized 


Barneby (1991) treated Mimosa xanti A. Gray as 
a s])ccles different from M. tricephala Chamisso & 
Schlechtendal. H(^ ttMitativcly recognized taxa A, B, 
C, and D In a key to the members of the Mimosa 4. Series Leiocarpae Benlliam 

la. begnines witli valves and margin 

tose; floral bracts Vi-% of corolla length; stipules 


2a. Fegunics with \alves and margin densely 

and largely hirsute, with setae 2— t iinti, not 

rigid; leaflets lU to 13 pairs; Mexico (Vera- 

cmz, Pu(4)la, and Morelos) and Cosla Hica 

M. tricephala var. tricephala 

21). begunies willi valves n\\i\ nuirgin densely 
and slutrtly setose, with s(4ae 1 uiin or h'ss. 
rigid and erect, mixed with fme Iriehomes; 

leaflets 4 to 8 pairs; Mexico (Miehoaciin and 

Oavaea) M, frirrphala \ar. nt'lsonii 

11). Fegutn<'s with vaKcs and margin strigose to his- 
pid and pubescent or only pubescent; floral 
bracts K— V3 of corolla length; sti|)ules glabrous 
or his|>id. 

.'^a. Legumes with val\(*s and margin strigose to 
hispid and pubcsc<Mit; floral bracts V3—V2 of 
corolla length; calyx Va of corolla length; 
stipules hi>pid; Mexico (Baja California Sur, 
Michoacati, Guerrero, Oaxaca, and (^hia])as), 

Guatenuila, and Honduras 

M, tricephala var. xanti 

31). Legumes with \al\es and margin oul) pu- 
bescent; floral brads Vr-Vi of corolla length; 
calyx '/i,— Vs of corolla length; stipules gla- 
brous; Mexito (Mi(4ioaean) 

M. tricephala var. ll^nosa 

I accept the synonymy of series Leiocarpae Ren- 

xanti complex, including M. xanti, M. conzattii 

Britton & Rose, M, lagunensis M. E. Jones, M, tliam as given by Barneby (1991: 119), and to that 

langlassei Michcli, M. guanacastensis Standley, and synonymy I would add series Disiachyae Britton & 

M. nelsonii within laxon A, and excluding M. mar- Rose ex Barneby, Mem. New York Hot. Card. 65: 
garitac Rose. Tlic latter was considered as a dis- 67. 1991. Syn. nov. 

tinct species, resend)ling in foliage M. caerulea. 

Bentliam (1875) described series Leptostachyae, 

even though it is based on a vegetative specimen including all the species known till then, with di- 

from Tsla Margarita, Baja California Sur in Mexico. plostemonous flowers disposed in spikes and with 

Herein, taxon A is named at the varietal level as articulate legumes. Within the Leptostachyae, Ben- 

Mimosa tricephala var. xanti, excluding A/, guan- tham distinguished four informal, unnamed groups: 

acastensis, M, nelsonii, and M. marg<tritae. It is dis- the first one was comprised of unarmed species, 

tinguislied from the typical variety mainly by its with lepidote or tomentose-stellate indmnentiun, 

legumes with valves and margiti strigose to hispid among them, M. schomhurgkii Bcntham; the second 

and pul)esc*'nt. 

group included species also unanned, but pubes- 

Mimosa guanacastensis was described by Stan- cent to tomentose and never canescent to glabrous, 

dley as endemic to the province of Cuanacaste in among others, M. puherula Bcndiam; the third 

Costa Rica without placement in any series of the group included prickly and tomentose-vellose spe- 

genus. Examination of type collections as well as cies, such as M, guatemalensis (Hooker & J. D. 

numerous flowering and fruiting specimens from Arnold) Bcntham; and tlie fourth one, incluih-d spe- 

Mexico and Costa Rica led Chehaibar and mc to cies also prickly, but glabrous to scarcely pubes- 

conilude that M, guanacastensis is also consj)ccific cent, among them, M. adenantheroides (M. Martens 

with A/, tricephala. Because of their legumes with Si Galeottl) Bcntham, M, arenosa (Willdenow) Poir- 

valves and margin densely and largely liirsute, with et, and .1/. tenuijlora (Willdenow) Poirct. 
yellow, not rigid s<'tae, Chehaibar and I iiu'htde Barneby (1991; 119) abandoiH^l the natne seri 

Volume 10, Number 1 


Nomenclatural Changes in Mimosa 


Leplostachyae because it is a nomen illegitimum — 
Bentham included within it the types of two otht-r 
prior series. Barneby (1991: 67—68) distributed the 
species of Benthani's series Leplostachyae into se- 
ries Leiocarpae and series Distachyae; Barneby 
(1991: 68) pointed out that "It must be admitt<H] 

that thcTe are not very cogent technical reasons for 
segregating discrete series from series Leptostach- 

Miinosa velloziana Martius van inaxoiiii (Stan- 
dley) R. Grether, comb, et stat. nov. Basionym: 
Mimosa maxonii Standley, Contr. U.S. Natl. 
Herb. 17: 432. 1914. TYPE: Guatemala. Vi- 
cinity of Mazatenango, 20 Feb. 1905, W. K 
Maxon & R. Hay 3497 (holot)pe, US; photo 
and fragments, NY ex US). 

Mimosa maxonii was described by Standley, wlio 

yae sensu lato . . .." The Distachyae have predom- „,^,,tioned its close relationship with M. velloziana 
inantly 5-merous flowers and leaves with 1 to 30 Martius. The original description indicates pentatn- 
pairs of pinnae, each pinna with 1 to 25 pairs of ^^^^^ flowers; nevertheless, the type specimen as 

leaflets. The t 

is primarily Mexican, with one ^^n ^s additional material examined have tetram- 

species extending to the Caribbean lowlands of Co- erous flowers, as do those of M. velloziana. The 

lombia and Venezuela {Mimosa distachya Cavanil- „iain observed differences, with respect to typical 

les). By contrast, Barneby viewed the Leiocarpae as M. velloziana, are the fruits with pubendent valves, 

comprising species with flowers predominantly 4- the })ubemlent corolla lobes, and the always ses- 

merous and leaves with more than four pairs of pin- sile, pubendent ovary. I conclude thai this merits 

nae, the leaflets more than 10 per pinna. The series recognition as a variety of M. velloziana'^ Barneby 
is mostly South American, with only three species 
extending to Central America and Mexico {Mimosa 
schomburgkii, M. arenosa^ and M. tenuiflora). 

(1991: S41) comtnented, ''''Mimosa maxonii repre- 
sents a relatively uncommon variant with pod- 


valves densely puberulent 

The species as a whole 

Obviously, as Barneby acknowledged, dcliniita- i^ a widespread opportunistic weed. Mimosa vello- 

tion of series Leiocarpae and Distachyae is not ^^'^'^'^^ van maxonii, however, is endemic to Me- 

clear. A detailed analysis of number of pinnae and soamerica and known from Deptos. Mazatenango 

leaflets of the 27 species included in the Leror«r/)ae ^"^^ Zacapa in Guatemala as well as from Mpios. 

demonstrated a variation of 1-38 pairs of pinnae Mapastepec, Acacoyagua, and Tapachula, Chiapas, 

and of 5—70 pairs of leaflets per pinna, although 
otdy four species liave 42-70 pairs of leaflets per 
pinna. Moreover, within the Distachyae, the Mexi- 
can species Mimosa costenya McVaugh with 8—12 
pairs of pinnae and 17—25 pairs of leaflets and M. 
henthamii J. F. Macbride with 8—30 pairs of pinnae 
and 12-25 pairs of leaflets bridge the gap between 
the two series. 

Mimosa schomburgkii {Leiocarpae) and M. hen- 
thamii {Distachyae) have both tetra- and pentam- 
erous flowers, even in the same spike, as do other 
Mexican species of Distachyae, such as M. guate- 
malcnsis, M. xochipalensis R. Grether, M. luisana 
Brandegee, and M. dysocarpa Bentham, the latter 
occumng also in the southern United States. I dis- 
agree with Barncl)y (1991) and consider that this 
group of species, characterized by their diploste- 

in Mexico. 


Mimosa velloziana var. maxonii can be distin- 
guished from the typical variety by the following 


he^umes with valves glabrous and venation 
prominent. 0.8—1.5 em wide, apex apieulale to 
nmeroiiate; calyx '/J—'/, of eorolla length; eorolla 
glabrous; leaflets ol>li(|uely lanceolate to narrowly 
el]i|)tie, soimMinies slightly faleale; Mexico (Nay- 
arit, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Tabasco, and Clnaf>as), 

Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Bra- 
zil, and northern Argentina 

M. velloziiina var. vrllozidfui 

11). Legutnes with valves densely puhernlt;nt. without 
promiruMit venation. 0.7—0.9 cm wide, a[)ex acute 
to apiculate; calyx Vn—Vs of eorolla length; corolla 
lohes pnheruleni; leaflets obliquely lanceolat(* to 
lanceolate-oblong, never falcate; Mexico (Chia- 
pas) and Guatemala . . . M. velloziana var. maxonii 

monous flowers, these (Hsposed in spikes, with ar- ^ g^^.^^^ Quadrivalves Barneby 

ticulate legumes antl slimbby or arboreous habit, 

Speeies previously included in the genus 

should be maintained as a single series, even Schrankia Willdenow form a very distinct group, 
though diversification at the specific level has been Barneby (1991) transferred them to Mimosa, and 
noteworthy both in Mexico and in South America. established series Quadrivalves, including the 

whole genus Schrankia, which had been main- 
tained apart from Mimosa because of its tetragonal. 

5. S 




unarticulate legumes; the fruits are apparently te- 
Within this group, the following new combination tragonal, because the margin is as wide as or wider 

IS propose* 


than the valves, in most cases. 



Tlie genus Mimosa encunipabses a wide variation guines» 10 times as long as the peduncle, solitary 

in legume form, often used to distinguish series or geminate heads, as well as prickly branches and 

within the sections. In this way, series Acanthocar- petioles. In 1925, it was transferred to the genus 

pae and Acanlhololme present legumes with entire LeptogloULs by Standley; it was considertnl as a va- 

valves and a thin margin, while in other series, riety of M/mo.vrz ^y^/rzr/nVa/m L. !)y Barneby (1991). 

such as Pdchycarpae, legumes with entire valves 

This taxon differs from M. (juadriialvLs sensu 

and conspicuously wide margins are found, as in stricto by its longer petioles, up to 5(— 8) cm, slight- 
species of series ()ziac/nzY//re5. Further, several taxa ly longer and wider leaflets, up to 10 X 3 mm, 
of Quddrivalues, such as Mimosa (puidrivalvLs L. shorter and puberulent peduncles, up to 1.5 cm, 
var. pJaiycarpa (A. Gray) Barneby, have legumes longer legume, up to 9(— 12) cm, with less thickened 
with valves wider than the margin, resembling margin, 2—3.5 mm wide, and apex largely rostrate, 
those of M. diplotricha C. Wright ex SauvaUe of the rostmm 0.6—2 cm. The range of M quadrivalvis 
series PaucifoUatae, although the latter are artic- L. var. quadriialvis, sensu Barneby (1991), is re- 


stricted to the state of Veracruz in Mexico, while 

On this basis, I agree with Barneby (1991) in M. quadrivalvis L. var. leptocarpa (DC.) Bameb) 

treating Schrankia as a series of Mimosa, while I ranges from Brazil and Bolivia to the states of Ta- 

disagree with the incorporation of all known taxa basco and Chiapas in Mexico. In my opinion, the 

of this fomier genus as varieties of a single species. latter merits recognition at the specific level. The 

Mimosa candollei, M, rol)!ista, and M. tetragona are name Mimosa candollei honors A. P. De Candolle 

mor|:)hologieally and geographically well delimited. for his important contributions to th(^ taxonomy of 

In addition, M, hystricina (Small ex Brilton & Rose) Mimosa and other Mimosoidcae. 
B. T.. Turner from Texas, is easily distinguished by 

its leaves with 5 pairs of pinnae and 11 pairs of 
leaflets per pinna; prickly, veiy long pedun<les (9— 
12 cm) and small legimies (2.5-4 cm), densely se- 
tose, with valves 5 mm wide and margin 2—2.5 mm 

Turner (1994a, 1994b, 1995) recognized at the 

species level eight other varieties oi Mimosa quad- 
rivalvis, sensu Banu4)y; these occur in Texas and 




Study or at least, more and better collections and 
field obsei'vations to delimit several taxa with pre- 
cision, and to determine its relationships within Mi- 

Miniosa r<»l>usta R. Grether, nom. nov. Replaced 

name: Mimosa quadrivalvis L. var. distachya 
(DC.) Barneby, Mem. New York But. Card. 65: 
295. 1991. Schrankia distachya DC, Prodr. 2: 
443. 1825. Leptoglottis distachya (DC.) Britlon 

& Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 23: 141. 1928; non Mi- 
mosa distachya Cavanilles, Icon, 3: 48, t. 295, 
1795. TYPE: [Mexico]: (fl. mex. ic. ini-d.) . . . 
in Nova Hispania. (holotype, sheet 6331.560 
in Iconcs of S(\sse & Mocifio (as Mimosa in 
tsia)^ Hunt Libiary). 


T\\c following new names and synonymy are pro- 
posed within this scries: 

Mimosa camloUei R. Grether, nom. nov. Replaced 
name: Mimosa quadriialvis L. var. leptocarpa 

Schriinki<i ptdnwri (\W\\Um & Rnse) Standlpy, l*iil>I. Field 

Mus. Nat. Hist., Hot. Ser. R: It. 1930. Basioiuiii: 
Ijcptogloilis fxdnwri Britton & Rose, IN. Ainer. Fl. 23: 
143. 1928. r\ FK: Mexico. Jalisco: Guadalajara, 
July-Ocl. \lVi\(y, K, /Wmcr 267 (liololvpc, NY; iso- 
tvpe. US). 

My study o[ Mimosa quadrivaliis, sensu Banieby 

(DC.) Barneby, Mem. New York Bot. Gar.l. 65: (^^^l)' '" •>'''''^'' "» ^''-terniine material Me- 

298. 1991. Schrankia leptocarpa DC, Prodr. ^oamerica, drew my attention to M. quadrivahb L. 

2: 443. 1825. leptoglottis leptocarpa (DC.) ^^'■- distachya (DC.) Barneby. This is a very eoin- 

SlatKlley, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 15: 4.58. 1925; ""'" '''^"" "" ^^'' ^^^'^i^' «'"P*' '^"^ '" '^'^^ Sierra 

Madre Occidental, from Sinaloa lo Oaxaca in Mex- 

. A 

ico. Among memners o 



ies Quadrivalves, I con- 

non Mimosa leptocarpa Rose, Contr. U.S. Natl. 
Ht^rb. 1: 326. 1895. TYPE: Santo Domingo, 

Poiteau SM. (holotype, G-DC not seen, micro- ^^^^^ '^ ^^ a species distinct from M. quadrivalvis, 

fiche IDC- 800-12 416- III 3) because of its robust branches, large leaves, very 

dense capitula, 1.5—2 cm in diameter, and legume 

This species was originally described under densely prickly with recuncd prickles and margin 

Schrankia, from Santo Domingo; De Candolle wider than the valv<^s. On the basis of these char- 

(1825) characterized it by its tetragonal branches, acters, T propose the new name, Mimosa robusta R. 

leaves with 2—3 pairs of pinnae, numerous pairs of Grether, for this species. 

leafh^ls, straight, subulate, largtdy acuminate le- 

I agree with McVaugh (1987) in reducing 

Volume 10, Number 1 


Nomenclatural Changes in Mimosa 


SchninkUt palmeri (Britton & Rose) Standley to the 
synonymy of this species. 

Mimosa letragona Poiret, in Lamarck, EncycL 
Meth. Bot. Suppl. 1: 56. 1810. Mimosa qiiad- 
rivaliis L. van letragona (Poiret) Barncby, 
Mem. New York Bot. Card. 65: 297. 1991. 
Schrankia hamata Humboldt & Bonpland ex 
Willdenow, Sp. PI. 4: 1042. 1806. Leptoglollis 
hamata (Humboldt & Bonpland ex Willdenow) 
Standley, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 15: 458. 1925; 
non Mimosa hamata Willdenow, Sp. PL 4: 
1033. 1806. TYPE: "Habitat in America mer- 
idionali," Humboldt & Bonpland 4800 (holo- 
typc, B-W not seen, microfiche IDC: 7440. 

1385: 1. 4). 

stipules narrowly lanceolate*; branches and 
peduncles s[)arsely prickly; lep;unies gla- 
brous, sparsely prickly to unarmed, 3^ mm 
wide; Antilles, Mexico (Tabasco and Chia- 
pas), Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colom- 
bia, Venezuela, Brazil, and Bolivia .... 

M. candollei 

3b. Pinnae 2 to 4 pairs: leaflets with dclit atcly 
reticulate venation on the lower surface; 
stipules filiform; branches and pfMJuncles 
densely [)rickly; legumes pubescent, densely 
prickly. 5—6 nun wide; Cuba, Nicaiagna, 

Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador 

M. tetragona 

7. Series Setosae Barneby 

This is a group of eight species mostly distrib- 
uted in Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Only Mimosa 
setosa Bentham subsp. paludosa (Benthani) Barnc- 

This species was originally described as Schran- by var. paludosa occurs in Mexico as well as in 
kia hamata Humboldt & Bonpland ex Willdenow, Brazil and Paraguay. 

and transferred to the genus Leptoglollis by Stan- 
dley in 1925. However, Poiret had in 1810 trans- 
fciTcd it to Mimosa, assigning a new name, M. te- 
tragona, due to the existence of a different species 
named M. hamata Willdenow, occurring in India. 
Despite Poiret s transfer, material of this taxon had 
commordy been placed in Schrankia. Woodson and 
Schery (1950) cited S. hamata for Panama; they 

A new synonym of this taxon is proposed lu^re: 

Mimosa occidental is Britton & Rose var. iioro^tdiciana 
Barneby, Mem. New York Bot. Garil. 65: 478. 1991. 
Syn. nov. TYPE: Mexico. Jalisco: Mpio. La Ilucrta, 
Cerro Huchucnton, 20-25 km al E de Chamela, 2 


Aug. 1976, / Rzedowski & R. McVangh L'iTO (ho- 
lotype, MICH not seen). 

My study of Mimosa occidentalis Britton & Rose 

incduded M. letragona Poiret and Leptoglollis ha- ior Flora Mesoamericana included Mimosa occiden- 
mata (Humboldt & Bonpland ex Willdenow) Stan- talis var. novogaliciana Barneby. The latt<T was 

dley in the synonymy. 

originally described from the state of Jalisco and is 

Barneby (1991) treated this taxon at the varietal also known from the state of Nayarit in Mexico. A 

level, as M. quadrircdris L. var. letragona (Poiret) paratype from Nayarit (3 mi. NE de Puga, C. Fed- 

Barneby. I agree with Poiret and consider this taxon dema 875, MEXU, NY) has glandular trichomes 

a distinct species whose correct name at specific and large, subglobose capitula, coiTesponding to 

rank is Mimosa letragona. Mimosa setosa subsp. paludosa var. paludosa. This 

The latter three species can be distinguished taxon is also found in the states of Mexico and 

from Mimosa quadrivalvis L. by the following key: 

la. Peduncles 1.5-3.5 cm long: capitula 1-2 cm 


(liam.; apex of legumes acute to apiculate. 

Petiole 2—3.5 cm lon<z: |)imiae 1 to 3 pairs; 
leaflets 8 to I 1 [>ah*s. glaljrous, with one 
prominent eccentric vein on the lower sur- 
face; stipules 2—3 iTun long, lanceolate to 
ovate; legumes 4-5 cm long, 6 mm wide, gla- 
brous, margin 4—5 mm wide; Mexico (Vera- 

^•^^^^). ....._...-- M.quadruahis ^^ ^^ Grether 

Guerrero in Mexico (Grether & Martinez-Bemal, 
1996) and occurs in Brazil and Paraguay. With va- 
riety novogaliciana reduced to the synonymy of an 
otherwise South American plant, there remains no 
infraspecific taxon within M. occidentalis, which is 
a very distinct species occurring in Mexico and Be- 

8. Series Teledaclylae (Barneby) Britton & Rose 

2b. IVliole 7-11 cm long; pinnae 3 to 5 pairs; 
leaflets 12 to 17 pairs. [)ulHMulent. glahres- 
eent. with promineni reticulate venation on 
the lower surface; stipules 6-10 mm long, 
filiform; legumes 7-12 cm long, 4—5 mm 
wide, with {)ilose, glahresceni margin 3—3.5 
n\m wide; Mexico (Sinaloa. Nayarit. Jalisco, 

Guerrero, and Oaxaca) M. rohiista 

11). Peduncles 0.5-1.5 cm long; capitula 0.5-1.2 cm 

diam.; apex of legumes rostrate, the rostrum (>- 

1 5 tniTi long. 

3a. Pinnae 1 to 3 pairs; leaflets with one prom- 
inent eccentric vein on the lower surface; 

I propose the rank of series for the treatment of 
this group of section Mimosa: 

Mimosa Series Teledaclylae (Barneby) Britton & 
Rose ex R. Grether, stat. nov. Basionym: series 
Mimosa subseries Teledaclylae Barneby, Mem. 
New York Bot. Card. 65: 532. 1991. TYPE: 
Mimosa teledactyla Donnell Smith. 

This group was established as a monotypic sub- 
series of series Mimosa by Barneby (1991), who 



resurrectod the iiarn<^ TclcJactylae (noin. nud.), 
which was iiichultM] in the key for groups within 
iho genus hy Britton and Rose (1928). 

It is Iinpoiiant to point out that Standl<*y and 
Steyerniark <les('ril)ed i\ftmosa canahucnsis in 1944 
and included it in the Flora of Guatemala (Stan<I]ey 
& Steyennark, 1946), where they mentioned that 
this species is known only from the type locality. 
Tlicre are no more recent collections from Guate- 
mala. They did not relate this species to M, tele- 
dactyla, even though they also included the latter 

stipules 2.5-3 niiTi; calyx 1/--U of corolla length; 
legumes with valves and margin larg<'Iy setose; 

Cuiiteniala M. ranahurnsis 

Ml. Leaflets obli(in<^ly ohhmg; hraruh<'s (icnsely hir- 
sute: peduncles ?>-^ em long, hirsute; petiole 
s[uirst'l} setose; stijuilcs 5-10 mm; calyx I^, of 
corolla length; legumes with vaUes and margin 
set(tse; Mexico (Chiapas), Guatemala, ant! Hon- 
fluras M. telvdactyhi 

AcknotvledgnienLs. I wish to express my apj^re- 
ciation to Mario Souisa, Instituto de Biologfa, 

r.rthe'F/.irV/ ^iQiatemala^Thil'k'ZJZ uie'ir ^^^^^ ^"'' '"'^ '^"^^^^ '*^^^^^ '*^ *''*^ manuscript 
description of the Icgu.nos of M. canahucnsis with '^"^^ ''^'''^''^ ""'^''"^ ^"""^ ^^'^ taxononiic study of 
entire valv.-s and rtowcrs not seen. They .-oncluded ^''^"''' '" Mesoanienca. Tins paper is part of the 

enure vaivcs aiui nowers noi seen, i ney coneluueu * * - --^ ^ - 

that its afriniti<-s are uncertain and that it is not P'''^" '^'*^^^^ "^ Hosaura Grcther, and new combi- 

related to any olluu species known from Guatemala. 

nations and 


Bamehy (1991) listed .Wmo.sacana/juem/.s Stan- ^^ ^'^^ Masters thesis of Teresa Chehaibar. Re- 

dley & Steyennark In App<Midix I, Nomina inceitae ^^'^^^^'l^ was supi)orted in part hy Consejo Nacional 

sedis vel rmda, statuig: "Not known to nw and, de Ciencia y Tecnologfa, Grant Dl 12-903774, and 

since the flower and androecium were not de- ^*y Direcci6n General de Investigaci6n Cientffica y 

scribed, of doubtful systematic status. The leaf-for- SuptTacion Acadcmica, Secretarfa de Educacion 

nuda of lV-VI/7-11 suggests M. telcdactyla, but Publiea, Grant C90-01-0282. Sptnial thanks are 

leaflets (14-19 X 5-8 nun) are much too large, and given to Victoria C. Hollowell, Missouri Botanical 

the pod-valves said to fall entire, are not compati- Ganlen, and Neil A. Harriman, University of Wis- 

ble with that species. The habit and armament of ronsIn-Oshkosh, for critical comment improving 

recui*ved prickh\s suggest M. erverulhergii, the pod the manuscript. 
M. ceratonla.^^ 

However, detailed examination of the holotype of 
Mimosa canahurrLsLs {J. A. Steyermark 43758, F) hiteraliire Cited 

demonstrated there are tetramerous, haplostcmon- 
ous flowers remaining in fruiting capltula. I consid- 
er it to be closely related to M. teledactyla by its 

Banu'hy, |{. C. IWl. Scnsitivac Ccnsitae. A iles< rif>tion 
of the genus Mimosa L. (Miniofiacoae) in llie Nc\\ X^Viild. 
Mem. New York Rot. (;ar(l. 65: 1-835. 

legumes which, indeed, arc articulate, with valves Bcntham, G. 187r>. l^nisio^ of the Suhonh^- Mimoseae. 

and margin setose, by its striate branches with Trans. I. inn. Soc. London 30: 335-()()4. 

prickles along the striae, by its petiole antl primaiy '^''i'*'"' N- '- * J- N. Kose. 1928. h-ptoghutis. pp. VM\- 

and se<-on<la.-y rachis prickly, as well as by its !' VT''"^l^r.^^^^ 

^ in: 1\. Aincr. II. 23(3). New lork Botanical Canlen. the 


Can.Jolle, A. P. De. IH25. Mimosa, pp. 125-131; Schran- 
kia, p[>. 443, hi: IVo<lR)rmis, 2. 

ico (Chiapas: Mpio. Jitotol, 12 km SE de Pueblo Gryilit^r, K. 1078. A general review of tlir genus Mimosa 

in Mexico. Bull, (innipc Int. l^tudc Mitnosoideae 6: 1S- 

priekly peduncles and tetramerous, haplostemon- 
ous flowers. 

This is the first record of M. teledactyla in Mex- 

Nuevo Solistahuaccin, M. Sousa et al, 12810, 


I conclude that by incorporating Mimosa cana- 
hnensls, this group is now well delimited within 
section Mimosa by its leaves with 3-6 pairs of pin- 
nae, well separated from each odier, by the petiole 
and rachis armed with y<'llow, recurved prickles, 
prickly pevhuudes, and branches pubescent and 
hispiduh>us or densely hirsute. On this basis, I pro- 
pose tlu' rank of series for this group. 

Species of this series can be distinguished by the 

following key: 

la. LealK'ts ol)litiuely ellif)ll<' to widely ohiong; 
liianclies pubescent and hispididuus; pcdurulcs 
I.3-2..1 cm long, pulnrulenl; [)etiolc pni)*niilent; 


. 1987. Taxunumic and nonR-nclalmal notes on llic 

goniis Mimosa (be<;uininosae). J. Arnold Arl)or. 6B: 


. 1997. Revision Taxononiica d(*l C^n(TO Mimosa 

(Le^uniinosae) en Mesoanierica. Tesis de Doctorado en 
Cienclas (Biulogi'a), Facultatl de Cieneias. Tniversidad 
INatiunal Aiitononia de Mexico, M(''\ic-o. 

& A. Martnu'/45ernal. 1996. Mimosa UjupiU<nia. 

a new species of scries Plurijugac (Lcguiniiiosae) from 
tdc Slate of M<^xiro, Mexico. Syst. liot. 21: 017-621. 

bcwis, C R & T. S. Klias. I9HI. Trihn Mimoseae. F^p. 
13r)-]68 in R. M. Polhill & P. 11. Raven (editors), Ad- 
vances in T.e^unie S)alcnialics, Bart 1. The Roval Bo- 
tanic Gardens, Kew. 

McVaugh. R. 1987. MimvMi, pp. 193-224; Schrankia. p(.. 
2 1.3-2U]. In: V(' |{. Anderson (alitor), Mora ,\ovo-Caliciana: 

Volume 10, Number 1 


Nomenclatural Changes in Mimosa 


A Des( rl[)ti\t' Account of llic \ascular Plants of \^'est- 

em Mexico, Vol. 5, 1.eguniinosae. Univ. Michigan Press, 

Ann Arbor, 
Staridley, P. C. & J. A. Steyennark, 1946. Mimosa. In 

Flora of GuaU^nala. Fieldiana Bot. 24(5): S2-64. 
Turner, B. L. 1994a. Texas species of Sclirankia (Minio- 

saceae) transfciTcd to the genus Mimosa, Phyt()h)gia 76: 

. 19941). Northern Mexican species (tf S< hrankia 

(Miniosaceae) transferred to Mimosa. Phylologia 76(5): 


. 1995 (August, 1994). Mimosa rupertiana B. L. 

Turner, a new name for M. occidenlalls (Wooton & Stan- 
dlt^y) B. L, lunier, not M. occidental is Britlon *.*( Rose. 
Phytologia 77(2): 81-82. 
\^V>odson, R. E. & R. \^. Schery. 1950. Mimosa. In Flora 
of Panama, Part \. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 37: 280- 

Notes on the Correct Nomenclature of Silene stewartii S. A 

Ghazanfar (Caryophyllaceae) 

Suhir Ranjan Kundu 

Senior Research Fellow, Rotaiural Survey of Iiulia, 1, Sudder Street, Calcutta - 700016, Iiulii 

AusTKAcr. During the preparation of a checklist more, hoth taxa are described based on different 

of endemic taxa of Caiyophyllaceae on th(* Indian type material. Hence, the later homonym Silene ste- 

subcontincnt, the need for a nonicnelatural correc- wartii S. A. Ghazanfar (1982) is illegitimate, as the 

tion of the following taxon became evident. Based specific epithet is unavailable by its use as S. ste- 

on types, protologues, and herbarium (GAL, DD) fcarf/? (Edgeworth) Majumdar in 1974, according to 

specimens, Silene stewartii (Edgeworth) Majumdar Article 53.1 of tli<' Code (Greuter et al., 1994). A 

is morphologically distinct from Silene stervartii S. new binomial is proposed here, following Articles 

A. Ghazanfar. The nomenclature oi Silene stewartii 7.3 and 33.2 of the Code, 
S. A. Ghazanfar is corrected by establishing the 

new name Silene subodhii S. R. Kundu. Silene subodhii S. R. Kundu, n(»ni. nov. Replaced 

name: Silene steuartii S. A, Ghazanfar, in Pak- 
A new species of Silene, 5. stewartii S. A. Gha- istan J. Bot. 14(2): 115. 1982. Not Majumdar, 

zanfar, was published in 1982 based on material in Bull. Bot. Surv. India 16: 155. 1974. TYPE: 

reported from the Piipanjal range in Kashmir, 
northwest Himalaya (Ghazanfar, 1982; Ghazanfar & 
Nasir, 1986). The 1982 publication overlooked a 
note on a new combination of Silene stewartii (Ma- 
jumdar, 1974) based on specimens reported from 
Lalu.l in Kaslunir and of Hima<-hal Pra- ''i"''"*"'^ ^'"'"'•■' ^'- ^I'l^x^^ T^''"j'"i Kun.ln. 

dosh (Majumdar, 1974, 1993). 

Lit<'ralur<' Cileil 

SUene slewarlii (Edgeworth) Majumdar, in Bull. Edgeuoiih, M. V. <K J. 0. HookiT. 1871. Caooplollaccac. 

In J. I). Hooker (editor), Ihe Klora of IJiilisli India 1: 
212-246. b. I{eeve, bomloii. 
(iha/.nnfar, S. A. 1M<S2. Two new Silene L. spci-ics Irorn 

N.W. Ibrnalayas, Pakistan J. \U. 1M2): 1I:^-II6. 
— & Y. J. Nasii, \*){](). Caryoplullacrar. In K. Nasir 

Kashmir. Pir Panjal range» Eras Nag, ±9000, 
4.8 1917, R. R. & I. D. Stewart 23244 (holo- 
type, RAW; isotyp(% NY). 

Tlie new specific epithet is given in honor of the 

Bot. Surv. Incha 16: 155. 1974. Lychnis ste- 
wartii Edgeworth, in El. Rrit. India 1: 224. 
1874, Silene chanihensis Majumdar, in J. In- 
dian Bot. Soc. 42: 649. 1963(1964). 

Diagnostic features of Silene stewartii (Edge- 
worth) Majumdar bear little resemblance to Silene 

stewartii S. A. Ghazanfar (see Table 1). Furthcr- 

& S. I. Ali (editor^). Flora of \^est Pakistan. Fasc. No. 
174: 1-125. Pakistan A^ri( . Ht-s. (iouiuil, Islamabad. 
r»n'iih'r. W.. F \\. Harric. W. M. Hur(l<M. W. (f. Clialoner, 
\. Dt'nioulin, 1). b. Ilavvksworth, I*. M. j0igt;iKscn, I). 11. 

Tat)lr I. Conijiarative morphological features ol S. stcjvditii and .S, sulunUiii, 

Silene sleuartii 

Silene subodhii 

1. Slender, grass-like lierh 

2. Stems 15-2.1 em long 

1 . Short, woodv herlt 


Stems 7-1 .5 em loiifz 

3. Fea\(*s narrow. linear to lanceolate, 25—55 X 1.5—2 ^, Fea\t*s dimorphic: 


4. Calyx oblon^-elavate, 8-9 mm long 

5. Petals ea. 7X2 mm 

6. No. of stvle>: 3 


7. Seeds lul)ereiilat<\ ra. 1.3 ami 

a, basal lea\cs (lea\es on main tiimk) spatluilale or 
ohlon^-Ianci'olate, 25-35 X 7—10 mm 

h. apical lea\cs (leaves on hranches): linear-lancct)- 
late, ia-25 X 5-f> i!im 

4. Cal)\ canipanulalc. itl-ll nun 

5. Pelals ca. 8X1 nan 

6. No. of sl\les: 5 

7. Seed> |)ajtdhite. ca. 1 mm 

N(n(i\ 10: 38-39. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 1 


Silene stewartii 


Nicholson, I'. C. Silva, P. Trehanc & J. McNeill. 1994. 
International C(Kle of Botanical Nomenclature (Tokyo 
Code). Regnuni Ve^. 131. 
Majunular. N. C. 1963. Nomenclatural transfers in the In- 
dian Car}oph}llaccae — Silcnoideae. J. Indian Bot. Soo. 
42(1-4): 64(>-6S2. 

. 1974. Lychnis steirartii Edgeworth— Its identily, 

description, and distribution. Bull. Bot. Siirv. India 

16(1-1): 153-135. 
. 1993. Car)op]i}llaccae [P. Daniel, family editor]. 

//; B. D. Sharma (editor), Flora of India II; 305-595. 
Bftlanieal Survey of India, Calcutla. 

A New, Threatened Species of Tetraplasandra (Araliaceae) from 
Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands, and Notes on its Conservation Status 

Porter P, Imut) II 

Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A. 
Museum National (THisloire Naturelle, 16 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France. lowry@nu)l>ot.()rg 

Kenneth R. Wood 

National Tropical Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 340, Lawai, Hawaii 96765, U.S.A. 

AnsrirxcT. TetrapJusiuulra flynnii is described Telraplasandra flyimii Lowr)' & K. R. Wood, sp. 

from Kauai, Hawaiian Islaiitls. It reseiuhles the 

more widespread T. kavaicnsis, but is restricted to 
a single known poj)ulation now comprising only 
tbree individuals growing in mesic to wet forest that 
is increasingly impacted by introduced goats and 
aggressive non-native plant species. Material has 
been propagated for ex situ conservation, but effec- 
tive management will be required to ensure the 
continued sunival of the wild population. 

Tlie renuirkable flora of tlie Hawaiian Islands lias 
receive<l renewed attention from field botanists and 
taxonomists siiic(^ the mid 198()s, stimulated by the 
Manual of the Fh)wermg Phints of Hawaii pr()jt;ct 

nov. TYPE: U.S.A. Hawaiian Islands. Kaua'i: 
Waiiiiea Dist., Koke'e State Park, Kalalau Val- 
ley, steep forested slope of SE rim, ca. 1175 

m, 22°09'N, 159"38'W, 17 Aug. 1988 (fl, fr), 
Flynn 3103 (holotype, PTBG (1871, 1872); 
isotypes, BISH, F, K, MO (3595738, 3595740, 
4629226), P, US (2 sheets)). Figures 1-3. 

Wiicv species T kdf' affinls, sed ah ea reprodiic- 


tioiiis systenialt' aiulroiiiotioieo, uvario b-earpcuan oniniiio 
itifero, petalis niajoribus 8.0-12.5 nini Itiiigis at(]ue fnietu 
ur(*<M)lat() rtiajore 15—18 X !()— 12 iiini nirlictilt- in col- 
umriam shlareiii eoiiieani desiruMit** diKt'rl. 

Anilromonoeeious trees ea. 7-9 m tall, well 

(Wagner et al., 1990). hi addition to canying out a branched above the middle. Leaves pinnately com- 
pound, 28—37 cm long, densely msty brown to tawny 
farinose stellate pubescent throughout except on the 

comprelumsive re-assessuKMit of species limits and 
distributions within Hawai'I, the project also served 

as a catiilyst for exploration, especially in iu-eas that upper surflice of the leaflets; petiole 7-17 cm long, 
had previously btM-ii neghvted. Botanically, KauaM is ^^^^^^^ ^^ 4^(-10) mm diam. at the base; rachis 
perhaps the least well known of Hawai'i's eiglit main articulated at tlu^ petiolule bases; petiolules of lat(^ral 

islands, and its highly dissec-ted topogiaphy, will 


leaflets (2-)5— 22 mm long, those of the terminal leaf- 

many deep valleys aii.l steep, often veitiecil slopes, j^j (17-)20-S0 mm long; leafl<'ts 5 to 9, nammly 
presents specuil chdlenges for plant coUeeting. Re- ^^,^j^. ^^ ^.^j^^jj^,^ 4^ X (5.S-)7-17 c>m, the lower- 
eent lieldwork amu-d at Jocimu>nling the island^s flora „^,,^, j,^^j,. ,„„,^.,i,„^, veAm^-d, lamina glossy green 

and glabrous above, often with a whitish scurf, mid- 
vein yellow-green, farinose stellate pubescent below 
with evident yellow-brown venation, apex acute to 
nearly rounded, margin entire, minutely revolute, 
base acute to rounded or subeordate, usually obHque 

has g<"nerated many interesting collections, including 
several new species, one of which is described here. 

The continued sun'ival of wild populations of 
many native Hawaiian endemics is increasingly 
tlu'catened because of extensive habitat degradation 
or loss. For this r(\is(m, the National Tropical Bo- 

, • 1 r* 1 {\]'vxyn\ \ i ! ■ i i f^" the lateral leaflets. Inflon'scence axillarv' panic- 

tanical Uarden (IN ILso) has placed special emplia- •^' * . 

SIS on assessing the geographic distribution of the 

ulate-umbcllate, pendent, densely brown farinose 
most restricted'and vulnerable of these endemic ^^^^^'^^^ pubescent throughout, primary axis stout, 

species, and on studying their population structure (5-)^13 cm long, secondar>^ axes (2-)3-6, 2^ ter- 
and genetics so that appropriate measures can be '""^^^ ^^^^ (0-)l-2 inserted laterally along the pri- 
undertaken using bodi in situ and ex situ conser- "^^^T '^^i^' t'»^ uppermost secondary axes (pedun- 
vation tecluiiques. Our new species of TetrnpUis- cles) 6-10 cm long, bearing ca. 10 to 15 
andra is on<^ of these ver>' rare single-island en- hermaplnxnlite flowers, ca. 3 to 8 forming a terminal 

umbellule and the others scattered along the axis, 

detailing the curn-nt plight of the only known })op- the lowermost generally aboitive and leaving an ev- 
ulation, we can stimulate a<'tion by those in a po- ident scar, the l(»wer secondarj' axes (when present) 

demies, and we hope that by describing it here and 

sition to implement effective protection. 

sometimes further divided, 13-15 cm lon^;, with 10 

No VON 10: 40^4. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Lowry & Wood 

Tetraplasandra flynnii from Kaua'i 


2 cm 

FifTiiit^ 1. Tetrdplasiuidni fl\nnii Lown & K. K. \^(K)(I. 

A. Brancli with hiids. flowers, and youiif^ fruits. — H. Drtail 

of ultimate inflorescence branch with hiids and (lowers. — C. Malinc fruits. — 1). Stamen^. Drawn from Flynn 3103, 



Figure 2. TetraphtMuidru JlynuiL — Branch with hiuls 
and ()[)<'n (Ktwci. PlK)t()gra[)Ii of Wood 7156; tourU'sy ol I). 

Liittschwagcr iX S. Mi(l(llt'h>ti. 

Figure 3. Teiraplasandra Jlynnli — Nearly uiatuR^ fruit. 
IMiotcigrapli of Wood 7I5fr, courtt^sy of I). Liillscliwager & 
S. Mi(l(]l<Mon. 

to 12 Irrliaiy axes (peduncleti) bearing ca. 7 to 15 
apparently staininate flowers, 3 to 6 forming a ter- 

This species is named in lionor of Timothy Flynn, 
Curator of the Herbarium at NTBC, who collected the 

_• 1 I Ti 7 1 ii ,1 1 ii • .1 type material, and who has contributed so much to 

mnial umbellule and tlie others borne mostly in the ^^ . i . n 

]• , 1 1 ir 1 u ^* 11 * our knowledge of the rich and hidily eiRU-mic 

distal hall, many early abortive and leaving an ev- ^ ^ • j 

• I , 1- 1 * * o 'T 1 o A of Kaua'i through nearly two decades of active fiela- 

ident scar, pedicels stout, Z-7 mm long, ca. o^ ^ / 


work in some of die islands most difficult terrain. 

Pamtypes. U.S.A. HA\^'AIIAN ISLANDS. Kaua^i: 


mm diam. in hermaj^hrodite flowers, ca. 2 mm 
diam. in staminate flowers. Calyx cupuliform, shal- 
low, ca. 1 mm high at anlhesis, expanding to ca. 2 llanalci Di^t., KokcV State Park, Kalalau Valley, ca. 1060 

in fniit, irregularly undulate. Corolla de- m.U] Aug, ]9m {i\Jv), Flynn X- \Ionfgow 
1 11.1 n 1 . 1 . • PllUi 121); steep foresK^d slope of SK rim, ea. 1 17.) ni, 17 

presstMl-rounded to broadly obtuse or nearly trian- . / '' ,, ! n v r\ lv p ;/ 'j?/yji n^^vfr 

^ ^ J Au^. 1988 (hiul. (1, Ow ir), r\\nu tV \\nnu' .ilOJA (11 In, 

gular in bud, petals 10 (or 11), sometimes remain- [2]). (n. fr). Flynn & Hume' 3104 (MO |2|, PIIJG |2|): 
ing united in pairs at anthesis and appearing fewer Hatial<'i Hist., Na I^ili-Kdna Forest Reserve, sleep SW 

slope between Kalalau and Piiu O Kila lookouts, 1 U)0- 

1250 III. 9 No\. 1088 (hud. fl). Fl}nn rt ill. 3210 (F^BG): 

Kalalau \alley, just helow and N of new sanctuary & Ka- 

in number, lanceolati* -triangular, yellow-green, 
fleshy, coriaceous when dry, densely farinose stel- 

late pubescent on the dorsal surface, glabrous \vitli- \;;;~^ n^^^s^rpNZ,h^\lriro:^idrr^^^^ 

in, ill bennaphrodite flowers 5-6 tnni long in bud to wet forest, c-a. 1 l»() m. 10 June \'M\ (l.u.l. fi. fr), Wood 

expanding to 8-12.5 mm at anthesis, smaller in & Prrlman 7361 (BISII, MO. I^I^C). 23 Jul> 1998, (bml. 
staminate flovvere, up to 4^5 mm at anlhesis. Sta- "• •"')- ^"'"' ^^' *^'"'"'";" ^^O.'i (n'HG), (Ihk!. n. fr). Wood 

&Aguraluja 7404 (MO, ITHG): ca. 1 170 m. 28 Jul) 1998 
(hud, fl, fr). Wood c^- Aguraiuja 7405 (RISH, MO, 1^ I^FIK;, 

US); ea. 1180 rn, M Aug. 19<)8 (hud. fl. fr). Wood 7456 


Distribution and ecology. TetrapliLsandraflynnii 

. • 11 • 1 11- ^s extremely rare, known from only a single popu- 

urceolat<' at anthesis, especially in liermaphrodite i ^. i i > • .i i/ i i ^r u r 

^ lation covering ca. 1 knr in the Kalalau Valley oi 

flowers, surmounted by a concave nectar disk ta- j^^^^.j^ \{a^,^\'[. Collections have been made in 
pering into a stout column of 5 fused styles, ca. 1- ^.o^ce State Park, within the Na Pali-Kona Forest 

2 inrn long at anthesis, expanding to 4 mm in fruit. Reserve, and between the first and second Kalalau 
crowned by 5 sessile stigmas. Mature fruit urceo- lookouts. The new species occurs on a steep north- 

metis 10 (or 11), in hermaphrodite flowers the fil- 
aments thick, ca. 4 mm long, the anthers 3-3.5 mm 
long, in staminate flowers the filaments 2—2.5 mm 
long, the anthers 2.5 mm long. Ovary 5-car|iellate, 
fully inferior, obconic in bud, becoming somewhat 

late, 15-20 mm high, 10-16 mm wide near the fv^^ing montane mesic to wet \)hi^i forest (dominat- 

middle, 10-12(-16) mm wide distally, with a dis- ed by Metrosideros polymorpha Cautlichaud-Beau- 

tincdy expanded calyx rim; nearly mature seeds pre), with a mostly optMi canopy that is 

tan-brown, ovate to elliptic-compressed, broader at approximately 10-15 m tall. Other associated tree 

base, 11X7 mm. 

species include Xylosnui haudiirnse Seemann, Psy- 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Lowry & Wood 

Tetraplasandra flynnii from Kaua'i 


chotria greenwelliae Fosbrrg, Pritchardia minor 

Threats and conservation status. The 'ohi'a for- 

Bcccari, Pleomele aiirea (H. Mann) N, E. Brown, est where Te^raj^/asan/irayZj/imi occurs is being se- 

and Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin. Another Araliaceae verely impacted as a resuh of constant browsing by 

endemic to Kaua'i, Tetraplasandra waialeaJae goats (Wood & Perlman, 1993). During field obser- 

Rock, occurs sympatrically with T flynnii, but is vations made by the second author in June 1998, 

more widespread and docs not appear to be threat- only three individuals of T. flynnii were found, a 

encd. Understor>^ shmbs growing in the vicinity of striking decrease from the approximately nine 

the new species include Styphelia tanieianieiae plants seen in the area prior to Hurricane Iniki, 

(Chamisso & Schlechtendal) F. Mueller, Melicope which struck Kaua'i in 1992. In August 1999 one 

feddei (H. Leveille) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone, of these last remaining trees was purposefully gir- 

and Exocarpus luteolus C. N. Forbes. Carex meyenii died by an unidentified visitor to this remote area. 

Nees, a native sedge, is also common. Terrestrial An attempt is being made to graft bark material 

fi^rns include Diplazium sandwicianum (Presl) from an individual of 7! havaiensis, but it is unlikely 

Diels and Odontosoria chincnsis (L.) J. Small. 
Affinities, Tetraplasandra flynnii most closely re- 

that the tree will survive. 

All three individuals known of T flynnii occur 

sembles T havaiensis ('ohe'ohe), which likewise ()<•- within 200 m of one another. Surv^ey work con- 
curs on Kaua'i but is also found elsew^here in the ducted in August 1998 in adjacent forest of similar 
Hawaiian archipelago. The genus Tetraplasandra structure and composition situated just to the east 
comprises seven species (including the new one de- failed to reveal any other individuals of T flynnii. 
scril>ed here), all of which are endemic to Hawaii. Kaua'i has been reasonably well explored botani- 
It forms part of a closely related group that also in- ^ally, but there is still a small chance that other 
eludes Qistonia (ca. 8 to 10 species from Madagas- trees might remain in several isolated regions that 
car, the Seychelles and Mascai'cne Islands, Malesia, have not yet been visited by botanists, 
and the Solomon Islands), Munroiderulron (1 species 
endemic to Kaua'i), and Reynoldsia (5 species, 1 

No regeneration of native tree species appeared 
to be occurring in the area where Tetraplasandra 

each in Hawai'i, the Marquesas, and the Society Is- flynnii grows. Only four native understory species 

lands, and 2 in Samoa). As pointed out by Philipson ^^rc found to be reproducing: Cyrtandra paludosa 

(1970; see also Lowry, 1987, 1990), these genera are Gaudichaud-Beaupr^, Seaevola procera Hillebrand, 

difficult to separate, and limits between them can Lysimachia kalalauensis Skottsberg, and Korthal- 

\v oiuer 


only be recognized using a combination of mori)ho- ,^//^ platycaula (Tieghem) Engler. As tl 
logical characters coupled with geographic distri- ^^^^^ jj^^ increased erosion on the precipitous ridg- 
bution, suggesting that they may well represent a 

es in the Kalalau Valley will continue, threatening 
single genus. However, until more detailed studies, ^j^^ remnant native forest where T flynnii occurs, 
inclu.hng phylogenetic analyses using both morioho- Although no non-native trees were obsencd in the 
logical ami molecular data, can be completed, it innnediate area, a number of invasive alien species 
seems best to place our new species in Tetraplas- ^^^^^ nearby, e.g., at Kahuama'a Flat, including 

andra along w4th its closest relatives. 

Corynocarpus laevigatus J. R. Forster & G. Forster 

A key to the species of Tetraplasandra was pro- ^^^j MyHcafaya Aiton. These aggressive trees have 

\idcd in the treatment of Araliaceae {or \\\e Manital 

not yet spread onto the slopes where T flynnii 

of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i (Lowr>, 1990; ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^^ p^.^^^^^^ ^ ^^^.j^^^ ^.^^1^ S^^,^j.^j ^,^^ 
see also Lowr>', 1987), to wlnrh the following c-ou- i^^^.i,,^ ^ijen herbaceous weeds arc, however, al- 
phn shouhl be added to facditate identification of ^.^^^^ displacing the forest understory in and 

material of T flynnii, 

4a. IMaiits with licrr7iii[)linKlitc fhtvvcrs onh, [)cUils ,^— 
7 mm Idiig at aiithesis. (ujiy ;ip[)eariiig (^-4— )Vfi— 
^/a irilcrior. 2- to o-carpclhitr. fruit globose-uvold 

to ovoitl or c)liii(liiral. 10-15 mm lii*;h. 8-1 I 
mm wide, calvx rim a narrow ri(l;re or hne. borne 
near the middle of tlic fruil. disk e^xpandrd. 
I'ourided to eonical. vsitlioiit an e\ideiit slvlarrol- 

unni T. kiiraivusis (11. Mann) Slierff 

4b. Plants andromonoeM-ious, with both hermaphro- 
(hie and slaminatf flowers, p<'tals of herniaph- 
ro(hte flowers 8-12.5 mm at antiiesis. ovary (uHv 

w w 

inferior, S-carpellatf. fniil mceolatc, 15-18 mm 
high. 10-12 mm w id(\ cal} \ rim e\[>anded, 
borne at the top of the fruit, (hsk (■on('a\'e, sur- 
mounted by a eonical stvlar colunm 

around the immediate habitat of T flynnii, most no- 
tably Erigeron karvinskianiLS DC, which Idankels 
large sections of the region and tends to smother 
native species. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Per- 
soon is also a dominant weed in the Kalalau Valley, 
along with Rubus argutus Link, Holcus lanalus L., 

Bromus rigidus Roth, and Setaria gracilis Kunth. 

Tetraplasandra flynnii is one of 116 species of 
Hawaiian plants currently included in the Genetic 
Safety Net group. This status applies to endemic 
species represented by no more than 50 naturally 
occurring individuals. As T flynnii is presently 
known from only three individuals, staff members 
at both the NTBG and the University of Hawaii's 
T. fhfuni Low IT & K. R. \^ood micro-propagation lab at Lyon Arboretum on O'ahu 



have made propafi;al!<)n of tliis species a priority through isolation, often obsen^ed in insular situa- 

projeet. MattM'ial collected from all three plants has tions (Carlquist, 1974). These endi'inies are also 

been successfully propapalt^l using in vitro tissue probable host plants for an unknown number of na- 

culture techniques. Seedlings are now growing in tive arthropods that have evolved to occupy their 

cultivation, thereby assuring die short-term genetic own niicrohabitats (Wood, un[)ublished data). 

Achnouled foments. We thank Tim Flvnn for 

consen-ation of T, flynnii. RtMUtroduction using 

tliesc seedlings will be attempted ia the near future bringing the new species to our attention, David 
at iht* Kalalau Plant Sanctuary, located about 300 

m from the tree from which th<' type mat(*rial of T. 

flynnii was collected. 

The continued sunival of what appears to be the 

last remaining j)oj)ulation of TetrapUisandra flynnii 

will, however, depend on adequate conserv^ation 

managemeni in the Kahilau Valley. Tmplementation 

of control measun^s aim<'d at reducing or eliminating 

populations of feral ungulates and invasive alien 

Lorence of NTBG for assistance with selecting and 
distributing the available herbarium material and 
helpful comments on the manuscript, and an anon- 
ymous reviewer for valuable suggestions. We also 
gratefully acknowledge the efforts of the University 
of Hawai'i's micro-propagation lab at Lyon Arbo- 
retum on O'ahu, and the Hawai'i Department of 
Land and Natural Resources, Kaua'i Division of 

7 . I ^ •, .1 • , 1 .• r i- 1 State Parks for permission to collect and conduct 

weeds niignt peruut the remtroduction ot native key- r i i i r^, r u 

, . ^^ • 1 ■ n * T> ♦ ** neldwork. The fine illustration was prepared bv 

stone tree species uunng tiic wet season, t rotection ^ ' 

of the Kalalau Valley ecosystem is further justified J"^" ^y^^^' ^"^^ ^^''^ photographs were made by D. 

because it contains two fragmented areas represent- Luttschwager and S. Middleton. We thank Roy Ger- 

ing the last vestiges (»f Kaua^iV imperile<l diverse ^'''' for translation of the Latin diag 


mesie fon^st ecosystem, as well as an important tran- 
sitional zone b<^tw<'en mesic and wet forest commu- 
nities. This transitional habitat appt*ars to he re- 
stricted to th(* Kalalau Valley, and is especially rich, 
with several other new species documenttHl from the 
region in recent years (\^ood & Perlman, 1993), in- 
cluding HihisradrlphiLs jvoodii Lorence & W. L. Wag- 
ner, Duhautia kcnicoodii C. CaiT, and Lysinuichia 
scopulensLs K. Man; am<»ng others. 

Several forested areas occurring within 5 km of 
T. flynnii provide critical habitat for 117 plant taxa 
known fn»m only Kaua'i (Wood, unpublished data). 
These single-island endemics appear adapted to 
})articularly narrow niches, and illustrate the j)he- 
nom<'non of prolific speciation and divergence 

Literature Cited 

r.jrlijiiist, S. 1974. IsliiTu! liiolo^y. Coliirnhiii l^iiiv. I*n'ss, 

New York. 

Lowr), P. I*. II. 1987. A synopsis of native Hawaiian Ar- 

aliacea(\ Pacific Sci. 40: 79-ii7. 
. I WO. Araliaceae. Pp. 221-237 m W. L. Wa-!i(T, 

D. L. llrrbsl & S. H. Sohnirr. Manual of llie Flowering 

Plants of MawaiM, Vol. 1. Univ. Ha\\aii Press i!i Hihliop 

Museum Press, Honolulu. 
Pliilipson, \\. R. 1970. A redefinition of Gastonia anti re- 

lalcil gen(^ra ( \raliaceae). Hlunica 18: 497-505. 
W. L. Via<:nrr. D. I.. Herhst .*i- S. H. Solimcr. IWO. Manual 

o( the flowering plants of Hawai'i. \oIs. 1 & 2. Univ. 

Hawaii Press & Bishop Muscuni Press, Honolulu. 
Wood, K. \\. ik S. Perlman. 1993. Hare and endangered 

flora of the Kalalau and Pohakuao \alleys. Bull. Natl. 

Trop. Bot. Card. 23: 41-50. 

New Boraginaceae from Tropical America 2: Tournefortia 

vasquezii^ a New Species from Peru 

James 5, Miller 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

ABSTirvcr. Tournefortia vasqnezii J. S. Miller is Tournefortia vasquezii J. S. Miller, sp. nov. 

TYPE: Peioi. Cajamarca: San Tgnacio Prov- 
ince, San Jose de Lurdes, Sanlit Totnas, bosque 
primario, 4°55'S, 78°50'W, elev. 2200 m, 15 
jun. 1995, R. Vasquez, C. Diaz & A. Torres 
20220 (hololype, MO 4926847). Figure 1. 

described from Cajamarca, Peru. It is a distinctive 
species with setaceous sepals, 4—6 mm long, and 
its unusual bullate leaves are unique in the genus. 
While its relationships within the genus are not 
clear, it shares its shrubby growth form, setaceous 
sepals, ovate corolla lobes, and elongate styles with „ - i i i- » i i- i- ■ 

c 11 1 T rrutex scioplulus, ramulis puhesceiUihus. roliaallenui; 

Tournefortia spicata J. S. Miller and T restrepoae J. ]^„^;,^^ rlhpUvii. 12-21.5 cm longa. 7-9.8 em lata, apice 
S. Miller, other understory species of mid-elevation acuniiiiata, base cuneata ad acutani marline inegularlter 

Andean forests. ^* rninuti^ sfrmlata. bullata. areolis elcvatis in triclioniis 

teinilnantihus: petinlus 4—15 rntii lofi^^us. su|)ra canalicu- 

latus, puhesccns. Inflorescentia Icnninalis ex cvtna (llclio- 

loina; |)edicL'lli ca. 0.5 inin lon^is inhr se 1-2 mm dJs- 

The genus Tournefortia L. occurs throughout the tantes, Flos scpalis setaceis 4-6 mm longis; corolla alba, 

tropics, but is nearly absent in Africa and only lulHilifomiis, 6-8 mm longa, lohiilis laic ovatis, ca. 2 mm 

1 X J • T ]• r\ - 1 1 J limt'is; aritliera<' lanceoloideae, ca. 2 inm lonii^ae; sivlus 

sparsely represented m Indian Ucean islands and ^, r. , . . , r^ ^. • 

tropical Asia. The majority of its more than 150 
species occur in the Neotropics (Johnston, 1930, 

ca. 1.5 mm longus; stigma conoideum. Friulus ignolus 

Soft-stemmed understory subshrub 0.3 m tall, 

1935a, 1935b; Miller, 1988). Soudi America, par- the twigs rougli and densely pubescent. Leaves al- 

ticularly the northern Andes, is especially rich in teniate; leaf blades elliptic, 12-21.5 X 7-9.8 cm, 

species of Tournefortia. Macbride (1960) recog- acuminate at the apex, cuneate to acute at the base, 

nized 22 species of Tournefortia in the Flora of minutely and iiregularly serrulate along the margin, 

Peru, BrAo (1993) increased that number to 26, the teeth unev<ni in shape, often ending in a tri- 

and die species described below is another of many ^^i^'"^^ ^>'" ^^th an appressed trichome arising from 

narrowly distributed endemics from mid-elevation ^^'^ ^'^"^^^' ''^ ^^e upper surface of each tooth, the 
Andean forests, some of which have been recently 
describt^d (Miller, 1989, 1995, 1997). 

The genus has largely been ignored in modern 

adaxial surface glabrous and smooth along the 
veins, bullate between the veins, each areole with 

1 to 5 raised bullae, each terminating in an ap- 

1 1 11 1 • n ■ ^- ^ I- T-i pressed to spreading, siliceous hair 0.6—1.2 mm 

times and only addressed in rloristic studies, the J ^ i - i r 

, ^ . . -1 I 1 r I c .1 h>ui^, the abaxial surface sparsely, ])ut evenlv, pu- 

most modern treatments available lor the bouth . ^. . . . , . . ^ '. 

American species are from Johnston (1930, 1935a), 
neither of which covers the Andes, the center of 
diversity for the genus. Ellsworth P. Killip (unpub- 

berulent, the hairs cur\^ed, less than 0.5 mm long, 

the surface invaginated beneath the raised bullae 
of the adaxial surface, the venation brochidodrom- 
ous, the midrib impressed above, the secondary 

lished) prepared a nearly complete manuscript ■ n . n .•^ a ^c i v i ^ 

y ^ ^ -^ ^ ^ veins / to 9; petioles 4—15 mm long, canaliculate 

treatini^ the Andean species, several versions of *i, i • i ^ u i i i i 

^ . . on the adaxial surface, rough and densely pubes- 

which exist in the Smithsonian Institution, but this 

cent. Inflorescence a terminal, once-dichotomously 

was never completed and published. The genus hrandied cyme, the branches ca. 2 cm long, the 

Tournefortia comprises three sections: T sect. Mes~ peduncle ca. 2 cm long, pubescent. Flowers bisex-^m (L.) DC, a group of three unusual spe- ^^i^ i^^,.,,^ i_2 ,nm apart on densely pubescent, 

cies with corky exocarps, T sect. Cyphocyema I. M. ^hort pedicels ca. 0.5 mm long; sepals setaceous. 

Johnston, a group of perhaps a dozen Neotropical 

equal in length, 4—6 mm long, with scattered. 

species characterized by distinctly four-lobed appressed to spreading curved hairs; corolla white, 
fruits, and T. sect. Tournefortia, a rather homoge- tubular, 6-8 mm long, sparsely appressed pubes- 
neous, pantropical section of more than 100 spe- cent on the exterior surface, the lobes broadly 

ovate, ca. 2 mm long, ca. 2 mm wide, crenulate on 


No\ o\ 10: 45^7. 2000. 



2 mm 

Figure 1. Toiirni'fortia tasqurzii J. S. MilltT. 
willi ^Iu>^l sl)Ic and (tix-iiecl (.orulla tiilie with 
(All fn.iu Vasi^uezet a/. 2022(1 MO.) 

— A. I'loweridg hraru'h. — B. Tnnorescenct'. 
iiist'iU'd aiitlit'is. — I). Adaxial leaf surfa<<' 

(]. M(>\\<^r showing ovary 
-E. Ahaxial h-af surfat e. 

the margin; aiilluTs borne ca. 4 mm al)ovr llir base of Rodolfo Vas(jiu^z, wliose rolh'('ti(nis and research 

of the corolla tube, sessile, attaclied basally, Ian- have done so much to add to our knowledge of 

ceoloid, ea. 2 mm long, the connective prolonged Peruvian plants. 

in a shoU sterile projection distally; ovaty ovoid, Tounieforfui sect. Tounwfortia is a large, rather 

c-a. 1 mm long, the style ca. 1.5 mm long, the stigma homogeneous section, and rclationsliips of its con- 

depressed conical, the non-receptive apical portion ^tituent species are poorly un<lerstood. Tournefortia 
only slightly elevated above the annular receptive yasqiiezii is veiy distinct' and is easily recognized 

tissue. Fruits unknown. 

by it bullate leaf surface, a character that is un- 

Toumefortia rdsquezii is known only from the usual in the gtunis. It is perhaps must closely re- 
type, whicli was collected in primary W(^t montane lated to T. restrepoae^ a Colombian species with 
forest in Cajaman^a. Tlie species is namt^l in honor which it shares elongate, setact*ous sepals and el- 

Volume 10, Number 1 


Tournefortia vasquezii from Peru 


evated areoles. However, the leaf surface of T, vas- 
quezii is much more distinctively bullate, it has a 
terminal, rather than internodal inflorescence, and 
its flowers are l)orne on pedicels ca. 0.5 mm long, 
rather than the 1.5— 4-mm pedicels of T. restepoae. 
Its long setaceous sepals are also an unusual fea- 
ture in the genus, but most other species with this 
feature share few other characters with T. vasquezii. 
Tournefortia spicata J. S. Miller, another Colombian 
understoiy species with elongate, setaceous sepals, 
differs in its smoother leaf surface, dense inflores- 
cence, and longer corollas. 

Acknowledgments. I thank the Smithsonian In- 
stitution, particularly Joan Nowicke, for making E. 
P. Killip's unpublished manuscript available. I also 
thank the late W. G. D'Arcy, R. Keating, and W. D. 
Stevens for morphological advice and Barbara 
Alongi for preparing the illustration. 

Literature Cited 

Brako. b. 1993. Boragiiiaceae. ///: L. Brako *S: J. L. Za- 
rucchi (('ilitt)rs). CataK)gue of the Flowering Plants and 

Cyinnospenns of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bol. 

Card. 45: 2U>-224. 

J(>lin>t(>ii. I. M. 1030. Studies in the Boraginaceae. VIll. 
1. ()l)>ervati()ns ()n the species of Cordui and Tounie- 
forlia known from Brazil, Paraguay Uruguay, and Ar- 
gentina. Conlr. Cra) Herh. 92: 3—88. 

, 1933a. Studies in the Boraginaceae X. 'Vhv Bor- 
aginaceae uf norllK^astern South America. J. Arnold Ar- 
bor. 16: 1-61. 

. 1935h. Studies in the Boraginaceae XI. (1) Tlie 

speeles of Tournefortia and Messerschmidia in the OhI 
World. (2) Notes on Brand's treatment o{ Cryptaiitlia. (3) 
New or olherwis(* noteworthy species. J. Arnold Arhor. 

16: 145-2()r). 

Maehride, J. F. 1960. Boraginaceae. Itr. Flora of P(MU. 
Field \1us. Nat. Mist., Bot. Sen 13: 539-609. 

Miller, J. S. 1988. A revised treatment of Boraginaceae 
for Panama. Arm. Missouri liot. Card. 75: 456—521. 

. 1989. Two new species of Tournefortia (Boragi- 
naceae) from Colomhia. Ann. Missouri Bot. (iard. 76: 


. 1995. A new species of Tournefortia (Boragina- 
ceae) from La Planada. Colornhia. \o\on 5: 188-189. 
. 1997. A new species of Tounufortia (Boragina- 
ceae) from Peru, \ovon 7: 265—267. 

New Boraglnaceae from Tropical America 3: A New Tournefortia 

from Ecuador and Colombia 

James 5. Miller 

Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

Ahsikact. Tourntfortia gigautifoUa, an iniusual gftius (Johnston, 1930, 1935a, h, 1949, 1951), and 

undrrslorj' sliruh, is (h'scriherl as new froiTi wet for- some authors have followed Britton (1915) in \cc- 

estij in Ecuador and Colonihia. It is distinct in its ogni/ing tht^se species as »i*'n*'rically distinct, hut 

in(»nocaidous (»r sparsely l)ranched hahit with large tlioy have often been groujxMl together. 

punctate leaves clustered near the stem apices. It 

The g<»nus has all hut heeu ignored by mculcrn 

free anthers and nnlohed fruits indicate clearly that monographers, and the last comprehensive treat- 
it is a member of Tournefortia seel. Tournefortia, ment was that of De CantloUe (1845). Since that 
but its relationships with other species are not ev- tim<% the New World species have been trt^ated only 

in floristic works and regional studies. The Central 

n,,., ,,,,, rj. r ,■ ' ,r r i • American species are comparatively well studied, 

!\l>l vil'.N. lournejortui pjgantijoiia^ un arbusto . ^ ' -^ 

11,1 1 -I having; hevn treated for Wraeruz (Nash & Moreno, 

excepcional ile sotobosque, se describe como iiucva ^ ^ ' 

• TT 1 *. 1 1 ' I IT 1 1981), Guatemala (Gibson, 1970), Nicaragua (Mill- 

especie. Habila en bosques hnmedos en Kcuador y . ' '^ / . 

r- 1 1 ■ T? r I- 4- r i • • * er, in press), and Panama (N<»wicke, 1969; Milh'r, 

Colombia. t.s distnitivo en su tomia de crecinuento . . , 

1988). Two studies of South American species of 
Tournefortia were publislied bv Ivan Johnston that 

munocaulc o con pocas ramas, con hojas grandes 

que presentan abundantes puntos en el haz; las ho- 

jas cstan a-mpa<las cr.ra dr los api.-es .!.• los tal- ""^^f '';' t'^^^ /^P^f^^^f "^ ^'''\'i'_^'""''^r?'' ^^'''P^>' 

los. Autujue esfa tuieva especie claramente perte- 


fortia, seccitin TourneJ' 

sur [)arentes<'o con las otras especles de la seccion 
no est it elaro. 

and Argtnitina (Johnsl<»n, 1930) and the Cuianas 
and adjaciMit Brazil noiih of the Amazon (Joluiston, 

Unfortunately, the Andean countries, certainly 
the center of diversity for tlie genus, havi' largely 

The pantropieal g<-nus Tournefortia L. comprises ^'''''' '«"<'»*'*1- E. R Killip prepartMl, but never pub- 
at least 150 species that are strongly c-ent<>red in '*^'^*'*' (^^^ Nowicke, 1974, for a more complete 
the Neotropics. Most modern authors have treated discussion of Killips unjiublished manuscripts), a 

the genus in a broad sense (Nowi<-ke, 1960; Gibson, treatment for the Andean countries, including Ven- 

1<)70; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1974) and have includ- ^'^Liela, Colombia, Ecuador, Pt^ni, and Bolivia, and 

ed species in three sections, although the nomen- Killip's mamiscript slill exists in the archives of th(^ 

clatnrt^ has been confused. Johnston (1930) nvog- National Herbarium at the Smithsonian Institution. 

nizcd section Cyphocyema I. M. Johnston, a group ^^''»1*' "*'^^*»" submitted for publication, KiUips 

of perhaps 20 species confined to the New World "^'^'^^ *'i*' ^^^'"^'^ ^^ ^he basis for two papers describ- 

tropics, and section Tournefortia (as sect. Eutour- 


ing new species irom rne region (Killip, 



nefortia). \\\\\A\ comi)rIses the vast majority of the 1920). One more of the species ivcognlztMl as new 

genus with well over 130 species. One species of 1>> Killip was later publislied by Nowicke (1974). 

section Tournefortia occurs in eastern Africa (Verd- Since Killip s effort there has l)een no comprehen- 

court, 1988), four are found In Madagascar and the ^i^*^^ ^^^>''y ^f ^^^ Andean species, and new taxa 

Mascan»nes, and eight range from southern Asia f'**"» *!'*' northern Andean countries have been de- 

through the Philli)pines to Australia (Johnston, scrilH-d individually (Johnston, 1956; Nowi<'ke, 

1935b). The rm)re than 100 species that o<cur in 1974; Geiitiy, 1977: Gilli, 1983; Miller, 1989, 

tropical Am<^rica are mostly South American, and 1995, 1997, 2000). While KiUips short papers 

the majority of these species are found in the An- published iiujst of the n<^w taxa that he recogniztHl, 

d<*an countri(*s. The third section, sect. Mallatonia 

al were never validly publisluMi; their use has 

Grisebacli, consists of three species widely distrib- neveilheless crept into herbaria from specimens 

uled in the Caril)bean, Indian, and Pacific oc 

that KilHp annotated. On<» of these is for a j)lant 

Johnstotrs opinion on the phicement of these spe- from wet forests of noilhern Ecuador and adjacent 
cies varuHl widel\ through his publications on the Colombia that has never been descnbe<l dt^splte 

NovoN 10: 48-52. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 1 



Tournefortia gigantifolia from Ecuador and Colombia 

having been collected repeatedly. The following de- what fasciatecl at the point where the ultimate 
serijjtion, and association with a modern type, val- branches arise, the flowers 0.5-2 mm a[)ai't, nearly 
idates the name that Killip intended to use. sessih* or on short pedicids l.S(-3) mm long. Flow- 

ers bisexual; sepals lanceolate, 3—5 mm long, 0.7— 
Tournefortia ^gautifolia Killi]) ex J. S. Miller, 1.5 mm wide, glabrous or with a few minule hairs 
sp. nov. TYPE: Ecuador. Napo: Resena Biol- near the margins, the midrib ver^' prominent; co- 
ogica Jatiln Sacha, ca. 8 km ESE of Pueilo rolla while to green, tubular, 6-13 mm hmg. ihe 5 
Misahualli, primarj' forest along the Misahual- lobes short, parallel-sided and tnmcate as c-orollas 
li-Coca road, elev. 450 m, 1°4'S, 77°37'W, 3 o[)en but spreading to widely ovate and rounded at 

mid-anthesis, 1-1.5 mm long, 0.8-2 mm wide, gla- 
brous; stamens 5, the filaments 3.5—5 nun long, 
completely adnate to the corolla tube, the anthers 
ellipsoid, 0.6-1 mm long, borne just above the stig- 
ma; ovary not distinct from the style, ca. 1 nun long. 
ca. 1 mm wide, the style 2.5—6.5 mm long, the 

stigma conical with the steril 

e portion extending ca. 

July 1986, James S. Miller, W. Wilbert & S. F. 
S. Medical Botany Class 2321 (holotype, MO 
3896675; isotypes, QCA, US). Figure 1. 

Friitex iis(|ur ad l.5(-3) in altus. raniulis <ilalirir^ \rl 
sparse f)iil»eiiil(Milis ad grosse lornrntdsis. Folia altrrna: 
lamina oblanci-olata ad lanceolata, (22-)30-50(— ^)()) tin 
longa, (7-)9-13(-l()) cm lala, ai)icc acuminata ad aUm- 
uata vel acuta, l)asi attcnuata vcl dccurrcnti. su[)ra ^lahra 
et (Irnse [)UH(tata. infra glabra vel minutf strigillosa: pf- 
tiolo 0..3— 1(^) cm lon^o. glahro ad ^^rossr tomt'ntoso. In- 
floifscentia intcniodalis, peduiuulu (r)-)8-2()(-2 1) mi 
longo. Mores sessiles \('l in pcdunculis hrevibus ad 1.5(-."5) 
mrTi lougis. scorsnm 0.5—2 nnn disposilis. hiscxualis; se- 
[)ala lanceolala. 3—5 nun longa; corolla aiha ad \nidis. 
luhularis, 6-t3 mm lon^is. 

Unbranched or sparsely branched shiiib to 1.5(— 3) 
m tall, the stems glabrous or sparsely pu})enjhMit 
to coarsely tomentose, the hairs brown, thick, flat- 
tened, contorted, and uneven. Leaves alternate, 

clustered near the stem apex; leaf blade oblanceo- , .i i i •. -.i i r. ^ 

, ' ^^, ^, , ,„ , caulous growth habit with large, otten nearly 

late to lanceolate, (22-30-50-60 cm long, 7- ., \ , ^ i . i .i i 

. . . . o V / sile^ punctat(^ heaves clustered near the stem apex, 

9— 13(-16) cm wide, the apex acuminate to atten- . , , i . • n i -^ i . 

. . its long pedunculate intloresccnces. and its long lu- 

uate or acute, the base attctuiate or decurrent, the , , • i u-^ ii t* r • ii 

bular gn^enish white corollas. It supcrhcially re- 
margin entire, sometimes irregularly undulate, usu- . . ^ /■ .• ; •/■ ;• o • p n ^ r 
^. ' i-ir sembles lournejortia U)ngifolia Kuiz ct ravon oi 

ally minutely revolute, the adaxial surface glabrous, ^ i , .i . • i-rr • \ • n 

. . . 1 1 • 1 Peru, but that species diiters in having smaller 

often densely and evenly punctate, the abaxial sur- , i .i i r i *i ^ ■ i i 

^ . 1 . n . , , , . leaves, less than 15 cm long, that are more widely 

face glabrous or mimitely strigillose with the hairs 
mostly near and parallel to the secondary v<'ins, the 
venation brochidodromous, the midrib evident 

0.5 mm I)eyond the prominent annular receptive 
portion. Fruits white, drupaceous, broadly ovoid, 4— 
5.5 mm long, 5-6 mm wide, glabrous, the four py- 
renes minutelv m^ulose on tlu* exterior suHace, 

Tourfiefartia gigantifolia occurs as an understoiy 
shrub in wet forests from 450 to 1800 m in south- 
western Colombia and noilhern and eastern Ecua- 

Tournefortia gigantifolia is a distinctive species, 
and its relationships within section Tournefortia are 
not apf)arent. It is easily recognized by its mono- 


d on the stems. It might also be confused with 

T foetidissima L., which <liffers in having linear- 
lanceolate corolla lobes that are acute at the apex 

above and usually even with the surface, promiru^nt , . i *i * • u . »i a r r> ii r 

. -^ . ^ . and a style that is shorter than the stigma. l>oth ot 

and raised below, glabrous to strigillose, sometimes 
with the coarse tomentum of the stems and ]>eti(>les 
extending onto the lower part of the midrib, the 
secondar}- veins 7 to 13 (to 20), obscure near the 
margin on tlu* upper surface, evident and raised 
below, conncc-ting with the adjacent veins in a se- 
ries of arched secondary lf)ops; petioles stout, 0.5— 
1(— 1-) cm long or nearly absent and the heaves ± 
sessile, glabrous to coarsely tomentose, the hairs 
like those of the stems. Inflorescences borne among 
the leaves, intcrnodal but often borne just above 
the leaf axils and appearing nearly axillary, cymose 
and variable in form, the 4 to 13 helicoid branches 
usually arising at or near the same point, or the 
peduncle branching once or twice before tlie ulti- 

these spiH'ies also lack the punctations on the 
leaves that arc characteristic of T gigantifolia, 

Aildiliofud specimens exfiniined. COLOMHI V. Choco: 
Carretera Istrniiia-Onihdo. entre FI Dos v I as Animas. 
5°ir>-Ul'N, 76°38^1()'W'. Forero el al. 5471 (MO). Nari- 
no: Reserva Natural La Planada. a 7 km dc ('hucunes, 
elev. 1800 m, TIO'N. 77'58'W, Bemnides HHOl (MO); 
Heserva l.a IManada. Ouchradas. \\\ Mar-La (lalladita, 
elev. loOO-lROO m. 1 lO'.N. 77T>8'\\. Benandes 9()ll 
(MO); La Planada. S of Kieaurte. 7 km frt)m 'ruma{()-Past(> 
road, eloud fdresl, elev. loOO m, 1°I0'\, 77 38'\\, Ceniry 
et id. 5r}l2:i(i (MO); Jum'n-nad)acoas road, 2-10 km \ of 
Junfii. pluvial forest, elev. ^^OO-jOOO m. r30'N. 7a°IO'W. 
Q'nirv el al. 55294 (MO); La Planada Reserve, 7 km from 
Clmeunes. eloud forest. TO-'/N, 78°01'W. Gentry et al 
60532 (MO); trail from La Phnunla to Pielapi. wet lower 
montaiir (loud forest, tdev. 1000-1*300 m. r04'N, 

mate branching, the peduncle (6-)8-20(-21) cm 78°()2'\\. Gentry et al. fhlVJO (MO); Reserva Natural La 
long, coarsely tomentose to pulx'iulcnt, often some- Planada. muniiipio de Rieaurle. elev. 1800 m, Restrcpo 


No von 

5 mm 

5 mm 

orcscencc wiri 


Figure 1. Tournrforlia irigannfoIi(f Killip e\ J. S. Miller. — A. Flowering branch. — B. Portion of infl 
two open llowers. — C. Flower with front sepal removed ami corolla longitudinally sectioned to show relation of gvnoe- 
cium lo anthers. — I). Portion of infructesceuce with tv\o fruits. — E. Ada\ial surface of pyrene with exocar[> removed 
(all from (>r6n 60SH, MO). 

Volume 10, Number 1 



Tourneforlia gigantlfolia from Ecuador and Colombia 

5l() (MOj. I*iiliimay<>: San Jose. Rfo Putumayo. Spniguc 
612 (LS). KCr \I)(U{. Carrhi: Maldonado. Pamujiiia To- 
l)ar Doiioso. I{('s*'r\a Etiiica Aw^. Sahalera. l>{)^(jU(' lui- 
iiu'dd tn)f>ical. ^^'^. 900 m, 00^55'I\, 78°32'\\. Auleslia el 
al. 792 (MO); SK trail, jji-lmary fore>t in (iualpi Chicoarca 
of Awa Itr^crve, near rncampment, 1330 m. fr.^H'N. 
7H°U)'\\. lloiHvr et al. 279b (MO): rulcan (:anl()n- Par- 
nxjiiia <'lii<'aL S<'(tor (fualpi medio, Rcserva Intligi'iia 
Aua. Sctidcnt a San Marcus al norle de la casa tomunal. 
l>os<|iu' nui) luirnrdo pnMiiontano, ()1''02'N, 7(J°I6'\\, 7/- 
paz rf (il. 1117 (MO): lulrati ('anion, i'arro(]uia lohar 
Donoso. s(M'lor Sahah'ra. Heserva Indfgena A\v^. H(ts(|nc 
priniario NorcsU; Casa roinnnal. lK>s(|Lie inuv liurncdo prc- 
nionlano. cKa. TmO-IOOO m, 0r00'.\, 78"24'\V, Tipaz rl 
al. I I9() (MO); Tulcan Canton, Parroquia Tohar Donoso. 
|{rscr\a Indfgrna Awa. Ontro El Balioso. l)osi|nt' nuiy 
liuriuMJft [trcnionlaiio, elev. 1800 ni. 00"33'N. 78°2.'S'\\. 7i'- 

Jarnnilllo c?' Zak Hfll.i (MO): H('»cr\a FlnnVtica-KcoIo-Jiica 
"Hiu Cuajalilo." Km 50 dr la farrcli'ra anti^iia Oiiilo- 
Sanltj Diimin^o. !)o>.(]ue nun liilnu-dtj monlano I>ajo. r\c\. 
1800-2200 m, 00' 13'S, 78°48'\\; Zak X' JamwUIn :i7:if 

Achnoicledgmenls, I thank Kim Martin for the 
illustration, the Smithsonian Institution, particular- 
ly Joan N()vvick(% for making Killips unpuhlish<'cl 
manus('ri[)t available, and Philip Silv(a'slon<'-Sop- 
kin for review comments. 

I.itcraliin" Citi^l 

Hritton, N. h. 1013. the vegetation ol Mona I>land. Ann. 
Missonri l^ol. (iard. 2: 33-57. 

paz el al. I9IH (MO): lata, wet evergreen forest. ele\. 000 Canddle. A. P. De. 1845. Pora<^inaceae. In: Pn.dr. 0; \i,U- 
m. van dcr \\('rj'f95}l (MO). Colopaxi: Tenefuerte, Pfo 50] 

Gi-ntrv. A. 11. 1077. IVew species ol Cih.softiollianinus 
(Seropludariaceae/Bignonlaceae) and Toiirncjti/lia (l^)r- 
a*2;inaceae) from eastern Panama and die (!linco. Ann. 
Missoini Pot. (iard. 64: 133-135. 

(rihson. f). "\. 1070. Hora*iinaceae. ///: Mora of Ciialemala. 
Kieldiana. Bot. 24: 111-167. 

(wlli. A. PA83. Bcitrage zur flora von Iviuidor 3. Sym- 

l*ilalo. Km 52-53. (hunedo. hataeim^a. elev. ^ 50- 1 300 
m. Ih>(ls(fn iK: Cvnlry 12818 (MO): Tenefuerte. Km 55 
(^)iie\ed<>-Latacun^a. elev. 850-1000 m. DiKlson cf a I. 
14421 (MO), F^siiierahlas: new road under construetion 
from Pita to San Lorcn/o, 600-800 m, 0()°58'\, 78\35'VV, 
(irntry el al. 00057 (MO); road between Pita. Alto Tamho 
an<l hevond. 2500 ft.. Krrss rt al. 88-2304 (PS): Canton 
FJoy Alfaro, Comuna dc Calle Mansa (Rfo Crande. aP 
lu(M'ite d<'l Caya[)as). elev. 130-180 m, OCni'N, 78T)3'\\; 
Vdnrz vt al. 1471 (MO). Moroiia-Sanliago: Pozo [xMro- 
lero "(iarza" ile TKNM',C(). 35 km al non-sle de Montal- 
\o. l>os(|ue liilmedo tropical, elev. 260 m. 01" P)'S, 
76"42'\\. /ak X Kspiuoza 469.1 (MO). Napo: Rescrsa 
Riolo^ica Jaliin Saclia. Rfo Napo, 8 km al E de Misaluialli, 
f>os(jue nun linmedo tropical, elev. 450 m. 01(1 f'S. 
77^3()'\\. (a'hU) li)3o (MO): Reserva Biologica Jatiln Sa- 
<4ia. Itoscpie mu\ lu'nnedo tropical. 150 m. 0PO4'S. 
77°36'\\. Crmn c^- Cvron 1684 (MO): Canton Tena, Esta- 
cioti Bi(tl('>*^ica Jaliln Saclia. 8 km al este de Mi^aluialli. 
l)os(iue rtuiy humedo tropical. 400 m. POPS, 77^3()'\V. 
Cemn 6(),'>8 (MO): alon^ road between Baeza and I.airo 
A^ria. 72.5 km \^ of Pap) Agria. elev. 1166 m. (jiutl 
49526 (MO): (ianton Art liidona, area al sureste del \olcan 
Snmae(t, carrel era llollfn-Poreto. Km 65. 1 Inaticoctia. 
l>osque r)in\ lulrnedo tropical, elev. 620 m. 00 l.)'S, 
77^28' V\. linrtado 2334 (MO): marten dereclio del P 1 o 
Napo, 8 km de Puerto Misaluialli, boscjue nmy Punu^do 
tropical, elev. 450 m, 01()4'S, 77^37'W, Palanos 290? 
(MO): 8 km rfo aPajo k\v Puerto Misahualli, por el Rfo 
Napo. elev. 150 m. "r04'S, 77"36'W. Zarania ei al. 261 
(MO). Paslaza: Pastaza Canton, Pozo P(Hrolero ''Corri- 
cnles" dc PNOCAP. l>os<|ue IiuuhmIo tropical, cle\. 300 
m. 01 13'S, 76nO'\X'. Cudino 665 (MO): Pastaza Cant.'.n. 

l\)zo i\'tnjlero \ illano 2. bosfjue lulmedo tropical, elev. 

350 m. 01^20'S. 77''27'\V. Pa!a<io,s 10254 (LS). Piehin- 
elia: Centiru-la. Canton Santo Domingo. 12 km E ol Pa- 
tricia Pilar. elc\. 600 m, Ihxlson & Emhrce 7208 [\\i)): 
path following ridge line at El Centinela at crest of \lon- 
tanas de lla road from Patricia Pilar to 2 1 de Ma\'o al Km 
12 (Patricia Pilar is al Km P5 on road frt>m Santo Domingo 
to yucvcdo). elcN. 600 m. Dodsou & Duke 7650 (MO), 
Dadsan rl al. 8675 (MO): Centinela, 12 km al esle dc 
Patricia Pilar en el Km 47 Santo Domingo a Onevedit. 
elev. 650 m. Ihulson rl al. 14773 (MO): elev. 600 m. Dod- 
son ct' Ve/7/ 15535 (MO): Reserva Florfstica-Ecol<'>giea 

petalae. Feddes Rei>erl. 04: 303-322. 
Jolmslon. I. M. 1030. Studies in ihe Roraginaceae 8. P 

Observations on the species of Cardia and Toianrfarha 

known from Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argenliiui. 

Contr. Cray Herb. 02: 3-80. 
. PJ35a. Studies in the Boraginaceae 10. ihe Pot- 

aginaceae of northeastern SoiUh \nuiica. J. \itiold \r- 

I)or. 16: 1-64. 

■. 1035b. Studies in the Boraginact^at^ IP (I) Tlu^ 

s[>ecies of Toururfortia and Mrssrrsrfimidtti in the Old 
World. (2) Notes on Brand's treatment <>( (jyplaiillta. (3) 
New orotheiuix' m»tt^\\(U'th\ species. J. Arnold \rhor. 

16: 11 5-205. 

. 1040. Stu<lies in the Boragina<eae 18. Poiagi- 

nae(*ae of the southern West Indies, j. \inold VtlnH'. 

30: 11 1-138. 

10.')1. Studies in the Boraginaceae 20. Rcpresen- 

tall\es of three subfamilies in eastern Asia. J. Arnold 
Arbor. 32: 1-26 and 00-122. 

. 1056. Studies in tlu' Boraginaceae 28. New ot 

oth(Mvvise interesting s[)eclcs from Aiiu-rica and \>i,i. J. 

Anu)ld Arhor. 37: 288-306. 
Killij), E. P. 1027. New species of Cordia and lounirjorfia 
h'om northwestern South Anu'rica. J. Washinglon Acad. 

Sci. I 7; 327—335. 
. 1020. New [dants maud) from western Sonlh 

Anuuica— IP J. Washington \ead. Sci. P): 101-105. 
Miller. J. S. 1088. A revised trealm<'nt ol Boraginacea* 
for Panama. Ann. Missouri Bot. (iard. 7.>: P)6-.>2P 

. 1080. Pso new species of Tournrfortia (Boragi- 

na( t\u^) from Colomhia. Ann. \hssouri Bot. (fard. ,6: 


. 1005. A new species of Tournrfartla from Pa 

Planada. Ccdomlua. No\on 5: 188-180. 

. 1007. A new species of Toururjarha (Boragiua- 


(aiajaliUt," Km 50 de la carrelera antigua Ouilo- 
Sanlo Domingo dc los Colora(_lus, 3.5 km al NE de la 
eanvtcra. ePn. 18,00-2200 m, (n3'53"S, 78"48'10'A\. 

c(^ae) frotTi FV-ru. Novon 7: 265-267. 

. 2000. New Boragituieea<' from tropical Anu'rica 

2: Taunicforlia rasquezii, a new species from Peru. No- 
von 10: 45-47. 

. In pR'ss. Boraginaceae. ///.■ \\. I). Stevens et al. 

(eililors). Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. S\st. Rot. \hs- 


No von 

souri Hot. (ianl. 

uscripts of K. W K\\\\[K liull. Tone) I5ut. Club 101: 
Nnsh. I). L. X N. P. Motvrht. 1<)JU. Horaginarrae. ///: Flora 229-234. 

(Jc Vcracru/.. Kasclciilo \l\: 1-1 19. tS J. J. Skvarla. 1974. A i)alMiolo<ii('al invi^stiga- 

\oui( ki% J. W. 1969. lioia^iiunoac. ///: Flora of Panama. lion of llu- ^ciius Tourneforlia (noraginaccar). Atiior. J. 

Ann. Missouri H<it. (;ar(l. 56: ;U-69. Hoi. 61: 1021-1(1:56. 
. 1974. Thrcf* new sppcif^s of Tournefortia (Bora- Verrfrourt, B. I9B(M. A now ronil)iiiation iu Tmirnffortid 

^inacfat') frorn llie Aiulos and conirtu^nls on tlir nian- (Boraginaccat'). krw Hull, ill: 436. 

Three New Species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae) from Ancash, Peru 

Thomas Mione 

Department of Biological Sciences, Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, 

Connecticut 06050-4010, U.S.A. 

Segundo Leiva G. 

Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Antenor Orrego, Avenida A 

Trujillo, Peru 

Sur 3145, 

Leon Yacher 
Department of Geography, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, 

Connecticut 06515-1355, U.S.A. 

Ahstkact. Three new Jaltomata species from the served flowers were used for drawing, while dried 
department of Ancash, Peru, are deserihed and il- specimens were used for measurements. Seeds of 
lustrated. The three species are distinguished from / lomana were not availal)le for study. 

f>thers in the genus l)y features of the fl()W(Ts, hairs. 

Trichdmes are not gland-tipped unless in(Hcaled 

and leaves. Fruits o( Jdltomata cajacayrrusis S. Lei- as such. Finger hairs 

uniseriate, unl)ranche(]. 

va & Mione are gathered for consumption. Jalto- and muhieellular. Branehlet hairs (Fig. 3Bj liave 

mata lomana Mione & S. Leiva is known only from muhiple termini (Seithe, 1979). A gland-tij)p<'d fin- 

a single fog-dependent plant community, a h)mas ger hair lias a hulbous terminal cell (Fig. IC) that 

{ormaiion. Jaltomatii yungayensis Mionv & S.].ciY3. stains densely with neutral red, as does the mul- 

ls widely distributed at high elevation:- 

ticellular head of a stalked gland (illustrated in 
Mione & Serazo, 1999). 

Species of Jaltomata have simple, often gemi- 

nate leaves, 5-merous flowers with rotate to cam- JalUniiata cajaeayensis S. Leiva & Mione, sp. 

nov. TYPE: Peru. Ancash: Bolognesi, highway 
from Pativilca to Recuay and Huaraz, kiti 90, 
town of Cajacay, 2540 ni, open sun, roadside 
with Agave andina and Carica candicans, 18 
JaJi. 1998, T, Miane, S. Lewa G. & L Yacher 
624 (holotype, NY; isotype, CONN). Figure 1. 

IMaiita fruticosa: axes jiut-nes, fulia, faciesquc ahaxialis 
calycis ohtfM'ta [)ilis indivisis aj)i(*p glantliferentihus; lolia 
eludes about 50 herbaceous and shrubby species ovata vel dcltala. a<l 9 citi lon-^iludinr. 10 crn latihidine, 
distributed from Arizona, U.S.A., to Bolivia, with [hHIoIo ad ."^2 em lon^iUidiru^ innorescentia (lorihus 14 

panulate or tubular corollas, and a biearpellate ova- 
ly h(msing numerous ovules. The inflorescence is 
uml)ellate; anthers dehisce longitudinally ami the 
ovaiy is girdled by a disk at its base. The beny, 
orange or red on most South American species and 
dark purple to black on most Central American 
species, is not enclosed by the calyx and is often 
edible (Leiva, 1998; Mione, 1992). The genus in- 

one species each on the Galapagos Islands and 
Greater Antilles (Mione et al., 1993). These de- 

ul niaxitnuni; calyx 13 mm iliamclro malurltalc fniclus; 
corolla I)r'c\ issinic, luliulosa, liml)(> rcflcxo 10.3—10.2 mm 
dianiclro. olivacea: filani(Mita villosa secus pro\imal(*s /- 

seriptions of three new species are a contribution part.-s lon^iludim's: hacca auranliaca. ad 9 mm diamclro. 

to ongoing systematic studies of this genus (e.g., 
Mione, 1999; Mione & Leiva, 1997). 

MAPKiuvrs AND Mkihods 

Shrub to 1.1 m high. Young axes, peduncles, 
pedicels, and abaxial faces of calyx villous with 
erect, gland-tipped finger hairs to 3 mm long. 
WiKxly stems glabrous, terete, to at least L5 cm 
The compound light microscope was used for diam. Leaves alternate, often geminate, the blade 
measurement of stalked glands and stigma papillae; ovate or deltoid, to 9 X 10 cm, pubescence of 
flowers placed in 709f ethanol in Peru were used. gland-tipped finger hairs on bodi faces, the margin 
Tht* sizes of structures as indicated by the scale repand, sinuate or dentate with up to 5 pairs of 
bars in the figures may differ somewhat from the broad, rounded teeth; petiole to 3.2 cm long. Inflo- 
sizes given in the descriptions because alcohol-pre- rescence axillar)' or less couunouly arising from a 

No\()\ 10: 53-59. 2000. 



sttMii (lirlioliiiiiy, unihrlhile, 6- to ll-flowered. Pe- agricultural fifitls. One woman told us that a tea 

(luiu'lc to 15 nun long, pedicel to 20 mm long. Ca- made from leaves and flowers is used to treat stom- 

lyx gr<'<-n at aiitlu^sis, 3^1 nun from pedicel to tip ach ache and children^ diarrhea, and to bring reg- 

of loh(% ciliale with l>(»di hranchlet hairs to 0.25 ularity to the menstnial cycle. The Queehua name 

mm long and gland-tipped finger hairs to 1 mm is "musho." Flowering in Jamiarj', and flowering 

long; adaxially pulH^scenl with finger hairs to 0.4 atid fruiting in November. 

mm long; calyx at fruit maturity (from Leiva 1739) 

Jahomata cajacayensis is similar to /. propinqua 

stel1at<' and 13 nun diam. Corolla short-tubular witli (Miers) Mionc & M. Nee in that both bear gland- 
a reflexed limb, (hdl oli\t'-green, the tulx^ (obscured tipped hairs and have a short-tubular corolla with 
bv pressing) 1.5-2 X 6.5-8 mm, within tlie lube a niucli Inoader limb. /a/^)7??r/ra c<^;yr/rajer?,sr.s has a 

grtM'n corolla and cream-colored anthers, the style 

two dark green maculae flanking the radial vein 

(extending to the tip of each corolla lobe, nanow is exsertc^l a few millimeters In^yond the stamens, 

purple ring surroutuhtig mouth of tTibe. tlu- limb antl it is known only from the vicitiily of one mon- 

10.3-19,2 mm (ham., the 5 lob<^s alternating with tane town (Cajacay) in the department of Ancash; 

lobules, adaxially glabrous within tube and the 7. propinqua has blue to purple corollas and an- 

limb pilosulos(% the hairs 0.21-0.5 mm loiig, abax- tliers, the style is twice the length of the stamens, 

ially with finger hairs, some gland-tipped, 0.15-1.2 and it is w^idcly distributed in the d(^partment of 

mm long, cibatc with finger hairs to 0.6 mm long. Lima, Peru (Mione et al., 1993). 
Stalked nudlicellular glands 75-90 paw long, abun- 

1 . 1 .1 r r 1 11-1 n Paratypes. I'KKL'. Aiieasli: Holo^incsi, Cajacav, 2()(M_) 

<lant on hotli laces ol calyx and abaxial c'oroila, .,, -V ww^r ; ■ i-j^i - * \ iT ii\^,f\\y\^ r 

I ni. I(S Ndv. r>*>5. hnva //.r/ (AAU, lAAS. (.OKI), r, 

uncommon on adaxial corolla. Stamens 7 mm long: ,, \()^ jj^-]; mo, \y. lsM). K'i Jan. 19911 Irna ct al. 
lilanu^nts villous on proximal !/- of the length, the 2132 (\\ MAO). 
fitig<M' hairs purple, to 1.5 mm long, decreasing in 

length distally; anth<Ts cream-colored, 1-2.1 mm jahomata loiiiaiia Mion<^ & S. Leiva, sp. nov. 

TYPE: Peni. Ancash: Casma, Lomas de Mon- 
^on, 9^37'S, 78"43'W, 450 m, 17 Sep. 1938, 

//. E. Stork, (). B. Horton & C. Vargas C 9183 

long. Style 3.5-10 mm long; stigma capitate, dark 
gr<'<*n and exserted to 5.5 nun beyond anthers on 
living })lants, 0.5-0.9 nun wide, tlu^ papillae 45 fim 

loti":. Nectar disk br<»ad. 


f tl 

)r<»a(i, guiunig nase oi me ovary 
(Fig. HI). Gynoecium glal)rous. Mature berries or- 
ange (not seen, from informant at type locality). 

(holotype, K; isotypes, G, GH). Figure 2. 

Planta fruticosa; axes juvcnes, folia, calyx fere glalM-r; 



u-aily snh.Tical, S-9 mm diam. Seeds (fj'iva 1739) f"lia "vaU. a.l 6 .-m longitudine, 3.4 <m h.litu.lin.'. p.-liol 

muncrous, subtrianguhir to reniform, alveolate, 
1. 4-1.7 X 1.1-1.3 mm, 0.5-0.55 mm thick. 

f/.se.s, Juiliitiil, local nam(\ phenology. When the 
type collection was made, two w^omen told us that 

the fruits are sweet and commonly eaten by every- 
one, and ihat the plants are not deliberately culti- icels, leaves, and calyx nearly glabrous, the fingiM" 

ad 7 nun longituditie; inflorescentia flitrihiis 7 iit tiiaxi- 
tnum: i^alyx 8—1 I mni (liarnctro. frucUi: corolla I»rc\ilcr 
lubLilo>a. limlH) palciite 11-14 nun iliametro, aiha; fila- 
nuMita \ illosa sccus jiroxinialc dimidiiim loagiludinis; hac- 
ca ad () Mini dianictro. 

Shnib to 8 dm tall. Young axes, peduncles, ped- 

vated but arc conmion in and along the edge of 

hairs to 0.15 mm long where present. 


I'igurc I. jiiltow(}t(t ((tjnrayrnsis S. bci\a vK Mionc. — A. Rratich witli inflon'sccnccs and leaves. — b. Mower. ol)li(|ne 

\ lew. 

C Calvx. lateral \iew. — 0. (A)rolla. overhead \ i<'w .showing Iiasal adnalion of slaniens. — E. Stamen. \<MHral 

view, uidi ahnndant finger triclioines. hase llaUened li\ ad[tression to o\aiy. — F, C. Anllier and distal [jortlon of lilanient, 
lateral and dorsal \iews. res|)ecli\el). — II. if 

> noec 

inrn ituludlng !)asal disk. — I. Herry with calyx, lateral view. — J. 

See<l. (from N. Irird rt <i!. 2 1 '^2. draun l)\ S. Leiva.) 

F'ii:ure 2. 

Julianuild If/nidfui Mione tX S. Lci\a. — A. Hianeli willi inllorescenecs antl kvucb. uilli segnuMil of stem 2 

nun wide t(t left. — L5. l"low<'r. lalt^al \iew. — C. Calyx, lateral vi<^w. — I). Corolla, diss<'( led, overhead view showing 
hasal adnalion of stamens, wilh marginal hair 0.12 tmn long lo left. — E. Stamen, ventral view, with ahnndani fmger 
hairs, hase flattened 1»\ adprcssion to <>\arv. ^E. C Anllier and distal portion of fdament, lateial atid dttrsal \iews. 
res[>erti\clv. — II. (/\noeeium ineludin^; hasal disk. (Eroni .S. h^ira el al. 21 W. drawn h\ S. Leiva.) 

Fiizure 3. Jidtomata riinifdwnsis Mione iX' S. Lei\a. — A. Branch with inflon^scenees and heaves. — H. Flower, lat(Mal 
view, uillt hran<hh'l hair- 0. 1 ."> mm long at lower ri»ihl. — C. Corolla, disseeled. overhead view showing hasal adnalion 
(»f ^-1; 


— n. Stamen, ventral view, wilh finger Iriehornes. hase flaltened h\ ad[)ressi(irr to ovary. — E, F. Anllier 
and distal porlliui of filament, lateral and dorsal views, rt-speetively. — G. Gynoecium including hasal disk. — II, Berr) 
wilh ial}x, lateral view. — 1. Seed. — J. Enil)iyo from s(^ed. (From .S. triid rl aL 2138, drawn hy S. Leiva.) 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Mione et al. 

New species of Jaltomata 




Volume 10, Number 1 

Mione et al. 

New species of Jaltomata 



No von 

braruhes glabrous, lert'U^ Leaves altt^rnate, often 

IMaiita frulicosa; axes juvenes, folia, facicsque aljaxialis 

geminate, bind.- elliptical to ovate, to 6 X 3.4 cm, '^^^^ puhrrula, pilis rnmosis vel simplicibus; folia Ian- 

, . . .,. , • I r 1 • r\ 1 r ceolata vel elliptica. ad 6 em loneitiuliiie, 2.1 cm lalitu- 

Ihe niamiii entire, eiliolate with nne;<n- hairs to (J.lo i- ,• i lo i % r • n .- n -i 

^ ^ (line, petiolo ad Z cm longitudme; mlloresrentia llorihiis 

mm lorig, the apex acute, the base symmetrical to n ul tnaximuni: ealvx 10 mm (liarnctro malurilatc fmilus; 

somewhat oblique; petiole to 7 mm long. Inflores- coiolla tampaiiulata vel rotala, 11.5-15.5 mm diamelm. 

eence axillary or less eonitnonly arising from a stem jjurpurea, fauee viride; filamenta villusa sccus proximalom 
diehotomy, umbellate, S- to 7-flowered. Peduncle '^^ V''^^''"' lon-itudinis; bacca aurantiara, ad H mm dia 

3—8 mm long; pedicel 5—14 mm long. Calyx at an- 


thesis green, 3^.8 mm from pedicel to tip of lobe, 
ciliolate w^itli finger hairs to 0.1 mm; 8—11 mm 
diam. on mature (?) fruit. Corolla short-tubular with 
a spreading limb, white, the tube 1.6 X 4.0-4.3 
mm at base (obscured by pressing), the limb 11 

Shrub to 2.3 m high. Young axes, peduncles, 
pedicels, leaves, and abaxial faces of calyx puber- 
ulent, with both branchlet and finger hairs to 0.15 
mm long. Woody stems brown, terete and hollow, 

14 mm diam.\ 5-lobed, adaxially with finger hairs gl^^^^ous with age. Leaves alternate, often geminate, 

0.12mmlong, erect and abundant on limb, absent ^'^^ ^lade lanceolate to elliptical, to 4.9(-6) X 

in tube, abaxially with finger hairs 0.09 mm long, 2.1(^.8) cm, margins entire to repand, apex usu- 

erect and concentrated on veins, margins ciliate ^l^Y ^^^te, the base of some leaves somewhat 

with both finger and liranehlet hairs 0.12 mm long. oblique; petiole to 2 cm long. Inflorescence axillary 

Stalkeil multicellular glands 55-75 fim long, abun- or less commonly arising from a stem dichotomy, 

dant on both faces of tlu- young h-aves and calyx, umbellate, sometimes branched, 4- to 11-flowered. 

and the abaxial face of the corolla {Mione et uL Peduncle to 10 mm long; pedicel to 9 mm long. 

631). Stamens 5.5-6.5 mm long; filannMits villous Calyx green at anthesis, 2.5-3 mm from pedicel to 

on proximal ^/i, finger hairs to 0.75 mm long; an- tip of lobe, adaxially glabrous, margins ciliate with 

tilers 0.6—1.5 mm long. Style 4.7-5.4 mm long, finger hairs to 0.25 mm long; at fruit maturity to 10 

slender and straight; stigma capitate, shallowly bi- mm diam. Corolla campanulatc to rotate, 11.5-15.5 

lobed, 0.36-0.51 mm wide, the papillae {Mione et mm diam., 5 lobes altemating with inconspicuous 

uL 631) 20-25 /xm long. Nectar disk at base of lobules (obscured by pressing); dark purple with a 

ovar). Berries (mature?) 1—6 mm diam. 

pale green throat having 5 pairs of dark-green mac- 

Flowering in Januar\' and Sept4'mber, and fniiting 

Distribution and habitat. Known only from a ulae in a ring, each pair of maculae straddling the 

single small iiu>uiitain on tlie coast, the plant com- main vein that extends radially to the tip of the 

munity of which is fog-dep<^ndent and therefore corolla lobe, abaxial face pubescent with finger 

known as a lomas formation (Rundcl et al., 1991). hairs, and a few branchlet hairs, to 0.9 mm but 

:^ommonly 0.3 mm long, adaxial face glabrous, mar- 
in September. gins off-white, ciliate with finger hairs to 0.75 mm 

Jaltomata lomana is an erect, nearly glabrous long. Stalked multicellular glands 75-90 /im long 

shrub Willi petioles to 7 mm long and a white, short- abundant on abaxial and adaxial faces of cal)x and 

tubular corolla having a spreading limb 11-14 mm ^i,.,^i^i f^^^ ^f corolla. Stamens 2.8-3.9 mm long; 

in diameter. The type specimen of/ lomana (Stork fii^„,,.,,i, ^nj^^^, ^„ proximal V,, finger hairs unpig- 
€t al. 9183) was considered to represent Saracha 
dentata Ruiz & Pav6n (Macbridc, 1962), but tht^ 
latter species, now /. dentata (Ruiz & Pav6n) Ben- 
ftez, is procumbent, has rotate-campanulatc pui'ple 
corollas, and does not occur in lomas formations. 

Paraiypes. PKHU. Anrash: Vwn. Casma. km 350 of 

PanAiucrican highua), walk ca. 1 km N\\ across desert 

to and up Lomas dc Mongon, U'M) m. gntwin^ in die pro- subspherical, to 8 mm across, orange at maturity. 

mented, 0.3 mm long; anthers cream-colored, 1.25— 

1,55 mm long. Style 6.4—7.6 mm long, straight. 

Stigma capitate, shallowly bilobt^d (obscured by 
pressing), 0.54—0.72 mm wide. Nectar ilisk at base 
of ovary, orange on living plants but red/orange 

nectar not observ^ed. Gynnecium gla])rous. Bi'rries 

leclioii of boulders, not on tlu- open liillside. 20 Jan. 1991], Seeds numerous, subreniform, alveolate, 1.6-1.8 X 

U-ua c, al. 2n0 (F, II AO), \Uonc H al. 631 (MOI., NY). j g.j 5 „„„^ 0.45-0.54 mm llu^'k. Infrurtescence 

Jaltomata yimgaycnsis Mione & S. Leiva, sp. nov. up to 8-fmited. 

TYPE: PeiTJ. Aneash: Yungay, Cordillera Blan- 

ea, about 200-500 m into Iluascardn National Habitat, phenology, and local name. Jaltomata 
Park along road from city of Yungay to lake yungayerusLs has been collected from 3000 to 4150 
Chinan Cocha and lake Llanganueo, sunny, ni on steep south-facing scree slopes, in shrub- 
rocky roadside with shrubs, 3525 m, 19 Jan. lands, and on roadsides among shrubs. Flowering 
1998, T. Mione, S. I^iva G. & L Yacher 628 and fruiting in January, October, and Decemlx'r, 
(holotyp(% NY; isotypes, CONN, MOL). Figure 3. and flowering in April and May. A local name is 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Mione et al. 

New species of Jaltomata 


"iaiii[)axs()," and fmits are not eaten {Leiva et al. David Spooner for helpful eorrespondence, Neil R 


Smith for translation to Latin, and the staff of the 

Jaltomata yungaycnsis is similar to /. diversa cited herbaria. A National Geographic Society grant 
(Maebride) Mione: both are shmbs of high altitude, (6008-97) to T. M. funded fieldwork and supplies, 
and have branchlet hairs on young axes and leaves, 
and rotate to campanulate corollas. Jaltomata yiin- 
gayrnsi.s, frotn Aneash, has pedunculate inflores- 
cences, and the corolla is purj:»le with a green 
throat. In contrast, ./. diiersa from the departments 
of Apurfmac, Arequij)a, Ayacucho, and Cuzco, Vhichiifh-. J. R 1962. S(>Ianac<'ac. Field Mus. Nat. ilisK, 

I Jtrraliirr Cited 

beiva G.. S. 1998. Las Kspecies del (A'nero Jdllonuila 
Stiileeli. (Solanaeeae: Solaneae) del Nurte del Peru. 
MasttM-'s Thoj^is. I nivorsidad \aeional Mavnr de San 
Mareos. Lima. Peru. 

Peru, lacks peduncles (umbels are sessile) and has 
a white corolla (Mione, 1999). 

ranilyprs. PERIL Aneash: l^i'()\. Bungay. Huasearan 
National Park, regioiie Iliiara/. 1"^ Oet. 1976. Beiiiardi el 
f/A I()()u() (G \Y); Ihia.^earaii National Park, blanganueo 
Seetor, near jiark enlranee, alt. 'X.VM)-\\7yl7^ m, M) Dee. 
]<>r,l. Smith & Cooduin HHT.', {\\ ). |9 Jan. 199a. Irim 
rl al. 2i:'»H ((^ONN. HAO): alon<; road froni "^iingay to lake 
blarijianneo, [)uehlo de lliiashau. i?0()0 ni, 19 Jan. 1998. 

L-ini vl (d. 2139 (HAO), Mione cl al. 629, 630 (CONN); 

Pro\. Ihiaylas, Huasearan National Park, (^)nel)rada Santa 
Crii/ iKMvveen bago Santa (auz (Ihieo and Casliai)ani[ta 
exit. 3a7()-33r>() ni- 17 Jan. 1983, Smilli rl al. 9333 (MO): 
Huasearan National Park. An(iuis|)n(juio area of ruins. 
:Vili){)-:Vn){) m, 7 Apr. I9P>6. .Sn//7// e/ al 11992 (MO. \\ }: 
PueapaMijta (bampanfn-Hua} las). 41.'S() ni. ladera. 3 May 
|9;;7. Mastacero &' lAva 1H97 {WV'W NY): Prov. Coroncio. 
Cerro Clarinirka farriha de Corotiiio). 3300-36(X) in. 7 

Hot. S(^r. 13. pari \\\. No. I. 
MIoiie, T. 1992. The Systenialies and Kvolntion of Jalfo- 

fnafa (Solanaeeae). Pli.l). Dissertation. University of 

Cornie<tient. Storrs. Cornieelient. 
. 1999. Jalloniaia II: New coinhlnalioiis for (i\e 

South American species (Solanaeeae). Prittouia 51: 31- 


S< S. I.ei\a C 1997, A new I\'ru\ian species of 

J(dtanuita (Solanaeeae) with lilood-red floral nectar. 

Phodora 99: 283-286. 

& b. A. Serazo. 1999. Jidtomata lajae (Solana- 

eeae): l)(^scriptio!i and floral hiolog) of a tunv Andean 

speei(*s. Hliodora 101: 136-1 12. 

. G. J. Anderson & M. Nee. 1993. Jaltoniala I: 

Cireuniseri[)tion, deserifUion and new conihination,-- for 
five South American sjieeies. I^ritlonia 45: 138-145. 
Kun.lel. P. W.. M. O. Dillon. R. Palnia. H. \. Mooney. S. 
I,, (iulnion & J. R. Khlerin^er. 199b The |»h\to^eo^;- 
iaph\ anti ecolug) of the coastal \ta( arna and Peru\ ian 

deserts. Aliso 13: 1 — 19. 

Aug. 1993, Uiia & L'zama 865 (HAO). 28 June 1998. Seitlie. A. 1979. Hair tv[)es as taxonornic characters in 
frira rt al. 2200 (HAO). Solauam. Pp. 307-319 in J. 0. Hawkes et al. (editors). 

The Piolog\ and laxononi) of the Solanaeeae. binnean 
Acknowledgments. We thank Michael Nee for Societ) S}niposiuni Series No. 7. Aead-'inic Press, New 

H'view, Gabriel Bernardcllo, Michael Dillon, and York. 

Validating an Endemic Melastomataceae from Goias, Central 
Brazil; Lavoisier a fragilis Cogniaux ex Munhoz & Proenya 

Cassia Munhoz 

Dt'partamenU) de Ecologia, Universidade de Brasflia, 

C.R 4457, 70919-970, Brasilia. OF, Brazil 

Carolyn Proen^a 

Departamento de Bolaniia, Universidade de Brasflia, C.R 4457, 70919-970, Brasflia, DF, 


AliSTHVcr. This paper validates a noniem iiuduin cerrado, typieal cerrado, tall iiu^sopliytic savanna 

for ail endemic hnoisicra from Cristalina, CoiAs, in woodland on a slope, campo rupestre, and riverine 

central Brazil. It was first coUeeted by Glaziou in vegetation that is not dense enough to form a gal- 

1895 and th<^n sent to Cogniaux, who named it but lery forest, 
never formally descrilxMl it. Tlie Cogniaux name is 

maintairu'd since it is cit<'d in Glazious published in flower and in fniit, we failed to identify it by 

list of collections and on herbarium specimens. La- comparison with identified specimens o{ Ijjvoisiera 

voisiern fragilis is a stnall white-flow t^rt-d tree that in the UB herbarium at the University of Brasflia, 

is protected by the Linda Sena dos Topdzios Private many of which were determined by John Wurdack. 

pccimrns from Cristalina that mati-hcd our 

After collecting lh<' present species sevtMal times 



o sncc 

Ri:SL NU). Eslc trabalho torna valido um nomen nu- 
dum para uma Liwoisicra endemica de Cristalina, 
Coids no Brasil Central. A csp^cie foi coleta ptda 
primeira vez por Glaziou em 1895 e enviada para 
Cogniaux, que a nomrou mas nunca a descreveu 
formahnenle. nome dado por Cogniaux e mantido 
por Wy sido citado na lista publieada de coletas de 

Glaziou e por aparerer nas suas etiquetas de ma- 
terial hcrborizado. Lavo'isiera fragilis e uma pe- 
qnena tirvon* de floras alvas, prot<'gida pela Reser- 
va Particular de Patrimonio Natural (RPPN) Linda 
Serra dos Toj)azios. 

Tlie area around the city of Cristalina, Goids, in 
central Brazil was first botanized by Joseph Em- 

marnicl Pohl in 1818; at that time, it was already 
known as SeiTa dos Cristais (Urban, 1906). Like 
other isolated higldand areas in tlu^ Cerrados do- 
main, it appears to be an important center of en- 
demism. Endemic taxa known to occur In the Scrra 
dos Cristais belong to the l>r(tmeliac<^ae, Rurman- 
niaceac, Compositae, Leguminosae, Malpighiaceae, 
and Myrtaeeae. The region is mined for rock crystal 

and topaz and is a minor tourist center. In ]*>0'l, a 


matiM'ial were found, however. This resulted in sur- 
ve)ing taxonomic literature on Linoisiera through 
Judex Keivensis for Windows v. 2.0 (Royal Botanic 
Gardens Kew, 1997), and studying published spe*- 
cies descriptions Un' Liiioisicra (De Caudolle, 1828; 
Triana, 1871; Cogniaux, 1883; Taubert & Ule, 
1896; Iloelme, 1922; Mello-Barreto, 1935, 1936, 
1952: Markgraf, 1910; Wunlack, 1974, 1981, 
1988, 1995). Since we failed to match our spec-i- 
mens with any published description, we tlu^n re- 
quested Elizabeth \^oodgver, a Melastomataceae 
specialist from the Royal Botanic Gard(*ns at Kew, 

to compare our illustration to the Cla/iou speci- 
mens at K collected in Goias. Sht» reported a pos- 
itive match with Glaziou 21312, collected in Cris- 
taUna in 1895, and with a modern sp<'cimen also 
collected in Cristalina {Pirani et id. 1552), and sent 
cybachromc photographs of both specimens to us 
at UB. We later discovered a duj)licale of the (Gla- 
ziou 21312 specimen at the Museu Nacional IbT- 
barium in Rio i!c Janeiro (R). We are confident that 
our specimens are cons{)ecific with the Glaziou and 
Pirani collections, and hereby formally describe the 

govemnicnl-recognized private reserve of ca. 500 Lavoisiera fragilis Cogniaux ex Munlioz t^ Proeu- 

heetares, the Resena Particular de Patrimonio Nat- 
ural Linda Serra dos Topdzios, was established 

there. The vt^getation of the resei-ye is compos<'d of 

wet grassy fields, w<*t fields with buriti palms 
{Mduritia ririijcra Martins), aquatic [)lants, sparse 

^a, sp. nov. TYPE: Brazil. Goids [Goyaz]: Al- 
nu)cafre, Serra dos Cristais [Crystaes], 
16^45'S, 47^37' W, 17 Sep. 1805. Glaziou 
21312 (holotype, R; isotype, K not seen, UB 
photogra()h of isotypc at K). Figure 1. 

NovoN 10: 60-63. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Munhoz & Proenga 
Lavoislera fragilis from Brazil 







0.5 cm 


I ''*- ^t 




f^ , 1 




Figure 1. I Aivoisiera fragilis (^ogniaux ex Munhoz & Froen(;a. — A. Habit with hiarichlet detail. — B. Leaf disposilitm 
on )oun^ hratu'hlet. — C. Leaves. ah()\e (left) and helow (right). — D. Flower hud. — F^. Open flower. — F. Stamens, 

larger (leltj and smaller (right). — 
(riglit) in ventral and lateral view. 

C Larger stamen anthers (left) in ventral and lattM'al view, smaller stamen anthers 
— H. ()var\. longitudinal seetion (left) and transv**rse seetion (right). — L Pistil. 

— J. Mature fruit, whole (left) and trainers*^ section (right). — K. Seed with testa detail. (A-K from Oliteira et al, 285^ 



/y//'o/^/rra/ra^''/7/.s- C(>gniau\, noinrn nuduni, Glaziou I.isie Barneby, another eiiJoinic species. These two taxa 

Cullrrt. H,.t., Mem. Soc. Hot. Kranee Ik 2S6. 1907 ^^^ practically the only trees amidst the grasses, 

sedges, and other herbaceous vegetation. It is quite 

Ad.usr.ila l.r>-2.r> m aha: ranuih ^lal>ri. Folia sessilia common in this specific habitat, and we are pleased 

inil>ri(ata; lamina 9-20 X 5-10 mm. cordata vel ovata- to report that it appears to be adequately protected 

clliptica a|)ice acuta base an^ustato srmiamph^xicaulihus, }jy \\^^. ,,(.^r resei've. 
coriarra, supra glabra, sul>tiis sparse sessilihiis glandiili- 

fcris pilis, ,'^-inTvata ricrvulis su[>ra invisis. Flores (5)6- 

riu'ii ad ramorum a|)i<es solitarii. HypaiUliium (ad tonim) DISCISSION 

Lavoisiera fragUis is a distinctive species char- 
acterized by being a small, diehotomous tree, by its 
coriaceous, w^eakly 3-ncr\ate leaves, large white 

6—9 mm lun^unu camitaimlatum; calycis lohis 5-7 mm 
luii^'u triangulares, in fructii non persislentos. Stamina di- 
mor|)lia, glabra. Stamina maiora antlicris vinaceis, 6—7 
mm longis. cornif^ctivum 8-10 mm prolotigatum. apfXMul- 
ice vcntrali 1.5-2.ii mm. Stamina minora antlieris llavis, 

4-^ mm longis. connectivum 2.5-3 mm pmlongalum, ap- flowers, nearly glabrous, campunulate hypanthmm, 
ptMulIcr ventral! 1 mm. Ovarium 6-loculare, ^labrimi, % and globose fruits with caducous calyx lobes. It is 
inli-rum. ('aiisula glohosa, 7-10 nmi. Semina 1.5-2 mm. \j^.^\^ assigned to section Genlianoides sensu Cog- 

niaux (1883) and would be identified in the Flora 

angiilala, f<iveolata. 

Small tree 1.5-2.5 m tall. Branchlets dic'l.oto- Brasilicnsis key to LwoLsiera (Cogniaux, 1«83) as 

1 1 -.1 • r .1 ,1 L. juMliina 0. Berg ex Triana. Triana described L. 

nious, glabrous with conspicuous scars irom the ati- ^ ^ 

. . r *i 1 T 1 • I * » uohliana based on a fruitinii; collection, so the n<»w- 

scission oi the leaves. Leaves sessne, nnbncate; ^ ^ ^ . ., . 

Ill • • n • «, o on N^ f^ in ^^ ^..^ er^ ^rt* unknown. Both species possess rigid, ini- 

l)lades rigidly coriaceous, v— zU X 5-lU mm, cor- , ,.:, ,, 

I , ^ * ir .■ 1 * u bricate, senii-amnlexicaulous leaves that are gla- 

date to ovate-elliptic, apex narrowly acute; base ' ^ 1111 

1 1*1 1 • 11 1 1 1 brous on the upper surface and sparsely ii;landulose 

narrowly aniplexicaulous; adaxially glabrous 1-ncr- *^^^"- ti t j t> ^ 

\ ■ n 'A • . Mill on the h)wer surface. Ldvoisicra pohliami is readily 

vate; abaxially witli sparse nnnute sessile glandular ... . . , . ,, 

1..'. 10 * • 1* distinguished from L. frazil is by beini^ a small 

hairs, inconspicuously J-nen-ate; margin revolutc. ^ ^ -^ ^ . , . 

T n , 1 I 1 f « 1*4 shrub, by its calyx lobes, which are persistent in 

hitlorescence terminal, reduced to a solitary, ses- ' -^ ^ ' i • 1 - • i 

M /r\z: n u a ■ 1 * the flint, and by its distril)ution. which is in the 

sue, (5)o-merous flower. Hypanthuim campanulate, ' ^ _ ■ • 1 i r>- 

^ n 1 I ii I I 4 1 ^1 kU Chapada dos Columbis in the Jequitinhonha River 

6— V mm long to the torus, moderately covered with / , . 

1- 111 -1 1 * r- 1 1 i region of eastern Minas Gerais. 

spreading glandular sessile hairs. Lalyx lobes ca- ^^ 

1 * r -t c -7 1 I 'J i • 1 ♦ Superficially, Ldvoisicra framlis is most similar 

ducous in Iruit, 5-7 mm hmg and J-4 mm wide at ^ -^' ^ . i • 

.It 1 » • 1 I -f -.u to L cordata Cogniaux, a species that is apparently 

the base, narrowly triangular, outer sunace with ^ . . . . , 

1- 111' 1 I ■ • ^ 1 endemic to the Sena do Cipo in Minas Gerais and 

spreading glandular sessile hairs, inner surface gla- * 

brous. Corolla glabrous, while or sometimes tinged 

dial also belongs to section Gentianoides, The Serra 

■ .1 • 1 • I 1 .1 • 1 ^ . .^ ,..,; 1 .>. v...f^i , do Cipo, like the Serra dos Cristais, is a high-all i- 

with pink III bud <»r wilh pink nectar guides; petals ' ' t ■ r 

1 11 11 ■ I 11- »■ I . i» * 1 tud(* enclave of campo mpestre on the margin of 

l)asally yellowish, elliptic-obovate, obtuse to round- .11 

ed at ihi' apices, 15—27 X 9—17 mm, margins en- 

the cerrado biome and conse(]uently a strong center 

.■ c» in TO • 1 ]■ 1 • 1 of enthmiism (Giulietti et ciL, 1987). B<»th species 

tire. Stamens 10 or 12 in number, dimorjohic; Ion- ^ ' ^ * 

/>i • r o 1 n ti ii A are arborescent and have large, hexanierous white 

gcr luaments 6-0 mm lung, yellow, witii anthers o- ^ i i-rr • 

^ 1 • 1 1 *u r 11 flowers and very similar slameiis. They differ maui- 

7 mm long, wine-coloreil, the coimective prolonged ^ ... , 

o in uu 1 r 1 ^ 1 1 1 cr o Q ly in the color and disposition of the leaves, which 

8-10 mm with a bitid ventral appendage 1.5-z.o ^ f 1 i • 1 

1 1 » ri I n; -7 ™ 1 11 are glaucous and lax in L cordata and shiny and 

mm long; shitrter hlaim^nts 5-7 mm long, yellow, ^ ^ _ r i 1 

■ A Air 1 n a *• imbricate in L. framlis, by tlie shape of the hypan- 

with anthers 4—6 mm long, yellow, the connective ..... 

prolonged 2.5-3 mm with an obtuse ventral ap- 

thium, which is infundibular in L cordata and cam- 

1 1 1 f\ 2/ • f ' ir 4* I panulate in L frae^ilis, and by die calyx lobes, 

p«Midage 1 mm long. Uvaiy % interior, elliptic to '^ . . , • • r 7 

ovoid, 6—7 X 2.5-3.5 mm, 6-locular, glabrous. 

which are persistent in the fniit in L cordata and 

Style glabrous, 1.2-1.7 cm long, incuned apically; ^-^'^^^'^^^ i" ^- /^"6''^'"^- 

stigma truncate. Capsule di"), semi-woody, globose, 

The name Lavoisiera fragilis was pii'sumably 

n M\ 1 Tin r CI eiven to this speci<'s by Alfred Co";niaux; both the 

7-10 mm long, 7-10 mm diam. beeds numerous, o '*^" ' r j d ' 

Glaziou list (Glaziou, 1907) and the Glaziou spec- 
imen at Kew identify Uiis plant as ''^Lavoisiera fra- 

angiilar-ol)ovoi<l, 1.5—2 mm long; testa foveolate. 

Distribution. This species appears to be a nar- giJis Cogn.," and thus Glaziou must have sent the 

row endemic restrii-ted to the Serra dos Cristais, material to Cogniaux for identification. The wood is 

Goias, at 1050-1200 m s.m. Lavoisiera fragilis extremely weak, with even fairly large branches 

grows in sparse cerrado and campo nipestre on breaking quite easily, and this may be the origin of 

shallow, sandy, crystal-bearing soils, frequently the ^])\\\\eX fragilis. The collection locality given by 

forming large populations with Mimosa decorticans Glaziou (1907) is *'Almocafre, Serra dos Crystaes, 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Munhoz & Proenga 
Lavoisiera fragilis from Brazil 


Goyaz." Glaziou cited this collection as being in two anonymous referees for their helpful and en- 
Paris, Kew, and Berlin, but we have accessed only couraging comments on the paper, 
two collections, one in Kew and one in Rio de Ja- 


Since this name is cited in Index KeivensLs and 
published in the Glaziou collections list (Glaziou, 
1907), we feel it has entered the literature and have 
chosen to maintain it. 

Literature ('it<Ml 

Candolle, A. P. Dc. 1828. MelasloniaUireat^ Pruilr. 3: 99- 

Cogniaux, A. \HH'A. Mclastomalaccar. In C F. P von Mar- 
tins (eriilor). Fl. hras. 14(;i): I-SIO. 108 pi. 

& M. G. L. \^arH!('rley. 1987. Flora da Serra do Cipo, 
Mitias Gerais: Caraclerizayao e Li^la tic Especie^. Bui. 
Rot. Univ. Sao Paulo 9: 1-151. 

Lavoisiera fragilh is an extremely handsome ^''^''^1*''^^\'^- .^- .' '.^T^'^^ f . '^- ''''^^^ 
tree, resembling an oversized bonsai due to its fine- 
ly fissured gray bark, twisted branches, and small 
shiny leaves. The flowers are apparently produced 
all year-round. 

Paratypes. HRA/IL. Goias: Crislalina. S km S of 
Cristalina, Serra d<» Crislais, 1 Nov. 1965 (fl, fr), Iruin rl Hoelnie, F. C. 1922. Melastotnaceah. Mem. Inst. Bulantan, 

Glaziou, A. 1907 (P)03). Plantae Hrasiliae ccnlralis a (gla- 
ziou lectac. LisU' des Plantes du Hresil Central recuril- 
lies en 1861-1895. Bull. Soc. But. France 54, Mem. 3: 

aL 9738 (UB): ea. 2 km N of Crislalina. Serra dos Crislais, 

2 Mar. 1966 (fl), Imin cl al. 13296 (FB); Crislalina, ea. 
5 km da eidad(\ eslrada [)ara Para<^alu, 16''46'S, 47°37'W, 
1050 m, 4 Feb. 1987 (fl). Pirani et aL I SS2 (K not seen. 
SPF, UB photo of K material): Cristalina. Reserva Partic- 
ular de Patrinionio Natural Linda Serra dos Topazios, 

16"45'S, 47"40'\\, 15 Jan. 1995 (fl), Proenga & Sautchuk 

I2S9 (UB). 29 \ov. 1095 (fl. fr), Pmrn^a ct' \forreto 1327 

(UB). 22 Mar. 1998 (fl, fr), Olueira et al. 285 (K, MO, 
UB, UFG). 

Acknoidedgments. We thank Elizabeth Wood- 
gyer for her kindness in comparing the illustration, 
and sending reprints and cybachromes of the type 
at K. We also thank the curators and technicians 
of R and RB for searching their collections for du- 
plicates of the Glaziou type specitucn, and Jose 
Fernando Baunigratz at RB for his personal inter- 
vention. We thank Simone C. Sousa e Silva for the 
illustration, Eduardo G. Gon^'alves for reviewing 

Seee. Bot. 1(5): 1-198. 
Markgraf, F. 1940. In Neue Pflanzeuarten aus Brasilien. 

Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 15: 220-221. 

Mello-Barreto, H. F. 1935. Uma lAiroisicra nova da s(^rra 
do Cipo. Mirias (ierais. Anais Acad. Brasil. Ci. 7: 9— 

. 1936. Quatro Lavoisieras nu\as. IJol. Mus. \ae. 

Bio fie Jan(Mnt 12: 57—72. 

. 1952. Favoisieras da Serra d(» Cipo. Bol. Agrie. 

1(6): 18-22. 
lioyal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1997. hulex Kewensis for 

W indows V. 2.0. Oxford Uni\. Press, Oxford. 
lauherl, t*. & F. L le. 1896. Beitnige zur Kenntnis der 

Flora e(Mitralhrasi]ianischen Staates Covaz. Bot. Jahrh. 

Svst. 402^57. 

Triana, J. J. 1871. Fes Melastoniatacees. Trans. Finn. Soe. 
Fondon 28: 1-188. 

Udian, F 1906. //( C. F. P. von Marlins (editor). Vitae 
itineraque eolleetorum botanicorum. notae eollahorato- 
rum biographic ae, florae brasiliejisis ratio edendi eliron- 
ologiea, systerna, index faniiliarum. V\. bras. 1(1): 1- 

the Latin diagnosis, and Rafael S. Oliveira for col- Wurdack, J. J. 1974. Certamen Melastomataeeis XXllF 

lecting and photographing the specimen from which 
the illustration was prepared. We owe a special - 
debt to Jaime Sautcdiuk and Adinair Franca dos 
Santos, owners of the Linda Serra dos Topazios Re- 
serve, for their unfailing enthusiasm and support _ 
during fieldwork in the Reser\'e. We also thank the 

Pb>tologia29: 135-151. 

. 1981. Certamen Melastomalaeeis XXXIIF Pby- 

tologia 49: 147-158. 

. 1988. Certamen MelastomataetMs XXX\ III. Fliv- 

lologia64: 293-301. 

. 1995. New species of Melaslomataeeae frorti Bra- 
zil. Kew Bull. 50: 821-825. 

Una Nueva Especie de Croton (Euphorbiaceae) de la 

Guayana Colombiana 

Jos^ Murillo 
Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Columbia, A, A. 7495, 

Santa Fe de Bogota, D.C., Colombia 

Paul E. Berry 
Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, 132 Birge Hall, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, 

Wisconsin 53706-1381, U.S.A. 

Maria Victoria Arbeldez 

Fundacion Tropenbos-Colombia, A.A. 036062, Santa Fe de Bogota, D.C., Colombia 

Rksi MKN. Se describe e ilustra una nueva espe- 
cie de Croton dc la Guuyana colombiana, Croton 
araracuarae. Debido a la pubescencia estrellada, 


estipulas eiiteras, y sobrc todo por el espacio con- 
spfcuo entn^ las flores masculinas y femeninas de 
la niisnia inflorescencia, esta especie pertenece a 
la secci<5n Podostachys, a pesar de poseer estilos 

V. Arbeldez, sp. nov. TIPO: Colombia. Ama- 
zonas: Puerto Santander, afloramiento rocoso 
de Ciudad Perdida, 15 ago. 1998, I Murillo, 


& J, Mandicgo 1973 (holdtipo, 

COL, isotipos, COAH, MO). Figura 1. 

Haee s[)eeies ad seclluiirni Piuliislddnn [XMliuel, serl 

bffidos y tener las liojas con venarion pinnada. Se ah aliis speciehns seclionis foliis lanceolatls niarginihus 

distingue de los demds miembros de la seccion en 
sus bojas enteras y angostamente lanceoladas, y en 
tener las gldndulas s^^siles en el apiee del pecfolo. 

Iiite^ris, stylis hifHlis, j2;laiKlLilis sessilibus ad apiceni pe- 

tioli distiiiguitur. 

Arbusto monoico (\c 0.7-1.2 m, densaniente eu- 
bicito con [)elos estrellados de 0.2-0.5 mm de did- 
AbstKACT. a new species of Cro/on from the Col- metro; exudado amarillento; estfpulas diminutas, 
ombian Guavana is described and illustratinl as cubiertas por el indumento. Hojas simples, a]t<T- 

nas, eartaccas; peciolos de 4—10 mm de largo, 

cence, entire stipul<'s, and especially by the evident acanalados, en el apice con dos glandulas erateri- 
space between the staminate and pistillate flowers, f^>™^^ ^^ O-^-O-S mm de didmetro, st^siles; Idmina 
it belongs to section Podostarhys, even though it ^-angostamente ovado-laneeolada de 4^9 X 0.(^2.5 

, 1 *r 1 . 1 1 • .If .■ Tf • ir cm, dpice aeudo a atenuado, base aguda, margen 

has biliu styles and [)umale leal venation. It is dii- ' ^ ^ - i i • 

r • 1 r 1 1 1 c \ .■ entero pero con eldndulas marginales cubiertas por 

terentiated irom ttie other members oi ttie section . . ^ , „ , , . , i 

Croton araracuarae. By virtue of its stellate pubes- 

by its entire, narrowly lanceolate leaves and by the 
sessil*^ glands at the apex of the petioles. 

En una publicacion reeiente sobre las Euphor- 


el induuKMito, pelos estrellados por la haz de 8 a 
12 brazos y por el env^s de 20 a 25 brazos, ven- 
acion pinnada broquidodroma con venas secuiidar- 
ias poco aparentes, en 8 a ll(a 14) pares; venacion 
terciaria inconspicua. Inflorescencia en racimo ter- 
minal de (1. 2-) 1.8-4 cm de largo, bisexual, las 
de la region de Araracuara, Colombia (Mu- ^^^^.^^^ ^^^.^j^^ amarillentas, las masculinas concen- 
rillo & Franco, 1995: 68-69 y fig. 13), se presento ^^.^^j^^ ^^^ ^j ^^j^.^^ j.^^ femeninas basales, 1 a 3, 
una especie de Croton que uo se pudo incluir en ^eparadas de las masculinas por una porci^n del 
otra ya descrita. Despu6s de conseguir coleccioues ^.^^^1^ ^jj^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 0.7-2 cm de largo. Flor mas- 
adicionales d(^ este tax6n y confrontarlo con otras ^^uWmi con pedicelo de 0.5-0.6 mm de largo; biae- 
muestras de la region de la Guayana y con des- tea angostamente triangular de 1.2 X 0.2 mm, dp- 
cripci(nies originales de otras espeeies del g^nero, ice agudo, glabra en la cara interna; s^palos 5, 
se pudo det<*rminar que se trata de una especie aiin ovados, de 1-1.8 X 0.8-1 mm, dpice agudo; p^- 
no descrita, la cual se describe y discute en este talos 5, oblongos, de 1-1.8 X 0.2-0.3 mm, libres, 


Nc)\()N 10: 64^6. 2000. 

eon pelos simples abundantes en el margen; recep- 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Murillo et al. 

Croton araracuarae de Colombia 


0.15 cm 

0.23 cm 

Figura 1. Croton araracuarae J. Murillo, I'. Iv Bein &' M. V. Arhdarz. 

Flores masculinas en tA apice de la infloresceiicia. 
Basada en J. Murillo fi aJ, 1973. 

— A. Haliito. — H. Drlalle del enves. — C 
D. Flor masrulina. — E. Flor fetneniiia. — F. Fruto. — G. Seniilla 



tdculo conico, viloso; estambres 8 a 10(11), uno Chodat & Ilassler, ^1 mismo describe a la secci6ii 
central, anteras basifijas, 0.3-0.5 mm de largo, fi- Podostachys vow estilos "usualmente multifidos" y 

lamciitos do 1-L8 mm dc largo, glabros. Flor fe- con hojas "± palmada-ncn^adas." Nuestra cspecie 

meiiiiia con pcdicelo de 1-2 mm de largo; ap^tala; no cabrfa dentro de la seccion Octolohiiinu ya que 

sdpalos 5, valvados, algo desiguales, angostamcnte 6sta tiene de 6 a 8 sepalos en las flores femeninas 

elfpticus de 2—3 X 0.8-1.0 mm, dpice agudo; ova- y entre 10 y 15 estambres en las flores masculinas, 

rio tricarpclar; estilos 3, ca. 1.5 mm de largo, l)i- y C, araracuarae tiene 5 sepalos en las flores fe- 

fidos. Capsula trilobulada de 3^1(-5) X 3—1 mm, meninas y de 8 a 11 estambres en las flores mas- 

verdts pedicelo de 1—2.5 mm de largo. Semilla elip- culinas. Especies de la seccion Podostachys de la 

soide de 2.5-3 X 2 X 1.2-1.5 mm, lisa, con ca- RegiAn Guayana que mds se parecen a C arara- 

runcula pequena. niarae son C. spirae if alius y C. subserratiis. Croton 

spiraeifoUus se diferencia porque tiene hojas nuls 

Dislrihurion y ecologia. Croton araracuarae se elipticas y redondeadas en el dpice, nilcntras que 

encuenlra en el extrcmo occidental del Esciido de ^^^ (j subserratus las hojas son fuertemente denla- 

Cuayana en Colombia; en el pais solo se conoce ^^^^ y ^mbas ticncn gldndulas estipitadas en cl dp- 
para la n^girtn de Araraciiara, en el limitt^ de los j^.^ j^.] p^.^folo en vez de s^siles como en C ar- 
dcpartamcntos de Amazonas y Caquetd. Es una 
planta lieliofila que crece direetamcnte sobre roca 


desnuda parcialmtMite erosionada o entre las grietas 
del afloramiento, en sabanas arbustivas de la for- 

Pardtipos. COLOMI^I A. Amazonas: PiuTto Sarilan- 
der. afloriHiiit-nU) rocosu cti Cliidad Pt-ixlida. 2 fcb. 1993, 
J, Murillo & A. Malapi 255 (COAIl, (X)l,). Caquela: Ar- 
aracuara, pisla dc alerrizajc, 200 in, 72°25'\\, 00°35'S, 
10-25 mayo 190H, M \. Arhvldez & J. Manaidego 1105 
(IIUA, MO); Hi'o Caqut'la. Paiijil. 10 km tiorocsle de Ar- 
araciiara, 26 (Kl. 1992, M. V. Arht'ldez et al. 265 (COAH, 
llUA), M v. Arbeldez et uL 492 (COAII, COL, HUA); 
iiorot^slc (It- AraiacLiara, Rio Caqucta, Irocha a Monorhoa, 
72°20'\\, 02'25'S, 17 nov. 1993, II Cdnlrnas, G. Gangi 

mezcladas con hojas de otras planlas, para mante- * J- ^^<inai<U>go 4090 (COAH, MO): Puerio Arturo. aflor- 

1 1- . aiiiieiito rocoso en cl Paujil. 2H nov. 1992, / Murillo el 

ner los (iientes sanos. ■' 

maci6n Araracuara; localmente es comiln. Florece 
y Iruc'tifica la mayor parte del aflo. 

La planta se conoce por los indfgenas Uitoto con 
el nombrc de "Jumuigo yeroai," traduce al espanol 
"planta dulce de abejorro." Desde la aparicion de 
los primeroR dientes, los Uitoto mastican las hojas, 

De acuerdo con la niuna circunscripcion de las 
secciones en Croton (Webster, 1993), C araracu- 

al 201 (COAH, COL). 

Agradccimicntos. A la Fundaci6n Tropenbos 

arae pertenecerfa a la seccion Podostachys por la financiacion de las salidas de camj)t>. Ale- 

(Klotzsch) Baillon, un grupo de unas diez especies jandro Jaramillo, coordinador de la Fundacion en 

americanas, distribuidas principalnuMite en la re- Araracuara, y el Instituto de Investigaciones Cien- 

gion dc la Guayana. Esta secci6n se caracteriza por tfficas SINCIII nos prestaron ayuda logfstica en la 

tener un indumento con pelos estrcllados, laminas zona. German Lopez elaboro la ilustracidn y Pedro 

con pecfolos glandulares e inflorescencias termin- Ortiz conigio la diagnosis en latin. 

ales con uii espacio evidente entre las flores mas- 
culinas y las femeninas. Croton araracuarae difiere 

Litcratura (]ilad; 


dc las otras especies de la secci6n en que tiene Murillo A., J. & \\ Franco IL P'95. Las rnforhidccas de 

estilos biTidos y hojas con venacion pinnada y mar- '^* '^^^'**'^ *'*' Araracuara. Ksludios en la Ainazonfa col- 

. » Tvr I /Trwr»o\ omhiaiui l\. Fropt'iihos Colombia. 

iijenes enteros. A pcsar lie que Webster (IWol as- wr i , r i lon-j \ • • i • r .i 

^ * * ^ ^ Wth^tcr, ii. L. 199^. A provi:!>ional synopsis oi tlie sec- 

evera (jue las especit\s de esta allanza con estilos (jops of the genus Groion (Ku])horl>iac('ar). Taxon 42: 

bffid<)s sv dcben colocar en la seccion Octolobium 793-1523. 

The Identity of Grindelia angustifolia DC, ex Dunal 

(Asteraceae: Astereae) 

Guy L Nesom 

BON AP— North Carolina Botanical Garden, Coker Hall CB 3280, University of North Carolina, 

Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, U.S.A. 

Rogers McVaugh 

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 

North Carolina 27599, U.S.A. 

AUSTKACT. A colored painting from the Sesse and umentation (Carnegie 
Mociiio expedition serves as the holotype for the Pittsburgh). 




validly published name Grindelia angustifolia DC. 

Some of these remarkably detaih^l paintings 

ex Dunal, 1819 {— Grindelia dunalii Sprengel, have remained without coiToboration or reevalua- 

nom. nov., 1825; non Grindelia angustifolia Kunth, tion of their initial identifications, if such were ever 

in HBK, 1818). The illustration represents the spe- made. We examined one of them (Torner No. 0884; 

cies heretofore identified as Keerlia linearifolia Fig. 1), which includes on the same sheet two spe- 

DC, 1836 (= Gutierrezia alamanii A. Gray, nom. cies of Asteraceae tribe Astereae, the left-hand one 

nov., 1852; non Gutierrezia linearifolia Lagasca & annotated by De Candolle as "Lemerya anlhemo- 

Segura, 1816), which occurs in the south-central ides'" and the other as ""Grindelia angustifolia."' It 

Mexican states of Mexico and Morelos. Gutierrezia \^ assumed that the plants were encountered by the 

dunalii (Sprengel) Nesom, comb, nov., is proposed expedition in Mexieo, as surmised from the iden- 

as the earliest valid name for this species. Gutier- ^[^^^.^ ^^f the plants depicted. The Grindelia illustra- 

rezia megalocephala (Fernald) Nesom is proposed ^[^^^ served as the basis for a formal description of 

for a closely related entity {Gutierrezia alamanii ^\^^. species in a publication by Michel-Felix Dunal 

ar. megalocephala (Fernald) Lane 
phalum megalocephaluni Fernald). 



The Sesse and Mocino expedition to New Spain 

(1787-1803) recorded many interesting obsena- 

tions, especially regarding the flora of Mexico. For 
a description of the expedition and its aims, travels, 
collections, paintings, and in particular its botani- 
cal accomplishments, see articles by McVaugh 
(1977, 1980, 1987, 1990, 1998) and a recent sum- 
!naiy and update by Bartholomew and McVaugh 
(1997). Plant collections from the expedition are 
housed at a number of European lierbaria as doc- 
umentation for various early reports and names, but 

in 1819 (see nomenclature below). 

The left-hand plant is white-rayed, a species of 
Aphanostephus. Dt^tails at the top of the illustration. 

snownig wniie ray flowers. 




corollas, and 

achenes, are from this plant. The slender taproot of 
annual duration, pinnatifid leaves, basally unex- 
panded disc contllas, and achenes with a conspic- 
uous coronal pappus are features oi A. ramosissima 
DC. var. ramosus (DC.) Turner & Birdsong (Turner, 
1984), which occurs over a wide area of central 
Mexico, from Durango to San Luis Potosi and south 
to Michoacan, Guerrero, Morelos, and Veracruz. 
The yellow-rayed plant (on the riglit-hand side) 

the paintings ma.k- in situ by expedition artists also represents the sp-e,es heretofore ulent.fied as Gu- 

provided the basir information for descriptions of l^errezm alamanii A. Gray, which is known from the 

new faxa. A. P. De Candolle and contemporaries south-central Mexican states of Mexico and Morelos 

proposed approximately 370 new specific names (Lane, 1985). Salient features shown in the illus- 

based wholly or in part on these paintings. Consid- tration are these: a basally ascending stem arising 

erations regarding the formal typification of these from a fibrous-rooted rhizome; leaves linear-oblan- 

taxa are outlined by Bartholomew and McVaugh ceolate without a well-defined petiolar portion, 1- 

(1997) and McVaugh (1998). The original set of ner\'ed, entire, primarily basally disposed but con- 



paintings is now housed under the name of the Tor- tinning up the stem; several relatively large neacis 
ner Collection of Sesse and Mocino Biological II- (compared to other species of Gutierrezia) with con- 
lustrations at the Hunt Institute for Botanical Doc- spicuous yellow rays (18, 21, and 23 rays, respec- 

NovoN 10: 67-70. 2000. 



* * 





i . 












<y^A^3c.1v* ' tnkUJtk 

\ /o A A 


Figure 1, Illustrations of Grindclia anguslijhlia DC. ex Dunal = Giiticrrezia dunalii (Sprengrl) Ncsoni (right-lidiul 
|>lant, the liolotype) and Apharwstephus ramosissima DC. van ramosiis (DC.) Turner & Birdsong (left-luuid ])lant), as 
discussed in the text, photographed frotn Torner No. Ol\H4 (Tomer Collection of Sess^ an<l Moeiiio Biological llhistra- 
tlons. Hunt Inslilute for Botanical Docuniciilation, Carnegie Melloji University, Pittsburgli. Pennsylvania). 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Nesom & McVaugh 
Grindelia angustifolia 


tively, on the three mature heads illustrated); in- 
volueral bracts white on the proximal two-thirds, 
with prominent green tips. Heads of G, (dniimnii 
dTv 8—15 mm wide, exclinhng the rays; (»ther spe- 
cies of the genus have heads (l-)2— 8 mm wide 
(rarely to 10 mm in C. conoidea (Hemsley) M. A. 
Lane). The pappus of G. (damanii is an erose co- 
rona 0.1(-0.7) mm high. Because the illustrated 
plant was described as Grindelia, presumably its 

l.atu', 19JJ2). Xanlhoceplidlum alarnanii (A. Cray) 
Mctilliam. in Heiithani <V J, I). Hooker. Con. Tl. 2: 

24*A 1 873. Xdrifhorrphiduni linrarifoliurn (IX^) 
(ireeiinuni. PuM. Field \lus. \at. Hist., Hot. Ser. 2: 
343. 1012, TVPK: ^Wlexico." Without ihte.Alaman 

s.fL (liulotype. G-DC not seen, inicrofu lu'-L.Nr; iso- 
l\f)es. (ill fragiiietil ti(»t seen. 1* not seen. [)liolo of 

G-DC lype-TKX). 

The original of the holotype oi Gutierrezia dunalii 

pappus was obsened to be much reduced. IIow- '^^^"'^ "^> inscription except for annotations by De 

ever, all but one North American spe<-ies of Grin- Candolle, ''Lemerya anthemoides' (for the left-hand 

rfe/ia are taprooted except for G. r>o/r/^/,s Blake from plant, an unpublished name) and ''Grindelia an- 

the Rio Grande Plains of southeastern Texas, which gmliJoVui" (for the right-hand plant). Presumably 

has slender, branched rhizomes. All species of DC. plate 559, which is missing from the collec-tion 

Grindelia have serrate leaves, with either sharj)- at Geneva, was a copy. No speeimen corresponding 

pointed or blunt-tipped teeth. The laterally orient- to this was found in the Sesse and Mocino herbar- 

ed, fibrous-rooted rhizome and entire leaves of the ium. 

ilhistrated plant eliminate it from consideration as 

The illustration published by Dunal (plate 7, a 


a species of Grindelia. Species of Gutierrezia also black-and-white engraving) was reproduced from a 
are ta])rooted, except for G. alanianii, which is a copy made by the artist Nod<*-Veran of the right- 
perennial, rhizomatous herb with basal rosettes at hand plant on Torner No. 0884. 
flowering; tap root branched, secondaiy roots prom- Dunal (1819) cited ^'Grindelia angusti/idia DC. 
inent, the root syst«-m thus appearing fibrous" incd.," suggesting that he (Dunal) was taking up an 
(Lane, 1985: 13). The clarity of the illustration in un]Hiblished name, which cuiTcntly would b<^ cnul- 

habit and diagnostic capitular features establish the 

itcd to Dunal as the publishing author and formally 

identity of the yellow-rayed plant as Gutierrezia ^jted eith<M' as "DC. ex Dunal" or simply "Dunar' 

alarnanii sensu stricto. (Comments on a closely re- 

(Greuler et al., 1994: Article 46.4). De Candolle, 

lated entity, G. aJamanii var. megalocephala (Fer- however (1836: 315), considered die nairu^ to orig- 

nald) M. A. Lane, are given below.) 

inate from himself and wrote the primaiy citation 

If Grindelia angustifolia DC. ex Dunal is treated ^f j,^^. ^,,^^^^ ^^ up(. j^ ^^^^^^^ j^ jgjg;' S^mni^A 
as a Gutierrezia, the following new combination is ^.^.^.^^^^^j ^j^^ ,ub,Utute name Grindelia dunalii for 

Grindelia angustifolia DC. ex Dunal because of the 
earlier homonym C angustifolia [Kunth inj IIHK, 
In his monograph on North American Grindelia, 


Gutierrezia dunalii (Sprengel) Nesom, comb. nov. 

Basionym: Grindelia dunalii I'Dinalir] ^^^.y ^^,,,,,j.], (1934) assigned G. angustifolia [Kunth 

Sprengel, Syst. veg. 3: 525. 1826. N(»m. nov. 
for Grindelia angustifolia DC. ex Dunal, Mem. 

in] HBK to the synonymy of G. inuloides Willden- 
ow. Neither Grindelia angustifdia DC. nor Grin- 

Mus. Paris 5: 51, plate 7 [citeil as plate 31. i v i /•• c i »■ j i c* 

, , ' deha (tunalii ^{)rengel was mentioned l)y Mcyei- 

1819. ^'Asteris species. Moy. et Si'ss^. fl. mex. 
ined." and ^^Grindelia angustijtdia. D.C. ined." 
as cited by Dunal i.e., p. 52. "Asteris s]>. Mo^-. 
fl. mex. ined.'" as cited by DC, in DC, Prodr. 
5: 315. 1836; non Grindelia angustifolia 
Kunth, in HBK, Nov. Gen. & Sp. [folioj 4: 309. 
1818: [quaHo] 4: 309. 1820. TYPK: ^^M«'xico." 
Torner No. 0884, the right-hand plant (holo- 
type, Torner Colh^ction of Sess^ and Mocino 
Biological Illustrations, Hunt Institute for Bo- 
tanical Documentation, Carnegie MeUon Uni- 
versitv, Pittsl)urgh, Pennsylvania). 



TlIK S'l Alls Ol'^ GniERIiEZtX AlAMANU VAI{ 

Gutierrezia alarnanii var. megacelophala, as 
treated by Lane (1985), occurs in the westtMU Sierra 
Madre from west-central Chihuahua to southern 
Durango, the southernmost populations disjunct by 
more than 550 kilonu^ters Irom populations of typ- 
ical G. dunalii (— G. alarnanii) in the states of 

Cutivirezia (daimnni A. C.ray, Smitlisuniaii Coiitr. Kii<)\n1- Mexico and Morelos. With n^cognition of the vabd- 

e(lge3(2j: <il 

IM. Wright. 1:9I|. 1852. Norn. nov. 

for Kerdifi linrdrifoliu DC, in Dd.. i^odr. .^: 310. 
1836; mm Gutierrezia iuwarifolia I.agasca. IHI6 ( 

ity of the earlier name for Gutierrezia alarnanii, a 
new name is now required ((»r the sienan p<»pula- 

(iiulerrezia sarodnav (Pursli) Britloii & l{usl)y. .see tions, provided here at specific rank. 



Gutierrezia niegalocephala (FemaW) Nesom, identification was made, and to the staff at TEX 

comb. nov. Basionym: Xanthocephalum me- (Austin) for help during recent study tliere. The 

galocephalum Femald, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts color transparency has been deposited in the col- 

.36: 505. 1901. Gutierrezia alamanii var. me- lections of reprints and other documentation for 

galocephala (Fenuild) M. A. Lane, Sida 8: Compositae at TEX. 

313. 1980. TYPE: Mexico. Chihuahua: Mt. 

Mohinora, 1 Sep. 1898, E. W. Nelson 4890 (ho- 

lotype, GH not seen; isotypes, GH not seen, 

Lane's treatment of these two entities as varieties 

Literatim* Cited 

Rartholotiiew, R. & \\. McViiii^h. 1997. IdcntifKallon and 
typificalion of Ternslrovmia lincala de Caiulollt^ (Tlica- 
ceae). Novon 7: 14-16. 

Cajulolle, A. P. De. 1836. Grindelia. in !)('., I^itdr. 5: 

I lu 1 • n I ^^14-316. 

les concept, however, and based on essentially the Greater, W., F. R. Barrie, H. M. Rurdet, W. G. Clialuiur, 

same evidence, they can also be justifiably regard- V. Demoulin, D. L. Hawksworth, V. M. j0rgeii:5C!i, 1). H. 

Nieolson, I'. C. Silva, V. Trehane & J. McNeill (editors). 
1994. International Code of R(ttaniral Nonieru latiire 

of a single species is reasonable. In a nanower spe- 

ed as species separated by the morphological, cy- 
tological, and geographical differences noted in the 

(Tokv(» Code). Ke^nurn \'cg. 131. 

tereae) in Noilli America. Sysl, Rot. 10: 7-28. 

MeVau^Ii. R. 1077-1998. Rolanical results of the Sess€ 

& Mocino Expetlition (1787-1803). 
. 1977. 1. Summary of excursions and travels. 

couplet below. Their treatment at specific rank em- Lane, M. A. 1982. Neotvi)ific'alion' of Gutierrezia lineari- 
phasizes the isolation, both external by wule geo- folia Lag. (Compositae: Aslereae). Taxon 3 1: 330-333. 

graphic disjunction and internal by genomic differ- . 1985. Taxonomy of Gutierrezia ((Compositae: As- 

ences (diploid vs. tetraploid). 

la. Flowering stems 18—32 cm talL l)asally decum- 
bent lo ascending (matching the Sesse & Mo(Mno 
illustration); aehenes 1.5—1.7 mm long; pap[)us a 
barely perceptible, toothed rim ea 0.05-0.2 mm 
high; plants diploid {2n = 8); states of Mexico 
and Morelos G. dunalii 

11). Flowering stems 24-70 cm tall, strictly erect 
from the hase; aehenes 2-2.5 mm l(tnj2;: papains 

a corona of fused scales uneven in height around 
its circumference. 0.2-0.7 nun hi^h: plants tet- 
raploid (2/i = 16); states of Chihuahua and l)u- 
rango G. megarephala 

Contr. Univ. Michigan Herh. 11: 97-195. 

. 1080. II, The Icones Florae Mcxicanae. (^onlr. 

Univ. Michigan Hed). 14: 99-110. 

. 1987. 111. The Inipai't ol thi^ and otluM* expedi- 

tions on contemporary botany in Furope. (^tntr. Univ. 

Michigan Herh. 10: 155-171. 

. 1990. IV. The lihrary atui herharium of tlu- ex- 
pedition. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herh. 17; 183-214. 
. 1998. \'l. Reports and records from western Mex- 

ico, 1790-1792. Hoi. Inst. Bot., Uni\. (Guadalajara Fpo- 
ca X 6(1): 1-178. 
Acknowledgments, We are grateful to James J. Sleyermark. J. A. 1934. A nuMiograph of the North Amer- 

ican speci(*s of the ^enus Gnndclia. Ann. Missouri Bot. 

Card. 21: 433-()08. 

Turner, B. L. 1984. Taxonomy of th(* ^^i^cnus Aj)hani)steph us 

White (Curator of Art, Hunt Institute for Botanical 
Documentation) for sending a color transparency of 
the illustration (Tomer No. 0884), from which the 

DC. Phylologia .56: 81-101. 

A New Species of the Genus Paederia (Rubiaceae) from the 

Petriky Forest, Taolagnaro, Madagascar 

Sylvain G. Razafimandimhison and Charlotte M. Taylor 

Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S. A 


AmstRACT. Paederia taolagmtrensis Razafiman- and winged or unwinged diasporcs (Puff, 1991). For 
dinibison & C. M. Taylor is described from Petriky, 

taxa with winged (Haspores, each <liaspore is sus- 

Taolagnari>, Madagascar. This new species is dis- pended from tlie stout, filiform caipophore, wliith 

tiriguished from other Paederia species of Mada- remains basally attached to the top of tlie pechcel 

gascar by its cymose-panieulate inflorescences that (Puff, 1991). 

are rather congested, showing "double" scorpioid 

cyme structure, and its thickened peduncles and Paederia laolaf!jnareiisis Razafimandimhison & 

pe(hcels. It grows on stabilizi'd tlunes in [\ic Petriky 
region, Taolagnaro. A description and dichotomous 
key are provided. 

REsiMfi. Paederia taulagnarcnsis Kazadmandim- 
bison & C. M, Taylor a ete decrite de la region de 
Petriky, Taohignaro, Madagascar. Cette nouvelle es- 
peee est distinguee des autres Paederia de Mada- 
gascar par ses inflorescences en panicule de cyme, 
qui sont plutot aiTondies et parfois ramifiees <Hcho- 
tomiquement, et ont des pedoncules et j)edicelles 
6paisses. Elle pousse sur les dunes dans la region 
de Petriky, Taolagnaro. Sa description et une cle 
dichotomiqu(* ont ete incdues. 

C. M. Taylor, sp. nov. TYPE: Madagasc ar. To- 
liara: Taolagiuiro, also calltMl Fort-Daupliin, re- 
gion of Manaml)aro, Petriky forest, ca. 15 km 
W-SW of Taohignaro on stabilized dune satid, 
25°04'S, 46^5rE, 9 Mar. 1989, R. Gereau, G 
Schatz & N. Dumetz 3219 (holotype, MO 
3766545; isotypes, P, T\N). Figure 1. 

Ilacc species a ((irif^rncris madagascariensihiis inflo- 
resccntia cynioso-paniculata congestion' inlcnlurn diclio- 
toriic rarnosa aUjiic |)eduiiculis pcdiccllis(]uc ciassis dis- 


Lianas. Stems sparsely lenticellate, terete, ca. 2 
mm diam., glabrous. Leaves decussate, widtdy 
ovate to widely oblong, 21-65 X 19-38 mm, round- 

The genus Paederia L. (Paederieae, Rubiaceae) ed at base, rounded to acuminate or apiculale at 
is represented in Madagascar by about 12 species apex, wdth 5 to 6 pairs of secon<Iaiy veins, g]a])rous. 
(Puff, 1991). Ten of these species are endemic to Petioles 11-28 mm long, glabrous. Stipuh^s inter- 
Madagascar, with two also found in the Mascarenes petiolar, up to 1.5 mm long, triangular, af)j)n'ssed, 
and on the African mainland. In his rect^nt treat- d(^ns(dy pubescent on the distal part, apex acute or 
ment o{ Paederia of Madagascar, Puff (1991) keyed sojuctimes shallowly bifid. Inilor<*scences axillary; 
and provided a morphological descriptioti for one cymose-paniculale, rather congested, showing 
specimen that appeared to be a new spt^cies, but "double" scorpioid cyme stnjcturt^ bearing 3 to 7 
he did not name this because that specimen had flowers; pedurudes sparsely lenticellate, terete, 10- 
only fruits. 40 mm long, 0.7-1 mm diam., glabrous. Flowers 5- 

While idt^ntifying undet<'rmined material oi Pac- mcrous; pedii'cLs t(Tete, to 3 mm long, 0.5-0.6 mm 
deria from Madagascar in the MO luMl)arium. we diam,; recepta(de glal)rous. Calyx lobes 0.5-1 mm 
discovered a few herbarium specimens mat(diing h>ng, broadly triangular. Corolla tube whitish blue, 
the undescribed species mentioned by Puff in his infundibuliform, 8—10 mm long, ca. 1 nun diam.. 

treatment of Madagasean Paederia. Thes** speci- 
mens have flowers, allowini^; us to confirm that it is 

glabrous outsid<% inside glabrous below the rmddle 
and lanate above the middle, corolla lobes 2-3 mm, 
indeed undescribed. We describe this new specdes oblong, rounded and nottdied at apex, light purple 
below. with darker purple on base of the lobes, not rigid, 

Paederia L., belonging to the tribe Paederieae margins crisped. Stamens inserted near the mouth 
and subfamily Rubioideae, is a genus <tf lianas of tln' corolla tube; filaments 0.0^1—0.08 mm, gla- 
characterized by having an unpleasant odor when brous; anthers ca. 1.5 mm long, partially exserted. 
tissue is damaged, stamens Inserted at two levels, Style ca. 6 mm long; stigmas filiform. Ovaiy 2-loc- 

No\ON 10: 71-73. 2000. 


No von 

Kigiirr 1. Paedcria taolag/uirensls Razafiinaiuliinl>is(>n X C. M. Taylor, bastnl on Q'reaii el uL 3219. — A. Hahit of 
plant in (lower arul IVui!. — R. Corolla tiil)r and ])arts of stigma anri authors. — C, Calyx and juirt of indoroscence. 
— II. Disscctod coi-olla tuhr showing stylo and stigma as well as aiilht^' alta<hrnonL — E. Disserted frnit. 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Razafimandimbison & Taylor 

Paederia taolagnarensis from Madagascar 


ular. Fmits 13-16 X 7-10 mm, laterally mm- Kva jn PAt:i)t:Ri\ TU)iA(;y\iu:\sis \\u P. s.\\im 

pressed, ovate-elliptic, glabrous, shiny, cTowned by 


)<)res siigniiy smaller 


persistent calyx lobes; (lias| 

than fruit outline, wings ca. (1.5-)2-3 mm wide, 

seed-bearing portion 5.5—7 X t— 8 mm, bhu'k. 



Distribution and habitat. Paederia taolagnar- 
eruis is only known from Petri ky. Canton Manain- 
baro, Taolagnaro, in the extreme southeasterii cor- 
ner of Madagascar, where it grows on stabilized 
sand (hines. These sands have a high titanium con- 
tent and host other endemic species such as Po- 
lyalthia pendiila LeThomas & Schatz (Annona- 

ceae), K(ilan(h(>e rosei R, Hanict & W. Perrier 
subsp. serratijolia Humlx-it (Crassulaceae), Croton 
thouarsianum 11. Braun (Eu])liorbiaceae), Tachia- 
deniLS longifoliiLs Scott Elliot (Gentianaceac), Glad- 
iolus decaryi Coldblatt (Iridaceae), and Cryptocnrya 
elliotii Kostcrmans (Lauraceae). Paederia taolag- 
narensis is apparently also restricted to this habitat. 

This particular habitat is found onlv in Petrikv, his help with the Latin description, P. Mick Rich- 
Mandena, and St. Luce, Taolagnaro, Madagascar. ardson for his comments, and Nancy Hediger, who 

Mandena and Petriky have been proposed as the 

site of a large surface-mining project for titanium. ih^w species. The fine illustration was drawn by 

This deveh)pment would probably lead to the ex- Carlos Vargas, and its cost was borne by the Alumni 

tinction of any species whose total geograj)hic dis- r und at MO. 

tril)Ution is restricted to the mine path (Lowiy & 

Faber-Langendoen, 1991 ). 

We presenl hrlow oril\ an n[Mlate to the lasl 
Itarts of the key given by PulT (1991) for Mad- 
agascan Paederia^ to be inscrlcd in leads 1 1 
and II*, and incorporating (he floral informa- 
tion of P Idolfignarensis: 

11. ^ruit^ (.^.r)-)(^)— II mm long. uing> (jf dia^ptdrs 
0,5-2 mm v\idt* 

I \'^\ tiiiits (1 l-)L'5— 20 mm long, wings of diaspores 
(l.5-)2-."5 mm wide 

12. Indorescence lax, peduncles and |)ediee1s fili- 
form and slender, pedicels (3— )5-l7 mm long. 

cal)\ lolies (0.7-) 1-1.8 X ()..S— 0.6 mm. narrow- 
Is Iriangulai lo subulate; onl) knoun from Sam- 

l)irano region (N\\ Madagascar) 

Pfirdcrui sfifuhirancnsis 

12*. hi florescence not so lax, [iciidiu les anti pedi- 
cels coarser, [>edicels to 1 nmi long: calvx lobes 

0.5-1 mm long, liroadi) triangular; on!) kimun 
from littoral forests of Petriky. Manamharo. and 

Taolagnaro (SE Madagas<ar) 

Pardrrid laoldfi^Hiin'fLsis 

Acknmvledgments. We thank Roy Gereau for 

originally separatcMl the unidentified specimens as 

1 jletatnre Cited 

Lowiy; W P., II tK I). Faher-l,ang(Mido(Mi. 1902. ()\era 

Ilora and \egctation Study of the Man<lena. St. Luce 
and Petriky n^gion^. LnpuMislu'd l>epnrt Uw (^)rrfer by 
Mi.-isouri Botanical Garden, St. l,ouis. 
I13F;S (MO, P, 1;\N), 25 m, 8 Dec. 108<>, MrPlu-rson & Puff, L. 1991. Kevision of the germs Paederia L. (Kiil)i- 

Para types. MADAGASC] XH. Toliara: Fort -Dauphin 
region. SF of lov\n of Pctrik>, forest near dune near end 

of yiT road, 25^05'S, 46°52"'F, 2 Nov. 19P><>, McPherson 

Dumeiz 14W() (MO. \\ IVVN). 12 Dee. l9Ji9. Dunwiz & 
McPherson 1092 (MO. W'VW): Vov\-Dm\i>huu .Siofl Ellioll 

3060 [P. s|). MAD A] (BM. F. K. P). 

aeeac-Paedericac) in Africa and Madagascar, fn il. Puff 
(editor). The gt^iuis Paederia P.: A multnhseij)hnar\ 
sIikIn. Opera Bot. Heig. 3: 29.V:^22. 

A New Species of the Fern Genus Thelypteris (Thelypteridaceae) 

from Southeastern Brazil 

Alexandre Salino'^ <u\d Luriana Cldudid Neves Mela 

Departamento de Bolanica, Institute) de Giencias Biologicas, 
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627. Pampullia 

31270-901, Bel(^ H 



nte, Minas C<Tais, Brazil 

AiiSTKAcr. TJiclypteris scmirii, known only from 1600 m. An cxccphon h Thelypteris lugubris {Kun- 

Minas G<Mais, Brazil, is descrihed and illustrated. ze ex Mt^tteiiius) R. Ti7on & A. Ti7on, which sonie- 

Tlie new species belongs to Thelypteris subg. Con- times grows in open woods, along paths and weedy 

iopterisy due to tlie indumcnt of furcate and slcllate sites sueh as die undtTstoi^ of banana plantations, 

trifhomcs on scales, p<*lioles, rachises, and costae. The present work provides tlie description of a new 

It is most closely related to T seahra (C. Presl) species and a key to the species of TVic/^/j/erLs subg. 

Lelliiiger (from Argentina, Paraguay, and south- Goniopteris of southeastern Brazil most closely re- 

easlcrn Brazil) because of pinna shape, disposition lated to tliis n(^w species, 
of induiiienl, prominent simises, and unbraneluHl 

tricbonies on sporangial stalks. It diffi^s by having Thelypteris MMuirii Salino & Melo, sp. nov. 

Iriehomes golden or orange, stipitate, and glandu- 
lar, on both surfaces of all pinnae and in<lusia. 
Stems are erect and Inids are lacking in the axils 
of distal pinnae. 

TYPE: Brazil. Minas Gerais: Marlicria, Parque 
Esladual do Rio Doce, Camp(»lina, Dec. 1996, 
Sidino 2848 (holotype, BHCB; isotypes, UC, 

UEC). Figure lA-E. 

Species iU)\a sul^geiieris Gouioptrridi.s, Thclyptrridi sea- 
bra (C. Prcsl) Lclliriger affinis, a qua jiiimis Iricliomatilnis 
glandirlosis slij>ilalis ahaxialiter ve.slilis cl caule loiigo cr- 
edo (liKcrl. 

Stems erect, with caudex to 15 cm long, scales 

from Florida, the Antilles, and southern Mexico to chomes, sonu^times also with marginal glanc 

Besides an early monograph by Christ ensen 

(1913) and the suneys of Brade (1972) and S(^h- 

nem (1979), nothing more on the taxonomy of the 
Brazilian species of llie Thelypteris subg. Goniop- 
teris (C. Presl) Duek has been published. This sub- 
genus comprises 80 to 100 Neotropical species lanceolate, brownish, with furcate and stellate tri- 


northern Argentina and Paraguay (Smith, 1992). trichomes. Ltvives clustered, 64—103 cm long, 

Thelypteris subg. dmioptcris is distinguished from monomorphic. Petioles yellowish, sulcate on adax- 

otlicr subgenera of Thelypteris by the presence of ial side, 30-55 X 0.2-0.3 em, glabrescent to 

furcate or stellale trichonn's on various plant parts, sparsely pilose, with furiate and stellate trichomes 

especially o!i the scales at the stem apex and in up to 1.5 mm long, also with lanceolate scales, 

tlie adaxial groove <»f the rachis (Smith, 1983). Such Laminae 31—59 cm long, herbaceous to charta- 

» are appan'utly la<"king in a few species ceous, not veriiicose, 1-pinnate to pinnatifid, apex 


of subgenus Goniopteri^s (Smith, 1983, 1992), but gradually reduced, confluent and pinnatifid. Buds 

are always present in Brazilian s[)ecles. Thi' major and aerophores absent. Rachises densely pilose in 

eent<T of diversity for subgenus Goniopteris is Gen- adaxial grooves, abaxially sparsedy pilose with fur- 

tral America, where 41 spi^ies occur. Secondaiy cate and stellate trichomes, sometimes also with 

centers are soudieaslern Brazil, Peru, and Ecuador. unbranched trichomes, abaxially sometimes stellate 

Brazil has approximately 29 species of subgi-ims and furcate trichonu^s absent. Pinnae 11 to 20 pairs 

Goniopteris. 21 of them occurring In the southt^ast- per leaf, sessile, 9-12 X 1.3-2 cm, linear-lanceo- 

em part of this eomitry with at least 13 endemic to late, elliptic or lanceolate, with apex acuminate and 

this region. In southeast<^ni Brazil subgenus Gon- base tnineate or oblique; incised ca. Vi their wiihh, 

iopteris glows in mesie and moist shaded habitats, with lowermost pinnae strongly dcllcxed, hair-like 

such as primary arul secondaiy lowland and nion- scales on abaxial side of costae. Scgnu'iits 3-6 mm 
tane rainforests, from to 1000 m, rarely reaching wide, falcate, with margins entire and apex round- 

Aiillior to wlutrn <'(>rrcsj)on(lcn(c should he addn^ssrd; salino<^^!7i(iiH).i<l>. 

NovoN 10: 74-77. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Salino & Melo 
Thelypteris semirii 


Fi^uir 1. A-E. Thelypteris semirii Salino S Melo [Salino 2848, holotype). — A. Habit. — B. Segnit-iits. showing 

venation, soral position, arul prominent sinuses. — C. Stem seale. — D. Detail of epidemiis surfaee of petiole, showing 
stellate Irieliornes. 

E. Detail of stalked glandular tricliornes on ahaxial side of laminar tissue. 



ed, ol)lusr or acute, veins 6 to 11 pairs per seg- ' •■'"'<' "'" Vinliatico. 16 May IWf), Solino 2167 (BHCI5, 

, 111 . ' ' f A UC). 2<) Mar, l<W), Sa/molWj.7 (I5l!(:m, Campuliiia, ;U) 

nieiit, utibranehetl, lowermost vein pan*s trom ad- ., ' ,,^,.^ ,, .. ,-^^., ,„,,,.,>' ,m , ,,, '. 

* Mar. l*>**f), Sauna 26/3 (nIK.n), lllia do (J(m — poix^ao 

nortp, 22 June P>06. ScudvUvr /;)6 (lUICM); Hi.) Casra, 

inarjrnis do Hio Casca. 28 Fcli. 199o. Salino 4079 

jacent segments running to or just above the sinus. 
Indunienl of furcate and stellate trichomes on 

scales, [)etioles, rarhises, and costae; nn])rancluMl (BIK^n): N'ivosa, Agricultural Culh-ge lands, road lo Sao 

trichomes on petioles, rac'hiscs, costae, costules, ■^''^"••'- ''^ ^'^'■- l'^'^"' ^^'•■''" ^^^'-^' ^*'"- ^^^ '-"^^- 

and margins of segments, sometimes on veins and 

Ki:\ lo rnK SiMx:u:s ok Tiu-DrrFRis >\nc,. GoMorrrias 

laminar tissue; golden or orangisli, glandular, ovSol■lnE^>vl^i^l^\i^zu.\}^^vvToTsHW^^^ 

stalked trieli<»mes on both surfaces of piimae and 
indusia. Sori in medial to inframedial positions, in- 
dusia reniform, with margin n^pand, pale to brown, 
and glandular; sporangia glal)rous, sometimes with 
unbranched trichomes on sporangial stalks. 

Epithet, This plant is named in honor of Joao 

Semir (State University of Campinas, Brazil), who 
has gn'ally contributed to our knowledge of the 

Brazilian flora. 

Distribution unci habit at. Thelypteris semirii is 
entlemie to the '^Zona da Mata" n^gion in the State 
of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and grows in shaded areas 

in the primary an<l secondary Atlantic Rain Forest, 
from 300 to 700 m. This new species is coimnon 
only in the Rio Duee Slate Park, betVNt'rn 19°41'— 

lO^-iO'S and 12^38 '5"-18°28'W and is rare outsido 

this n^gion. 

The new species belongs to Thelypteris subg. 

Conioptcris, due to the indum(*nt of trichomes fur- 
cate and stellate on scales, [)etioles, rachises, and 
costa. It is very similar to T. scabni (from Argentina, 
Paraguay, and southeastern Brazil) in pinna shape, 
indumetil disposition, prominent siiuis<'s, and un- 
branched trichomes on sporangial stalks. However, 

la, Sumii oro('t: tricliouios orange, shorl-stalkcd, 
glandular on tlu^ abaxial <'osta. veins, laniinai' tis- 


sue, and indusia . . T. srnnrii (Bra/il. Minas Cprai^) 
Stem creeping; glandular tiiclionies ah^eiil. 
2a. Sori exindusiate. 

3a. baniina witli apex ahnnilly reduetHl, 
similar to lateral piruKU- (eonforni); spo- 
rangial capsules willi simple Iricliomes 
. . T. U'tra^ofia (Svsart/) Small (from ca^h'rn 
antl southern Mexico {o Panama; Flori- 
da; the Antilh^s; (lolomhia to l^eru and 
Surinam (Sinitlu 1*>*^2); Argentina 
(Ponce. 1987); norili and soiitlieastem 

Brazil (Salino. pcrs. ohs.) 

31). Lamina with apex gradually reduced, 
confluent and piruialifid; sporangial 
ca|)sules without trichomes. 

T, scabra has 

ping stems, buds in the 

ils of 

distal pitmae and lacks orangish, stalk(Ml, glandular 

trichomes on the abaxial side of costae, veins, lam- 
inar tissue, and indusia. Thelypteris semirii has an 
erect stem, lacks buds in the axils of distal pinnae, 
and has trichomes that are glandular, short-stalked, 
and oratigish on abaxial sides of costae, veins, lam- 
inar tissue, and indusia. This new species differs 
from the other species of subgtnius Goniopter'is from 
Brazil by the presence of glandular trichomes. Otli- 
er species of subgenus Goniopteris from Brazil are 
eglandular. However, T. aureoJa A. R. Smith (from 

4a. Bud> on a^Il^ ol lowermost pinnae; 
base of medial pinnae, uilli aeros- 
copic side not auriculate . . T ahbiattii 
C. F. Reed (from southeastern Bra- 
zil and Argt'ntina) 
4b. Bud^ ahseni i>n axils of lowermost 
piiuiae; base of medial [>innae, with 
acroscopic sitle auriculale, tlie au- 
ricle oflim overla|»ping tlie rachis 

7' riitgrarKh'nsis (bindman) C K 

Heed (from soulheaslein Brazil. 
Argentina, Paraguay, and Trugua)) 
21). Sori indusiate. 

ria. Scales lanceolate on abaxial <'(tsta; ad- 
axial laminar tissue pubescent; tri- 
choines sim|)le and fuicate on abaxial 
\cins . . T liigiibns (Kun/.e ex Mctlcnius) U. 

M. Tryon & A. K 'IVyon (from soulli- 

easlern and ei^itral Brazil) 

51). Scales abscnl on abaxial eosla; adaxial 

laminar tissue glabrous; trichomes a!)- 

sent on ahaxial \cins .... T. seahra (from 

southeastern lira/il, Argentina, and 


Arknoivledgments. We thank the curators of the 

Honduras) has numerous golden or orangish, short- following lierbaria for loan of specimens and hos- 

stalkcd, glandular trichomes on the ahaxial surfac- pdality during visits; Gil, UC, and US. We also 

es of rachises, costae, veins, and laminar tissue *'»^'ik ^^^^i R- Smith for suggestions, Mirj^an Mor- 

(Smith, 1990). Thelypteris aureola has exindusiate ^to Duarte for preparation of illustrations, Claudia 

sori, and sporangia and receptacle glandular, while ^^^^^a Jacobi and two anonymous reviewers for sug- 

T semirii has indusiate sori, and sporangia and re- g*'slions atul help with Lnglish. 
c<'ptaclt^ without glandular trichomes. 

Paratopes. HliAZlL. ^liiias Grrais: Asloldo Dulra- 
i/uarani, hs niargens do liio Pomha, 7 Ai)r. 1998, Salino 
4176 (HIKlb); Marlieria. Panjut* Fstadual do Rio Doee, 

l.iteralure Cited 

Rrade, A. C 1972. genero Dryapteris (Pleridoph}ta) no 
Brasil e sua divisao taxonomica. Bradea 1(22): 191 — 


Volume 10, Number 1 Salino & Melo 



Thelypterls semirii 

Chrislensen. (]. 10)3. A niori(><;rapli of llu' t^cnus Dryop- Sniilli. \. R. 19H3. l\)ly[)()(lia(<'ar- Tlu-U [>leri(l()i(l<M*'. //( 
ieris I. TIic Iruplcal Ann'iican pinnatifHl-hipIniiatirKl C Harling & B. S|)arre (editors). Flora of Etiiadoi' 18: 

species. K(Jii^(^l, Datiske \'i<lensk. Selsk. Skr. Afd. Ser. 18—118. 

7. 10: r).V282. 

. 1990. N<*\v Thi'lypteris ('riiely[)leri(kK*cae) from 

Ponce, M. M. 1987. Revisi(^n de las Tlielypleriikieeae (lenlral Anieriea. Ann. Missouri 1^)1. Gard. 77: 118- 

(Pleri(]opli\ta) Argentinas. DanviriiaTia 28(1^): 317— 121. 

390. ' . 

. 1992. Tlu-l\|.leridaeeae. /// R. M. Tryon .K K. C, 

Seluieni, A. 1979. Aspidiaeeas. /// R. Reit/. (editor), Fl. Stoize (editors), I'teridopliyta of Peru. Pait 111. Fieldi- 

llustr. C^atariiuMise. Ilerh. Rarhosa RodrigUf^s, Itajai. ana. Rot. n. s. 29: 1—80. 

New Species and a New Name in Palicourea (Rubiaceae: 

Psychotrieae) from Northwestern South America 

Charlotte M. Taylor 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

AlisrUACT. The new species Palicourea awa, R Palicourea awa C. M. Taylor, sp. nov. TYPE: Co- 

clerodcndroides, R cogolloi, P. ebiirnca, R garcioi- 
deSy and R glandulifera are described and illus- 
trated, and the variety R justicioides var. macroca- 
lyx M. C. G. Kirkbride is recognized as a species, 

P. kirkbrideae. These 

all shrubs or small trees 

found in wet forests at 900—3040 m in Colombia 
and northwestern Ecuador. 

RksumkN. Las especies nuevas Palicourea awa, 
P. clerodendroides, P. cogolloi, P. eburnea, P. gar- 

cioides y P. glandulifera se describen e ilustran, y 

la varitMlad P. justicioides var. macrocalyx M. C. G. 

Kirkbride se trata como una cspccic, R kirkbrideae. 

Todas estas especies son arbustos o drboles pe- neled with age, densely hirsutulous. Leaves pain'd; 

quenos de bosque hiimedo a 900-3040 m en Co- blades elliptic, 13—36 X 6.S-21 cm, at apex acute 

lombia. Narino: municipio de Ricaurte, Res- 
guardo Indigcna Gualcala, Santa Fe, camino 

al Rio Gualcald, OriS'N, 77"54'W, 1100- 
1200 m, 18 Dec. 1995, B. R. Ramirez R & M. 
S. Gonzalez 9164 (holotype, PSO; isotype, MO- 
4911397). Figure lA, B. 

Haec species a Palicourea ^ilafullcyaiui C. M. Taylor 
stijnilaruni vaginis trimcatis ac lohiilis an^ustis luitatis, 
foIii)runi neniis seeurulariis tnultiorihus al(|iH^ innoTf^sciMi- 
tiis eoroIlis(|U(* purpnreis violaeelsve dislinti;ullur. 

ShiTibs and small trees flowering at 0.5 m tall, 
to 4 m tall; stems quadrate, often becoming chan- 

loml)ia y el noroeste de Ecuador. 

to acuminate with tips to 20 mm long, at base cu- 
neate to obtuse and usually attenuate along the pet- 
Among recent collections from Colombia and iole, papyraceous, adaxially glabrous except dense- 
northwestern Ecuador, the following undescribed ly hirsutulous along costa and often also on 
species o{ Palicourea Aublet were represented. The secondary veins, abaxially hirtell(»us, to densely so 
characteristics, circumscription, and infnigeneric on costa and secondaiy veins; secondar)' veins 31 

classification of this genus have been presented to 42 pairs, spreading, uniting in a well-marked. 

previously (Taylor, 1997); the classification of each generally straight, submarginal vein 1-2 mm from 
of these new species according to this system is margins, without or rarely with 1 weak interseeon- 
noted at the end of each description. In brief. Pal- darj' vein present between pairs of scn-ondary veins, 
icourea is distinguished within the Rubiaceae by adaxially costa promiimlous to plane and remaining 
its persistent stipules that are united around the venation plane, abaxially costa prominulous to 
stems into a continuous sheath and bilobed in the prominent, secondar)^ veins prominulous, and retic- 
interpetlolar portion; generally colored inflores- ulated minor venation plane to thickened; margins 
cences with tlie flowers usually pedicellate; corollas distinctly cartilaginous; petioles 2.5—12.5 cm long, 
that are usually brightly colored, usually five-lobed, densely hirtellous; stipules hiitcllous often becum- 
and have well-developed tubes that are somewhat ing glabrescent, persistent, united around stem into 
swollen at the base and glabrous internally except a continuous tnmcate sheath 4—8 mm long, with 
for a dense ring of pubescence situated just above angles thickened and extending to base of lobes, 
this basal swelling; and daipaceous fruits with usu- lobes narrowly triangular, 6—7 mm long, acute, en- 
ally two pyrcnes. This neotropical genus includes tire to ciliolate. Inflorescences terminal, erect to per- 
about 200 species found from sea level to high- haps rleflexed, with panieles subsessile and often 
montane regions. The species are typically disty- appearing "tripartite," pyramidal to rounded-cor- 
lous and apparently pollinated by hummingbirds. ymbiform, 6.5-18 X 5.5-14 cm excluding corollas, 
Palicourea is closely related to Psychotria subg. with 4 to 5 pairs of developed secondary axes, the 
Heteropsychotria Aublet; Psychotria subg. Heterop- basalmost usually strongly reflexed, with flowers 
sychotria is distinguished from Palicourea by its pedicellate and sessile in congested to clearly di- 
corollas that are not swollen at the base and inter- chasial cymules of 3 to 7; bracts entire to ciliolate, 
nally are variously pubescent or glabrous but lack acute, those subtending secondar}^ axes ligulate to 
a defined ring of tricliomes in the lower portion. lanceolate, 7—10 mm long, those sul)tending pedi- 

No VON 10: 78-87. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 1 


New Palicourea Species 


Figure 1. A. H. Pdluuiirea dUd C. \1. la} lor. — A, Flowerinf; branch, with irifloresceiut' a(trr anthcsis; hascJ on 
Hoover 27.1S. — 1^ Flower Imd, partially dissrclfd; l)ase(l on Ramirez & (^)nzdlez 9I()4, C-K, Palirourea ghttult/lifera 
r. M. TayKtr. — C. Flo\vrrin<i; hraiu'h with inflorcscf^nre; hasiMJ on Andersson 2120. — D. (]yinulc hearing flower lnuls 
will] wrll-(lr\rlo[KMl t^lan<ltilar icj^ions on the al)a\ial surface of each coroHa lohc. — K, (lorolla al arilhcsis. |)artially 
(iisseclcd. I). F. hased on Gentr\ el al, 60.17.1. A. C to 5-cni scale. 



7ir\(i'\\\ lloorer el ai 2838 (MO). 

eels ovatt* to elliptic, 4—6 nun lon^, pedicels to 6 <K)°58'N, Tfi'^UVW. Hoorer ct al. 273S (MO); near cn- 
rinn l<mg; pedunele, axes, bracts, aiul pedicels pi- ^^l^oy'lu'^i" .^.''^ Reserve, (Xr^H'N, 

losulous U) liirlellous, pu\i)\c\ Jlouers with hypan- 
lliiiiiii turbinate, ca. 1 ruin long, liirsute; calyx linil) 
liirt*^ll(»us, 3-5 mm long, divided nearly to base, 
lobes deltoid to ovate, acute to obtuse, ciliolate, 
with hiteral margins often overlapping; corolla in 
bud tubular-funnelform, pur[)le to violet, a little 
swollen at base, straight at base and in tube, ex- 
ternally densely pubescent with stout trichomes to 
1 mm long, internally glabrous except for a pilo- 
sidous ring ca. 1.5 nun wid(* situated just above 
basal swelling, tube ca. 8 mm long, lobes triangu- 
lar, ca. 4 mm long, acute, not much thickened 

Palicourea clerodendroiJes C. M. Taylor, sp. 
nov. TYPE: Ecuador. Zamora-Chincliipe: Can- 
ton Nangaritza, Rio Nangaritza, Pachicutza, 

04°07'S, 78°37'W, 900 m, 3 Dec. 1990, W, 

Palarios & D, Neill 6171 (holotype, MO- 

4328758). Figure 2A-C. 

Ihici" spti-ies n Ps\(liotri(i gentryi (Duvcr) C. M. laylor 
Hnilii cjlycini longiorcs lobuli,s kite rotuiulalis Mque co- 
rollii fl;u;i longior (lisliiiguiliir. 

Flowering at 5 m tall, to 8 m tall; stems quadrate, 
adaxially, in bud rounded, with sinuses not saccate glabrous. Imivcs paired; blades elli|»tic, 21-34 X 
at base; mature anthers and stigma not observed; 8-20 cm, at apex acute to usually acuminate with 



tips to 10 mm long, at base acute to cuncate, pap- 
yraceous, adaxially glabrous, al)axially glabrous to 

hirtcllous, purple-black to black; pyrcnes 2, with hii1ell(»us; secondary veins 11 to 17 pairs, spread- 
one rather sharp, central, longitudinal ridge and 1 ing to ascending, broadly cuiTcd, usually extending 
to 2 weak, rounded, longitmhnal ridges on each to or nearly to margins or sometimes looping to in- 
side of this. [Snbg. Montane, Sect. Montanae, Ser. tercomicct in distal part of blade, with l(to 3) weak 
4, Subser. fj inti-rsecondary vein(s) usually pn-sent between 

. pairs of secondary veins, adaxially venation plane 

Distnhutjon, habitat, and phcnolofry. In wet ,.. , r,,i .i ■ i i i • n . • i 

' .' ^ ^^ or a little InickeiUHl, abaxially costa pnuinimlous 

forest at 900—1450 m In northwestern Ecuador and 
adjacent southwestern Colombia; collected in flow- 
er bud in November and Dcct^mber, In fruit in Jan- 

to {jrominent, secondary veins prominulous, and re- 
ticulat<Hl minor venation plane; margins thinly to 
distitictly cartilaginous; petioles 1—4 cm long, gla- 
brous to hirtcllous; stipules glabrous to hirtcllous. 

This species is distinguished by its hirtcllous pu- • » » » i . -.i i -, i i . ' 

* ^ \ ^ ^ persistent at least with leaves, united around stem 

bcseemc on all vesretative parts; halves with rela- :., ^„x- \ a \ r ^ i u i i lo 

y . "* '* contimious sheath ^^-() mm long, lobes 14—18 

tiv<'ly tmmerous secotidaiT veins that utiite into a „,.,, u., _u » i ■ i . i 

/ . I . "1111 lf>tig^ membranaceous, acute, triangular to Ian- 
well-marked submarginal vein; stipules united . i , r i r \a -a • . i * i 

. '^ . ceolate, lused ior ca. ri, with snius acut<' and side 

around the stem into a continuous, well-developed • j i * i . . i .• , -i- i . 

' * margins rounded at least at base, entue to ciliolate. 

sfieath; subscssile purple inflorescences with rela- /../7 ,. , • i . -.i i lore 

' ' injtoresccnces terminal, erect, with pcihincles 2-6.5 

tively well developed bracts and Uic basalmost sec- ^^ i c. -.i i * i . j- .i i i 

•^ 1 n 1 ^^^ lf>'ig. ottt^n with bracts sulitt^ndmg the basalmost 

ondaiT nx<*s strongly rcflexed; calw limbs well de- • r i i ii i i i i i n-i i 

, 1 , , " P^^^ ^** branches well developed and leafbke and 

veloped with broad lobes; and corollas that arc 
externally densely pubescent with stout multicel- 

the iiiflorcsecnce thus a{)peaiing "tripartite"; pan- 
icles broadly pyramidal to corjinbiform-rounded, 

lular trichomes. In geiKMul aspect it is similar to o c u v ^ i/i '^ i r n -.i o . o 

/J ^ -<i.a-o X b-14 cm excluding corollas, witli 2 to 3 

Palicourea standleyana C. M. Taylor, which can be * r i i i i ah 

. -111. 1 • . pairs ot (ieveloped secondarj' axes, with flowers 

distinguished by its sci-ondaiy leaf veins 17 to 21 

pe(hccllate in cymules of 2 lo 5; bracts ciliolate. 

pairs, shailowly lobcd to emarginatt^ stipules, green ,i, i » r i 'i i . . r ' 

* ^ ^ , ttjose sul>teiiuing secondaiy axes lanceohife to lig- 

inflorcsc<*nces, and yellow corollas. Tlie specific i . * r i r i . .\ i 

1 A 11. ulate or ovate, (>-l5 mm long, acute, those sub- 

epitht^t honors the Awd peoph»: this species is *^ r r i i i . * n- .■ n r 

, ^ 1 r 1 i ^ - tentling pedicels lanceolate to <'llipti(\ 3-6 mm 

known only from their tenitory, which spans the ^ i , . , v ^ ^ o ^ 

1/^11-11 h*iit;' ohtuse to acute; pedicels 1-3 mm long; pe- 

Lcuailor— Colombia bonhT. i i l . i i- i i • ti 

(iuncle, axes, bracts, and pedicels hirtcllous or pi- 

n ., , ^, rrii\ii/u> r \ - \i^ \ \ i losulous, yellow lo red; /ZuiccT^ with hvpanthium CV" 

(juia Tdhar Donoso, Kesersa Kinica Aua, Sahalera. b"<h-ical to cupuliform, 2-3 mm long, hirtclhms to 

^K^55'^, 7H32'\\', Atdcsiia rl al. 718 (MO, (^XAF); trail glalu'ous; calyx limb glabrous, 4^7 mm long, shal- 

froMi I'ailori in (nialpi Chico area o\ \wa Hescrvation, 1.3 lowly lolu'd, lobes obtuse to rounded, cibolate; co- 

km pasi Ui(. niaiu.., 0()°SrN, 78°k)'W. Hoort^r et al. 

242f> (MO); trail along Avva honliu; to \loagon Creek, lo 

W of eiuainpiucnt and asceiulini; (at-ek Cualpi Chico 

an-a. (M^SH'N, 7H°16'\V, Hoorer rl al. 2569 (MOJ; Suuth- 

eas( IVail. in (.ualpi Cliic(i area near \v\a tMicanipnuMit, 

rolla lubular-fnnuelform, yellow sometimes with 
lobes and up[)er portion of tube pur[>le, a little 
swolU'n al base, generally islraighl at base and in 
tube, externally glabrous, internally glabrous ex- 

Volume 10, Number 1 


New Palicourea Species 


2 cm 

Figure 2. A-C, Palironrrd clerodendroidrs il. M. Taylor, based on Palarios 6471. — A. Klowering Itmncli willi inflo- 
rescence. — B, F^lower hinl. ^C. Corolla al anilicsis, parllall) dissected. I). K. Ptdicourca churnca C. VI. Taylor, liascd 
on (rihe 3408. — D. Flowerin*; branch willi inflorescence. — E. Cynuib^ of inflorescence uilb (lower Itud vUid flower at 
antlicsis. A. I) to 5-cni scale; H, C to 5-mm scale. 

cept for a pilose rin^ ca. 3 mm wide at ca. 1 mm late, broad to rounded inflorescences, and relatively 

above base, tube ca. 27 mm long, ca. 7 mm diam, large carnose flowers. The specific epillii-l refers to 

near middle, lobes deltoid, ca. 4 mm long, a little tlie similarity of tliis species in the general aspect 

thickened adaxially, in bud rounded; antliers in ap- of the inflon'scences and flowers, inchiding tlie 

parent long-styled form ca. 6.5 mm long, positioned well-developed, spreading calyx limb, to species of 

ca. % of h^igth of corolla tube above base; stigmas Clerodendrum L. (Verlx'naeeae), which can be sep- 

in apparent long-styled form ca. 3 mm long and arated by its superior ovarj^ and lack of stipules, 

exserted; disk not seen. Infructescences undfruit not Palicourea clerodendroides appears to be related to 


seen. [Subg. Montanae, Sect. Monlanae, Ser. 4, p subalatoides C. M. Taylor; R siihalauddes can be 
Subser. f.] 

Distrihulion and habitat. In wet forest at 900- 
1000 m, southern Ecuador. CollecttHJ in flower in long; calvx limb 2-3 mm long; and yellow corollas 

listinguished from P. clerodendroides by its stipules 
with sheaths 1.5^ mm long and lobes 4-16 mm 

October and December. 

with the tubes ca. 15 mm long and ca. 1.5 mm in 

This species is distinguished by its relatively diameter and the lobes ca. 5 mm long. PaUrourea 
large stipules with the lobes triangular to lanceo- clerodendroides is also very similar in general as- 



pect to Psychotria gentryi {Dw)Tr) C. M. Taylor, and pairs of developed secondary axes, with the basal- 
these species have previously been confused in most pair often strongly ascending and much longer 
herb. Psychotria gentryi can be distinguished from than the other pairs, with flowers pedicellate in cy- 
Palicourea clerodendroides by its flowers sessile or mules of 3 to 7; bracts entire to ciliolate, acute to 
subsessile in glomerules; corolla white or some- rounded, those subtending secondary axes narrowly 
times flushed with purple; corolla tubes ca. 10 mm triangular to deltoid, 1-5 mm long, those subtend- 
long; corolla lobes ca. 10 nun long; and apparently ing pedicels deltoid to ligulate, 1-1.5 mm long; 
allopatric geographic range, from Panama south to pedicels 1-3 mm long; peduncle, axes, bracts, and 
Ecuador on the western side of the Andes. 

Paratypes. ECUADOR. Zainoru-Chinohipe: Cant6ti 

pedicels moderately to densely puberulous, blue- 
violet to purple; Jlowers distylous, with hypanthium 

Nangarilza, parroquia Pachkulza, .cctur noreste del cam- gl^l^^ous, turbinate, ca. 1 mm long; calyx limb gla- 

pim^cnto mihtar, Jaramillo & Grijalra 13393 {NY^ QCA); brous to pubendous, 0.4-1.2 mm long, deeply 

Cant<^n Nangarilza, Rfo Nangaritza, Pachicutza, 04''07'S, lobed, lobes triangular to deltoid, acute to rounded, 

78^37'W, /;. Neill 9489 (MO, QCNK); Canton Nangaril/a, ciliolate; corolla lubular-funnelform, purple to blue- 

ufo Nant!;aril/a, Pachicut/.a, caniino al hito de Pachicutza, • i , n i -i i i i r^r^o 

04WS, 78-iT% PaUuios el al 8207 (MO, QCNE); ^^^^^^^^ '^^^^^" ^""^ g^^*^^^' ^^ ^^^^' ^^""^ ^^- ^^ ^^ 

Cant6n Nangaritza, Miazi, niargen derecha Rfo Nangarit- ^^^^ ^"^ ^^^^^ ^g^^^^ j^=*^ ^^^^ve basal swelhng, gen- 

za, 04°16'S, 7Jr42'W, Palacios et al 8630 (MO, QCNK). erally straight in tube above this bend, externally 

glabrous, internally glabrous except for a pilosulous 

Palicourea cogoUoi C. M. Taylor, sp. nov. TYPE: ring ca. 1 mm wide at ca. 1.5 mm above base, tube 

Colombia. Choc6: municipio de San Jos6 del 6-8 mm long, ca. 2 mm diam. near middle, lobes 

Palmar, SW of El Cairo along road from the triangular to ligulate, 2-3 mm long, acute, a little 

Valle-Chocd limit to Finca La Florida, ca. 8 thickened adaxially and abaxially, in bud truncate, 

km from the limit on the old road to Rfo Blan- with sinuses not or slightly saccate at base; anthers 

CO, 04°6'N, 76°2rW, 1800-2100 m, 30 Oct. in short-styled fonn ca. 3 mm long and partially 

1996, C M. Taylor, W. Delia A. & /. Adarve exserted, in long-styled form ca. 2.5 mm long and 

72072 (holotype, MO-491 1399; isotypes, COL, positioned ca. % of length of corolla tube above 

JAUM, TULV). Figure 3A, B. 

liaec species a Palicourea apicata Kunlli sllpularuni 
vagina truncata ac lohuUs angustis acutis disLinguitur. 

base; stigmas in short-styled form ca. 4 mm long 
and positioned ca. % of length of tube above base, 
in long-styled form ca. 0.8 mm long and exserted; 
disk 1—1.2 mm high, annular. Infructescences sim- 

Flowering at (1)3 m tall, to 15 m tall; stems ilar to inflorescences; /nn> ellipsoid, 4.5-5 X 4 

quadrate, glabrous. Leaves paired; blades elliptic, mm, not flattened laterally, glabrous, purple to 

6-15 X 1.6-8 cm, at apex acute to acuminate with black; pyrenes with 3 to 5 low rounded longitudinal 

tips to 8 rmn long, at base acute to cuneate, char- ridges. [Subg. Montanae, Sect. Montanae, Sen 3, 

taceous, adaxially glabrous and nitid, abaxially gla- Subser. c] 
brous except appressed-puberulous along costa and 

secondary veins; secondary veins 7 to 11 pairs, Distribution, habitat, and phenology. In wet 
usually extending to near or weakly uniting with forest at 1300-3040 m, Conlilleras Central and Oc- 
margins, with 1 to 3 weak intersecondary veins usu- cidental of Colombia. This species has been col- 
ally present between pairs of secondary veins, lected in flower in March, April, June, August, Oc- 
adaxially costa prominulous and remaining vena- tober, November, and December, and in fruit in 
tion thickened, abaxially costa prominulous to January, Februar), March, May, June, October, and 
prominent, secondary veins prominulous, and retic- December. 

ulated minor venation thickened; margins thinly to 

This species is distinguished by its stipules with 

distinctly cartilaginous, entire; petioles 5-15 mm well-developed truncate sheaths and narrow lobes; 
long, glabrous; stipules glabrous, persistent at least rather stiff shiny leaves; pyramidal purple to blue- 
with leaves, united around stem into a continuous violet inflorescences; blue-violet to purple corollas 
truncate sheath 2-5 mm long, entire to ciliolate, that are strongly gibbous and bent at the base and 
lobes narrowly triangular to linear, 1.5-2.5 mm have relatively short tubes; and relatively small el- 
long, acute, entire. Inflorescences terminal, erect, lipsoid fruits. Palicourea cogolloi is similar to P 
with peduncles 0.2^4 cm long, sometimes with apicata Kunth; P apicata can be distinguished 
leaves or bracts subtending the basalmost pair of from P. cogolloi by its interpetiolar stipules with 
secondary axes well developed and the inflores- shallow broad lobes and its broader, usually round- 
cence appearing "tripartite"; panicles pyramidal, ed inflorescences. Palicourea cogolloi is also sim- 
11-16 X 10-11 cm excluding corollas, with 5 to 7 ilar to P. angiistifolia Kunth; P angustifolia can be 

Volume 10, Number 1 


New Palicourea Species 



A-R. Palicotircd nt*z<)lloi C M. Ta) lur. I)a>r(l twi (IdnU'tuLs el dl. '> I 72. — A. Muurrin;; hrancli uilli iiillo- 
— B. Flower at antliesis. C-K, Pdlicouren gtircioiflrs C. M. Taylor. Iiasrd on Andcrsson vt dl. 2121. — V.. 
liratich witli iri(lorrsr<MK'(' allcr antln-sis. uilli (Icvclopin-i; fruits. — I). Calyx linih and fi\ panlliiniTi aftn 

antliesis. — K. I^r\('l()j»"m^ fruit. \. C to ."i-ciri scale: W. 1). 1^ lo 5-nitn seale. 

distinguished from P. cogoUoi by its corollas that gollo and his colleagues and students at J \l M; the 
are generally straight or only a little hent at tlie species epithet honors this productive and knowl- 
base and have tubes M-IS mm li>ng. This new 

edgeable scitHitist. 

l*(ir(it\pcs. (^OLOMHI \. Atilio<]nia: hajo ile la <uni- 
hre cerca ile Santa Klena. carnitio etitre Medelli'n \ Rfo 

golloi has IxMMi collected fn-quently in recent years ^.^^y,,, Rdrklvy e( uL 383 (Mi;i)KL). Cutienvz 10f>3 (MKD- 
by Colombian botanists, in particular by Alvaro Co- bb), 1113 (MKDI^b): muuicipio tic Jardfii. Alio de Vcn- 

species has frequently been confused witli both P. 
npicatd and P. (ingustijulin in herh. Pdlicourcd co- 



tanas 1 ."> km SO <lr Janlin rii la vfa a Kiosucio. 05^W\. ^^ b^gg ^^^^^. ^^ usually ruiicatt^ or somctiiues ol)- 

75"50'\X, Callrjas el al :V)10 (HUA, MO); inunlcipio de , . U . I ■ 11 1 

,, ,. \, . , ., , ,,T .. -! " tuse, papyraceous to chartareous, adaxiallv ^la- 

Urrat), ranjuo INacumal Aatural I. as Onjuuh'as, sector i i i i ' i 

Cahafia do Callcs, qnr!, I.a Agudrlo, ()6°:^r\, brous, abaxially sparsely liiilcllous on lamina and 

76''1*>'\\, Crfrrtrnas et al. .'il 72 (JAl \1. MO): miiniripio moderately to densely so on cosla and secondary 

<!*• Inao, vrrrda Calh^s, PaniiK- Nacional \atnra| "Las veins; secundaiy veins 11 to 17 pairs, s{)rcading, 

Oi(liifdcas," mariien di'recha del n'o Calles, 06^32' N, ^^ . j- . •, . i , i i ■ i 

-^owv'xv /' /; t iinr, /I* I M A^ix. F)- / 1 usually extendirii^ to unde at least weaklv with iiiar- 

.6°19 W, Lo^ollo ct al. U09 (J \L M, MO), Ihpoly et al. . . , , ^^,^, , , . ' , 

17127 (i\[ M, MOJ, en rl filo al M) Ar la (:al)ana de &']^^ ^^^^ 1 to 2(3) rather weak nitersecondary 

veins usually present bt^tween pairs of secondary 

veins, adaxially costa prominulous and remaining 

venation plane, abaxially costa prominulous to 

Knnagad(u"vrilirnt»"'orridrnl^rm prominent, secondaiy veins pnmiinuliHis, and ndk- 

ulated minor venation plam* to tliiekeruMl; margins 

Calh's, Co^rollo VI al. ()4()(y (JAUM, MO). 6/r*> (J \l M. 
MO), (Vnil (JALM, MO), 7012 (JAI:M, MO). 7i:i5 
(JAl M. MO), Pipoh vi ill. I(>r>{>6 (JALAU MO). (K)°2M'N, 
76°1 I'W, Pipo!) el al I67l\) (JAL M, MO); inunicipiu dt 

Mi<'I. Fn<-nlr de Hi-ii^-run. ()()°10'N. 75°3rV()U"W, Correa 

el al /JlMJALM, M()); li('lruiia. f;.s7>//u//.7(MKI)KI,): Alt(> distinctly cartilaginous, ciliate; /WzWe.v 8-2S mm 

de Sana, NW <►( V(';j;a del ln}jlrs, I'atatiiillo National rark, i . i -^ ii *• i \ • * u * i i i 

M-rn'^ 7ror.Mv /' , ^ r I 'un-, i\u\\ ^^^^^^^ hirtelluus; stipules lurlellous to ghdmvscenl, 

()< 10 !\, 75 51 w, Geittry iv (jiaaros /Wd) (MO); niun- . - i i i - ^ 

icipio d«- Ifrrao, [Mrarno dr Krontirm, Kl Hfo, Inrulofw et Persistent at least wdh tlie leaves, united around 

(//. IS2 (MF^DKK, MO). Cam-a: ninnicipio de Kl Tandio, the stem into a continuous truncah- sheath 4-5 mm 

ranjue Nacional Mun(lii.|ue, trail to Nutna Granada. long, lobes narn»wly triangular to linear, 2. S-5 mm 

()2"l,rN. 76",->;rV\. AnJrrs.on ./ al 2126 (CIJ MO S). ^ ^^^,^^ ^.^jj,.,. ^^ ^.,i,,,^^^^. h^orescences t<-r- 

Llioeo: iiiunK inio de San Jos<'^ del lalinar, voroda de Kfo . -. , . . , , .. , 

Negrn, Orn, lorrd. xerUenie uneuuA. Iu»ya dri rm Negro, """^^1' ^''e^'^' ^^*'^ rixnu^cs subsi^ssile and appi^ar- 

Hitmi»s et al. l2H:i (CL \ C, MO). 12H(i (CLAC, MO), ceira ing "tripartite," roundtMl-coiymbiform, 5-8 X 6-12 

de 1 liora arriha dri lirlI|>M<Tto, Or lO'N, 7C>^29'\\', /?(i//io^ cm excluding condlas, with 2 to 3 pairs of devel- 

W.// Ai/,V((:LA'UM());nmni(-ipiodeSanJost^M^ oped secondar>^ axes,' with flowers pedictdlale in 

mar, (.crro del lorni. \<Mtu'nt(' noronrntal, i)lan i:;rantir ^ r -* r i • •^• ^ 

„i ■ I I 1 ^ v./.,.. . .. c . / ' , / i-Qi ii'\ \ r cymules oi 2 to 5; hracts entire lo i-iliolatt\ acute, 

MO); rniuilcipio k\v San Josr del Palmar. Ccrro i\e\ Torra. those subtending sccondar)' cixt^s narrowly triangu- 

enmhrc di-l lurni Orande, SiliersUme-Sopkin e! al. 1816 lar, 4—5 mm long, those subtending pedicels tri- 

angular to deltoid, 0.5-1.5 nun long, often dis- 

(CU\'(!, MO); muni(ij)io de Sa!i Jos(*^ del Palmar, vereda 

de Hfo Nrgro. Oerro Torra. vertitMitc oriental, mesa v ve- , i t n i i- i i- i o r 

• I I I • I I 1 .7 , c /•*/'/ /-') piaceii distallv aloui!; pe< heel; pedicels Z—b mm 

cimlad aha)(» de la rnmhrc. .Sihershtne-Sapkin et al. 4f-^y2 " ^ fo t ' r 

(CLA'C. MO); muniii|no de San Jusr del Palmar. SW of long; peduncle, axes, bracts, and pedicels glabrous 

Kl Cairo along road from llu' \all*'-Clioe6 limit to Kinca or the bracts sometimes hirttdlous;y7(>Tcer.s with hy- 

I.a Kl(>,ea. H^kinjroni^^^^^^^ (.n tlu^ ol<l mad toJ^^^^ panthium glabrous, turbinate, 3^ mm long; calyx 

lind) glabrous, 3—6 mtn long, sinuate to ver) shal- 
lowly lobed, lobes broadly obtuse, entin^ corolla 

lilanco. oriO'N. 76^2 1 A\; Taylor el al. I2IL>() (MO, 
riMA). Vall*' d<d <!aii4'a: minnclpio de Cali. Km 18 \ 
Km 20 <I<* la carretera de Cali a nncnavcntnra rnlrando 

por la Kinca Zin^ara, Cabrera tS: ran der Werjf I 'y79:i funnelform, while, somewhat swollen at base, 

(MO); mnni(i[)io de (lali, corrcgirniento de La Fdvira, Cor- 
dillera OccidiMital, I'inca /I'n^^ara. Km \H de la rarrelera 

straight at base and in tube, externally glabrous at 

Caii-IUirnav*MMnra. kI^ '^^^^ ^'''^ ^>»" '"**^^ ''^ *^^ 1^"?^'^ *'^^"^^ly 1^*"*^^*^ ^'♦^^ 

Giraldo-Cen.slni X: .\^re<fa iiryO (MO. TUIA'), 711 (MO, rather stout trichomes lo 0.1 mm long, internally 

TUIAO; miini< ipio dr Kl Cairo, Ccrro del Ingles, CordilKra glabrous except for a pilose ring ca. 4 nun wide al 

Occidental, S<'rrani'a de los Para»^nas, a I liora en jccji d( 
i:i Cairo. SilrerstoneSitpkin 2()<J0 (CI \ C, MO). 2800 

(CUVC, MO). 

Palieourea ehiiriK'-a C. M. 'Faylor, sp. nov. TYPE: 

ca. 5 mm above base, tul)e ca. 16 mm long, ca. 3 
mm diam. near middle, ca. 10 mm diam. at throat, 
lobes ligulate, ca. 16 mm l<»ng, obtus<^ to acute, not 

much thickened adaxially, in bud rounded, with si- 

r- ^ \ • I) ^ T\ ■. ' . J AT tmses not saccate; anthers ca, 7.5 mm loni^, ex- 

Lolomlna. l>oyaca: Outtama, canetera de Vi- ^ 

rolm, iiacien<la <le La Rusia, 2600-2800 m, verted on filaments ca. 14 mm long that are inserted 

14 Nov. 1045, /. llrihe Urihe 1083 (holotype, ^^ ^^P ^^ ''**^*^"'^ ^''^''^'^ ^'^'^^^^' '''' ^/^ "''" 1**"^' 

COL; isotype, i\lO-5006421 ). Figure 2D, E. 

exserted on style ca. 35 mm long; disk ca. 2 mm 
high, annular, fnfnictescences similar to inflores- 

Haec species a <-orig('ncris limho calycino 3-f) mm Ion- ceuccs; fruit ellipsoid, ca. 10 mm diam., not flat- 
tened laterally, gla])rous, cohtr intt ol)s('rved; py- 
renes 2, with 3 to 5 rather shai7) longitudinal 
ridges. [Provisionally: Subg. Montanae, Seil. Ps\- 

go. lirnho calvcinn simiato \cl lc\iter K)l>ato. corolla alha 
Infnndihnliiorrni extlis dcn>c lanosa al(|ne fihimentis >ty- 

lo(in(^ sat longis ilistirignitur. 

Flowering at 2 m tall; stems qua(h'ate, hii1<dlous chotrioides, Ser. 94 
to glabreseent. Ijcares paired; bla<Ies elliptic to 

somewhat oblanccolale. 7.5—16 X 2.8-7 cm, at Distribution, habitat^ and phenology. In wet 

apex acute lo acunuTiale with tips to 10 mm long, fon'st at 2600—3000 m in the Conhllcia Orientid 

Volume 10, Number 1 


New Palicourea Species 


of the Andeii in Colombia; collected in flower in venation plane, ahaxially costa proniinulous to 
March, Oct(ther, and Noveml>er, in fniit in Noveinher. prominent, secondarj' veins prominulous, and re- 

This species is (hstinguislied l)y its stipuh's unit- 


ea aroun( 

I ll 

le stem into continuous truncate 

maining; venation plane; margins thinly to distinctly 

cartilaginous, entire; petioles 3.S-7 nun long, 

1 ,1 1 -1 J 1 1 -r ■ n sparsely hirtellous to glabrous; stipules glabrous, 

sneallis; subsessiie rounded-corymbitorm niilores- . . . 

11 ] 1 11*4+ 11 persistent at least with leaves, united around i\\c 

eences; well-developed ])Ut tnuicate or vcrv shal- ^ ' 

lowly lobed cal>x limb; pyrenes with sharp^ longi- ^^t^'" '''^'' ^ continuous, truncate to shallowly emar- 

tudinal ndg<'s; l)roadly funnelform corollas that are S^"'^'*' "^^*'^^^'^ "^'^ "^"^ '^*"g' ^^^*''*'- f^^M^-'^^^ru.'-^ 
externally densely but shortly lanose; and well-ex- t^^^i^i'i^^ ^^I'^^'t, with peduncles 5-35 mm long, 
serted antliers and stigmas. In general aspect it is sometimes with the leaves or bracts subtending tin 

similar to Palicourea Candida C. M. Taylor; P. can- 

basalmost pair of branches rather well developed 

dida can be distinguished from P eburnea by its ^"*' inflorescences a|)pearing "iripaitile"; pani<des 

stipules that are interpetiolar and floral bracts 3-7 pynunidal, 3^ X 4^7 cm excluding corollas, with 

nun long. Tlie specific epithet refers to the color of 2 to 4 pairs of developed secondaiy axes, with flow- 

the flowers, wliich are described on one label (Uribe ^^^ p<MUcellate in cymules of 3 to 5; bracts ligulate, 

3408) as ''bianco de nieie' (i.e., "snow whit(^"). entire to ciliolate, tliose subtending secondaiy axes 

The relationshi])s of diis new species within Pal- 3.-5-5 mm long, obtuse to truncate, thost^ subttMid- 

icourea are not entirely clear, and it is classified big pedicels 2.5-1 mm long, acute; pedicels 1-5 

only provisionally here. The floral moiphology seen mm long; pcdunch^ axes, bracts, and pedicels 

on herbarium specimens suggests that this species greenish white, sj)arstdy hirtellous or bracts usually 

is homostylous, with the stigma and anthers botli glabrous; y?ott'er'; with hypanthium cylindrical, ca. 

1 mm long; calyx limb glabrous, 2—5 mm long, di- 

However, the number of flowering specimens avail- vidi'd nearly to base, lobes ligulate, acute to obtuse, 

able for study is relatively small, and the flowers entire; corolla in bud tubular, pale y<dlow, a little 

on these dritMl specimens appear to be shrunken, swollen at base, straight at base and in tube, ex- 

so the corolla sizes and proportions given here may ternally glabrous, internall) glabrous except for a 

mm long. 

stronglv exserted and held at nearly the same level. 

b<' smaller than those of living plants. pilose ring just abov*' base, tube ca. 2 

D ^vM/A^toii T» ' T-i II f' ■ / lobes triangular, ca. 2 mm long, a little thickt^ird 

I (iratvpcs. LOLOMIJIA. IJovaea: hi Hucrld. hspuKil ^ '^ 

v( al 1369 (\lia)l-:i,): Ha( i.-iula df h Rusia, ci. hi car- adaxially, in bud rounded, with sinuses not saccate; 

rclora de Ouimiila a Charala, I'rihe 3U)8 (COL). mature anthers and stigwas not s(M^n; disk ca. 1 mm 

high, annular. Infructescences similar to inflor<'s- 

Palicourea jxarei<>id«"s C. M. Taylor, sp. nov. eences; fruit narrowly ovoid, ca. 5.5 X 2 mm, flat- 
tened laterally, glabrous, dark purple: |)yrenes 2, 

TYPE: Colombia. Cauca: uuinicipio El Tambo, 

Parque Nacional Munclii(iue, trail to Nuevo ^ith 3 to 5 low rounded longitudinal ridges. [Subg. 

Granada, 02^43'N, 76^58'W, 2000-2300 m, Monlanae, Sect. Psy choir loides. Sen 8.] 

14 Apr. 1994, L. Andersson, K Gonzalez. C. 

Gustafsson, C, Persson & J, //. E, Rova 2124 Distribution, habit<Jt, and phenology. In wet 

(holotype, S; isotypes, GB, MO-489591 1, NY). forest at 2000-2300 m In the southern Cordillera 

rigure 3C— L. Occidental of the Andes in southwestern Colombia. 

Ilaec sp<vi<'s a Paluourca ^arciae Staiullcy sti,uilis This species is distinguished by its stipules thai 

limho calvcino 2-5 mm lon-^o atfjiie are uniltHl around the stems into tnmcate to shal- 

tiiiTu-atis rl()l)atts, 
fnictu ca. 5.5. X 2 

mm (listin^uitiir. 

lowdy emarginate sheaths; rounded-corjinbifonn in- 
Flowering at 5 m tall; stems quadrate, hirtellous florescences with relatively well developed floral 
to glabres(vnt. Ij^aves paired; blades elliptic, 5-8.5 l^''^^"^^' well-developed calyx limbs; and relativ.>ly 
X l.r>-2.2 cm, at apex acute to acuminate with tips narrow fruits. It is similar to Palicourea garciae 
to 10 mm long, at base acute to usiudly cuneate, Standh^y; P garciae can be distinguished from P 
papyraceous, adaxially glabrous except hirtellous garcioides by its emarginate to shallowly bilob<'d 
along costa, abaxially glabrous except strigul(»se to stipules, bracts subtending the pedicels 1-1.5 min 
hirttdlous along costa and secondarj^ veins; second- long, calyx limb 0.8-T2 nun long, and fruit ca. 5 
aiy veins ca. 12 pairs, spreading, usually extending nim wide. The specific epithet ref<^rs to the simi- 
to unite al least weakly witli margins, with 1(2) larity of this new spiH'ies to P garciae. Palicourea 
weak intersecondaiy veins usually present between garcioides is currently only known from the t\'i)e 
pairs of secondary veins and minor venation not collection, which was made in a j)oorly explored 
evident, adaxially costa prominulous and remaining region in western Colombia. 



Palieourra glaiHluIifVra C. M. Taylor, sp. nov. middle of the ahaxial side (Fig. 1 D); a/i//iers in slun1- 
TYPK: (^oloinhia. Narifio: La Plaiiada Reserve, styled fomi ea. 2.5 mm long, partially exserted, in 

7 k 



Chueun^s, OTOS'N, 78^01'W, long-styled form ea. 3 niiii long, posilioiuMl ea. V3 of 
1800-1850 m, 4 Jan. 1988, A, Gentry, 0. de letigth of eorolla tulx^ above base; stigmas in short- 
Bcnaiide.s & P. Keating 60375 (liolotype, PSO; stylt^d fonn ea. 2 mm long and [)ositioneil ea. V2 of 
isotypes, COL, MO-4895912). Figure IC-E. lengdi of eorolla tube alxnc base, in lorig-slyled fonn 

ea. 1 mm l(nig and (^xsertrd; disk 1-1.2 mm liigli, 

H;h'c sprcirs a ('oiigciicris sli[>iilis sat ht-nr t'\t)lulis. lol)- 
iilis cotollinis ill alahaslro extus glamliilarildis at<|ii(' fmctii 
i)bo\(tiil(M» [Htrcis lun^itLidlnalil)Us at litis oniato di>tiiiguilur. 



ea. 7 X 5.5 mm, not flattened laterally, glabrous, 

Sluiibs and small trees flowtM-itig at 2.5 ni tail, t<» blue; pyrenes with .3 to 5 sharp longitudinal ridges. 

4 m tall; stems quadrate, hiilellous to glabreseeiit. [Subg. Montanae, Seet. Ohovoidear, Ser. 6.] 

flares paired; blades elliptie to (»blaneeolale, 9.5- Distribution and habitat. In wet forest al 1 600- 

24 X S-11 cm, at apex aeute toaeuminate with tips 2300 m, in southwest^-rn Colombia. Coibn-ted in 

to 1 em long, at bast* euneate to usually acute, pap- flower in Jariuaiy, Ai)ril, May, July, and November, 

yrac(H)us, adaxially glabrous except hirttdlous on and in fruit in November. 

costa, abaxially sparsely hirtellous Uuoughout to Tins species is distinguishe<l by its relatively 

densely so along costa and seeondan veins; second- ^ell tleveloped, sheathing or often nearly iiiterpe- 

ary veins 13 to 21 pairs, spreading, broadly euned, tiolar stipules; corollas with glandular an^as on the 

external surface of the lobes in bud (Fig. ID); ob- 
ovoid fruits; and pyrenes with rather sharj) longi- 

tudinal tidiit^s. It has luH-n confus<Ml with Psychatria 

usually exttMiding to unite with margins or sometimes 
reticulat<Ml or looping to interconnect near or at mar- 
gins, with 1(2) well-marked to weak intersecondary 
veins usually present between pairs of seeondan- Icvis (Standley) C. M. Taylor of P(*m, Psychatria 
veins, adiLxially costa and secondar\ veins plane to levLs also has corolla lobes dial are api>arently glan- 
thiekened and remaitiing venation plane, abaxially dular on the abaxial suifaces in bud, but it can be 

costa prominulous to prominent, secondai-)- veins t 


j)romitndous, and reticulated minor venation plane eoroUas with tubes 2-3 mm long and straight at the 
to thiek(^ned; margins thinly cartilaginous; j>elioIes hixsc; ellipsoid fruits ea. 4 X 2.5 mm; and broadly 

1.5—3 cm long, hiilellous; stipules hirtellous, [)ersis- 


\cx}\ at l*\ist with leaves, united around stem into a rhotria letis have both Ix^^n eoiifused in herb, for 

continuous sheath or with intrapetiolar portion oft<'ii many years with a species of Psycfu)tria from Kc- 

reduced, iiili'ipetiolar ()ortion with a tniiuaie to con- uador that is apparentl) undcscribctl; this appar- 

eave sheath 1— (> mm long, lobes triangidar to deltoid, ently un<leseribe(l species can be distinguished 

3-5 mm long, acute, eiliolate. Injlorescences termi- from bolh Palicourea glandulijera and Psychatria 

nal, erect, with peduncles 1—5 cm long; panicles py- leiis by its lack of abaxial thickenings or glandular 

ramidal, C-9.5 X 7-9.5 cm excluding corollas, with areas on the corolla lobes in bud. 

6 to 8 pairs of developed seeondaiy axes, with flow- raratypes. COLOMin \. Cauca: immici]u.) Kl Tamho, 

ers pedicellate in cymules of 3 to 7; bracts eiliolate, Pat(|iie Nacional Mmichiqiir. trail In \iicva (iranada, 

triangular to elliptic, obtuse to acute, those subtend- 02"4;y\.J6'^5[r\\. AmbrsMm n al. 2120 {i^W. MO. ^ Y. 

, TO 1 .1 1.1- S). NaiMMo: mimicipio tic liicaiiite. coireiinnitiilo (]Iiu- 

iiiiT secoiidaiT axes 1-z mm Um^, tfiose sul)teiulin^ 1 . ,> % 1 i i»i i - i 1 1 u- 

rlumoz, Kesena Natural 1a1 I lanada, i kni al siir Ue I\t- 
caiirlc en el caiTiitm riimac(»-Pasln. Ol^'lO'N, 77°5R— 
peiluncle, axes, bracts, and pedicels pubeadous to 59'W, Bdiicio ri al. !().') (MO), (b' nmaiidcs .'6.79 (MO. 

PSO). Cirablo 6/ (III \). Rrslrvpo i:i7 (MO), lOl (MO), 
69,5 (MO); trail 1^ Planada to Pielapi. OlOl'N, 
7R°02'\\. Gentry rt al. 6360r> (MO). 

pedicels 0.8-1 mm long; pedicels 1-1.5 mm long; 

strigulose or hirtellous, whitish ffimn; /lowers disty- 
lous, with hypanthium turbinate, ca. 1 mm long, pu- 
bemlous; calyx limb glabrous to hiilellous, 1—1.2 
mm long, divided deeply, lobes triangular to deltoid, Palieourea kirkhrideae C. M. Taylor, stat. et 

entire; coroUa funnelfonn, white, a little swollen at 
base, straight at base, straight to sonu*what curved 
in tub(% externally glabrous to densely pubendous 
or hirtelh)us. internally glabrous excej)t lt)r a pilose 
ring ca. 1.5 mm widt^ at ea. 2 nun above base, tube 
ca. 8 mm long, 1-1.5 mm diam. near middle, lobes 
triangular, ca. 3.5 mm long, acute, not or a little 
thickened adaxially at apex, in bud rounded and 
with a glandular area ca. 1 mm diam. in the upper 

nom. nov. Replaced name: Palicourea justi- 
cioides var. macroc(dyx M. C. G. Kirkl)ride, 
Mutisia 47: .3. 19(50, not Pdlicoiirea mdcrocn- 
lyx Staiulley, 1928. TYFE: Coloinhia. Cuiuli- 
naniarca: Cordillera Orinital. Las Cascadas, S 
side of Guavio River, 18 km NE of Cachald, 
1950 m, 29 Oct. 1944, M. L Grant 10526 

[holotype, US-2339102, photo (no ur^. #) MO- 

2782281; isotypes, COL, NY, WIS]. 

Volume 10, Number 1 


New Palicourea Species 


In her original description of this species, 20 mm long; and corolla lobes unappendaged. Pal- 
Gar cia-KivkhridG accurately noted the similarities icoiirea kirkbrideae is classified in Subg. Montanae, 
between this species and Palicourea jiisticioides Sect. Montanae, Sen 4, and provisionally in Suliser. 
Standlcy and considered them conspecific. The 4 pending discovery of its fruits. 

plants she described as a varit^ty of P. jiisticioides 

are here considered a distinct species and given a Acknowledgments. I thank the curators of COL, 
replacement epithet that honors her. Palicourea CUVC, F, GB, HUA, JAUM, MEDEL, NY, PSO, 
kirkbrideae is distinguished from P justicwides by ^ULV, S, US, and WIS for the loan and gift of spec- 
its secondar)' veins that are prominulous on the ad- ™^"^' R* E. Gereau for preparation of the Latin 
axial leaf surface; peduncles 8-9.5 cm long; puq)le diagnoses; and my colleagues in Colombia, in par- 
inHorescence bracts and calyx limbs; calyx limbs ticular Wilson Devia and Alvaro CogoUo, for their 
ca. 9 mm long; corolla tubes ca. 30 mm long; and generous help with logistics and information, 
corolla lobes each with a linear projection 6—7 mm 
long borne from the adaxial surface. In contrast, P. Literatun^ Cited 

jiisticioides has the secondar)^ veins plane on the 
adaxial leaf surface; peduncles 0.6—2.5 cm long; 
apparently green inflorescence bracts and calyx 
limb; calyx limb 3.5-4- mm long; corolla tubes 16— 

Taylor, C. M. 1*>97. Conspeclus of the genus Palicourea 
(Riil)ia('(\H': Psychotrieae) with the description of some 
nrw species from Ecuador and Coloml^ia. Ann. Missouri 
Bot, Card. 84: 224^262. 

Validation of the Name Zingiber koshunense (Zingiberaceae), a 

Species Endemic to Taiwan 

Wu Delin {Wu Te-lin) 

Herbarium, South China Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wushan, 

Guangzhou, CuangJong 510650, People s Republic of China 

Kai Larsen 

Department of Systematic Botany, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Aarhus, 

Nordlandsvej 68, DK-8240 Risskov, Denmark 

Nicholas J, Turland 
Miss(»uri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166, U.S. A 

AnsTKACr. During preparation of the account of (Greuter et al., 1994). The same name was later 

Zingiheraceae for the Fiord of China, volume 24, accepted in the Flora of Taiwan by Moo (1978: 

it was noticed lluit one species, Z/n^^/ie/'Aas/N/ 850), and explicitly dcscrihcd as a new species, 

Hayata, rcporlt-d fr<»ni Taiwan in 1930, was inval- with the nanu^ (hut not the description) ascribtnl to 

idly nanu'd because no description was provided. Hayata (i.e., "Hayata ex C. T. Moo," Art. 46.4). 

The species was later described in 1978 as Z. ho- However, Z. koshunense still remained invalidly 

shunense Hayata e\ C. T. Moo, but the name re- published because no single collection or illustra- 

maincd invaliti because, although two specimens tion was indicated by Moo as the type (Arts. 8.1, 

were cited, tliere was no indication of a type. The 37.1). Moo cited in his treatment two specimens, 

nam(^ is licrc va]i<hitcd, with one of these specimens neither of which was designated as the type. One 

designated as the holotype. 

Zingiber kosJiunense will be accepted as a spe- 
cies endemic to Taiwan by Wu and Larsen in their 

r .1 • . r V -1 • *i r-; vided the validatine; description (Art. 46.2). The 1 

loriliconnng account ol Zuign)eraceae in tlie t Lara ti . 

of those specimens is the same one cited earlier by 
Sasaki, and it is here designated as the holotype of 
Z. koshunense. Moo remains the autlior of the name 
because he, rather than the present authors, pro- 

c ho- 

tf China, volume 24 (in press). It is similar to Z. 
katvagoi Hayata (1921: 35), which is also endemic 

lotype, at TAIF, was collected in 1910 from Abei 
(Apei) in Taidong (Taitung) County in southern Tai- 

, rp . I * Iff • n u • o o / wan, according to Moo, although the collection date 

to laiwan, hut ouitMs ni usually havnig z or 6 (vs. . i i i ■ n 

1) inflorescences, an orange-red, oblong (vs. dark 

given on the label is actually 2 January 1911 (Wen 

1 , • 1 \ 1 11 / 1 1 1 \ Liang Chiou, pers. comm.). The other specimen was 

brown, triangular) capsule, and Inown (vs. black) ^ ' r / r 

1 -.1 i-i / I ■ ii > 1 ry. ., collected by Moo himself on Lan Yu (Orchid Is- 

se4'<Is Willi a saelike (vs. cusrnon-like) aril. Zingiber -^ ^ . . 

koshunense was not treated by Wu and Chen (1981) 

land), off the eastern coast of southern Taiwan, in 

,1 • t r ri • 7- i I * • . 1 September 1972, and is presented at TAl (3 sheets; 

in tlieu' account (»1 Lnuiese Lxngiber, l)ut nisteatl ^ . ^ ... 

■ ■ 1 • u ♦ * / ^ A(\\ » *■ a » Chang-Fu Hsieh, pers. comm.). In addition, a third 

as uKMitioned ni a snort note (p. i4Uj statmg that ^. * ^ . 

1 I I collection of Z. koshunense was made by Shu-Miaw 

no specnncns had been seen. . . , . . 

A 1*1 11 • * r n • * Chaw in Pingdong (Pinglung) County in southern 

A nomenclaturai problem exists tor this species. o r^ v t> t>/ j 

Q L- no-^n i-ioi I • » 1 r.i r Taiwan in October 1988 (HAST, NMNS, MO, PE, 

^asakI (Iv.JU: loV), m his catalogue ot tiie Lroveni- ^ v i » ? * 

menl Herbarium in Taiwan (TAIF), listed ''''Zingiber ' '' 

koshiinensis [siej tlayata," eiting the specimen T Zin-ilier koslumenst' C. 'I". Moo, sp. nov. TYPK; China. 
Kawakami & 5. Sasaki, TAIF specimen no. 6461 
from "Tlie Ahi-sen Central Mt. Range" of Taiwan. 
He attributed the name to Hayata, although no ear- 
lier publication of the name by that author could 
be tracinl. Sasaki (1930) provided no description, 
so his publication of tlic name was invalid (a nomen 
nudum) under Article 32.1(c) of the Ti)kyo Code 

Taiwan: 'laidong ['lailung] County, Ahei [Apei], 2 

Jan. 191 1 (fl), T. Knwakatni &: S. Sasaki s.n. (holo- 
type, TAIF). 
Zingiber koshunense Ha}ata e\ C. T. Moo, In II. I-. bi el 
al., Fl. Taiwan 5; 850. 1978, nctni. irnal. (Arts. 8.1, 
37.1). rVlM:: not indicated. 

Acknowledgments. We thank Wen-Liang Cliiou, 

NoNoN 10: 88-89. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Wu et al. 

Validation of Zingiber koshunense 


of the Division of Forest Biology at the Taiwan For- 
estry Research Institute, for supplying digital im- 
ages and other details of specimens o{ Zingiber ho- 
shunense at TAIF. We also thank Chang-Fu Hsieh, 
of the Department of Botany at the National Taiwan 

llayala. B. 1921. Icones plaiilaruni fonnosananini nrc ikiii 
et contrihutiones arl fhirarn htrniosanarn. 1(1. Runviii i>f 
l*ro(lii(tivp Fnduslry, Covenirnrnt ol Formosa. Failioku. 

M(K), (-. r. 1978. Zin^iheraceac. P|>. Hi^l-B,")."? /// 11. L. Li, 
T. S. Liii. T. C. Huang. T. Koyarna X (^. F. DtAol (ed- 
itors). Flora of raiwaiK 5. Fpoc li Fuhlisliing. Tai[)ei. 

lection of Z. koshunense at TAF 

University, for providing information on Moo's col- ^^i^''"^'' "^^ **^'^**- ^ ^'^H^^l^'gue of th<' (iovt-ninieiit Hnhar- 

iuni. I{ep. Dept. Forest, (iov. Hcs. Inst, lailinku 9: 1- 

\[l. 1-592. 
Wu. T F. S S. J. Chen. 1981. Zin^ihvi Boelun. Pp. i;59- 

1 18 in T. L. Wu (editor). Moia K('i()ul)li(ae Po[)ularis 

Sinicat', 16(2). Science Press, Beijing. 

Fileratur<' Cited 

Greater, W.. F. R. Barrie, W. \1. Burdet, V\. G. Clial<»ner, 
V. Denioulin. D. L. Hawksworili, P. ^F j0r^ensen, D. 11. 
Nieolson, P C. Silva, P Trehane & J. McNeill (editors). 
199k International Cod(^ of Botanical [Nomenclature 
(Fokyo (]ode). Kegnuni Veg. 131. 

<!i K. Larscii. In piess. /iiigiheraceae. In: Z. Y. 

W'u & \\ 11. Kaven (editors), I'lora of China, 24. Science 
l^ress. Beijing & Missouri Botanical (iarden l^ess, St. 

Four New Names in Chinese and Vietnamese Zingiberaceae 

Wu Delin (Wu Te-lin) 

Herbarium, South China Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wushan, 

Guangzhou, Guangdong 510650, People's Republic of China 

Kai Larsen 

Department of Systematic Botany, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Aarhus, 

Nordlandsvej 68, DK-8240 Risskov, Denmark 

Nicholas /. Turland 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166, U.S. A 

Abstract. During preparation of the account of with previous records from Longjin (Longzhou) and 


for the Flora of China^ volume 24, Ningming by Tsai et al. (1981: 134) in their account 

it was noticed that four species are illegitimately of Chinese Amomum. Therefore, a new name (no- 
named, being later homonyms: Amomum thyrso- men novum) for A, thyrsoideum is required, and A, 

ideum Gagnepain (1903), not Ruiz and Pav6n gagnepainii T. L, Wu, K, Larsen & Turland is pro- 

(1798), A. aurantiacum H. T. Tsai & S. W. Zhao posed here. Amomum gagnepainii is most similar 

(1979), not Ridley (1920), Hedychium carneum Y. to A. yunnanense S. Q. Tong (1990: 151), described 

Y, Qian (1994), not Loddiges (1823), and Zingiber from Yingjiang in western Yunnan province. Amo- 

truncatum S. Q. Tong (1987), not Stokes (1812). mum gagnepainii differs from A. yunnanense in 

Therefore, the following new names (nomina nova) having flowers yellow (vs. white), with calyx to only 

are proposed here, respectively: A. gagnepainii T. 1 cm (vs. 1.5—2 cm), labellum spatulate-flabcllate 

L. Wu, K. Larsen & Turland, A. neoaurantiacum T. (vs. oblate), and lateral staminodes dentate, ca. 1 

L. Wu, K. Larsen & Turland, H. neocarneum T. L. mm (vs. lateral staminodes absent). 
Wu, K. Larsen & Turland, and Z. neotruncatum T. 

L. Wu, K. Larsen & Turland. 

Aiuoniuin gagnepainii T. L. Wu, K. Larsen & Tur- 
land, nom. nov. Replaced name: Amomum 
thyrsoideum Gagnepain, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 
49: 256. 1903. Not Ruiz & Pavon, Fl. Peruv. 
1: 2. 1798. TYPE: Vietnam. "In montibus Lat 
s6n [Lang Son], loco dicto Quen-Se, 11 juin 
1884," /?. P, Bon, plantes du Tonkin occidental, 
2687 (holotype, P). 

Amomum neoaurantiacum T. L. Wu, K. Larsen 

& Turland, nom. nov. Replaced name: Amo- 
mum aurantiacum H. T. Tsai & S. W. Zhao, in 
H. T Tsai & P. S. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 
17(4): 91. 1979. Not Ridley, J. Fed. Malay 

States Mus. 10; 153. 1920. TYPE: China. Yun- 
nan: Mengla, 600 m, S. W. Zhao 8096 (holo- 
type, HITBC). 

Amomum aurantiacum H. T. Tsai & S. W. Zhao 
(in Tsai & Chen, 1979) was described from Mengla 

Amomum thyrsoideum Gagnepain (1903) was de- in southernmost Yunnan. The name is illegitimate, 
scribed from northeastern Vietnam, close to the as it is a later homonym of ^4. aurantiacum Ridley 
border with Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, (1920), described from Kota Baharu, northern Ke- 
China. Unfortunately, the name is illegitimate un- lantan. Peninsular Malaysia. The Chinese species 
der Article 53.1 of the Tokyo Code (Greuter et aL, will be accepted by Wu and Larsen (in press); 
1994) because an earlier homonym exists: A, thyr- therefore, the new name A. neoaurantiacum T. L. 
soideum Ruiz & Pav6n (1798), described from Peru Wu, K. Larsen & Turland is proposed here. Amo- 
(now Renealmia thyrsoidea (Ruiz & Pavon) Poeppig mum neoaurantiacum is most similar to A. micro- 
Si Endlicher). The Asian species will be accepted carpum C. F. Liang & D. Fang (in D. Fang, 1978: 
by Wu and Larsen (in press) in their forthcoming 49), described from Dongxing in southern Guangxi, 

account of Zingiberaceae in the Flora of China, 


the coast and the border with Vietnam. 

volume 24, as occurring not only in Vietnam, but Amomum neoaurantiacum differs from yl. microcar- 
also in adjacent southwestern Guangxi, agreeing pum in liaving ligules 6-7 mm, 2-cleft at apex (vs. 

NovoN 10: 90-91. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 1 

Wu et al. 

Chinese and Vietnamese Zingiberaceae 


4—10 mm, voiunlrd and entire or rarely emarglnate llie new name Z. neotruncdtum T. L. Wu, K. Larsen 

at apex), hraels purple, ohlong, ea. 1.2 em (vs. & Turland is proposed here. Zing?7>er neo/ninrr//nm 

brown, lanceolate to ovate, ca. 3 cm), and lateral is most similar to Z. ^fn///i/>e/ (L.) Roscoe ex Smith, 

stami»i(ules ca. 1 em, emarginate at apex (vs. 5-6 distributed in Cambodia. China, India. Laos, Ma- 

nim, entire at apex). 

Hedyehiuiii ueocanieuin T. L. Wu, K. Larsen & 
Turland, nom. nov. Replaced name: Hedy- 

laysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam (and also 
widely cultivated). Zingiber ncotruncatum differs 
from Z zeruryihet in having ligules 1—1.2 cm (vs. 
1.5-2 cm), the central lol)c of the labellum ligulc- 

chium carneum Y. Y. Qian, Acta Bot. Austro like (vs. suborhicular or subobovate), and lateral 

Sin. 9: 48. 1994. Not LodiHges, Bot. Cab. 7: t. lobes of \\\v labellum inconspicuous, ca. 3 mm (vs. 

693. 1823. TYPK: China. Yunnan: Simao, obovat(% ca. 1 cm. free almost to base). 
1600-1900 m, K K Qlari 1832 (holotype, 


Hedychium carneum Y. Y. Qian (1994) was de- 

l.lleraliin' (^ilcd 

Faii<;. D. 1978. Some new laxa ol /iii^iberaccae fi 

Kwaiigsi. Acta I'hytotax. Sin. 16(3): 17-53. 

scribed from Simao in southern Yunnan. The name Cagnepaiii. V. Vm. /ingiheracees noiuclles de riirrhi.-r 
,,, . . . . , I ^ ,, dn MustMiiii (1). liull. Soc. liol. I'rance 49: 2t--2r)9. 

is ule";itunate, as it is a \i\Wr homonym oi ti. car- ,, , „.. ,. ,. ,, . ,, ., „ , , „ .. -.. , 

^ _ , . i . (^R'lUci. W.. I', n. name. II. \K luinlcl. W. (/. LhaloiuT, 

V. Denuniliii. I), b. Ilawksuorth, P. M. j0rgens»Mi. I). II. 
Mcolson. P. (". SiUa. I* rreliane cK J. McNeill (editors). 
199 1. liilerTiatioiial Code (»f Botanical \onu'iielature 
('fok\o ("ode). Hegtinrii \eg. I .'^ I . 
hoildiL^es. C. lol 7-1833. The BolanJeal CahiiuH Consist- 

neum LoiKhges (1823), described from material 
cultivated \u Enghuid that had been introduced 
from India. The Chinese species will be accepted 
by Wu and barsen (in prt^ss); therefore, the new 
name //. neocarneum T. L. Wu, K. Larsen »S: Tur- 
land is proposed here. Hedychium neocarneum is 
most similar to //. yungjiangense S. Q. Tong (1986: 
40), described from Yingjiang in western Yunnan. 
lled\(hium neocarneum (Hfft^rs from H. yungjian- 
gense in having heaves villous abaxially (vs. brown- 
ish pubescent ordy along niidvein abaxially), the 
labellum whit<', becoming red basally (vs. wholly 
white), and the filament 5.2—5.7 cm (vs. ca. 1.3 

iiig o( (lolonre( 

ZingilxT neotrunealuin T. L. Wu, K. Larsen & 
Tinhmd, nom. nov. Replaced name: Zingiber 
truncatum S. Q. long. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 25: 

147. 1987. Not Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. 1: 68. 
1812. TYPK: China. Yunnan: Jinghong, 810 
m. 12 Aug. 1984, .S. (>. Tong & S, Liu 24935 
(liolotyi>i', YNTHI). 

Zingiber truncatum S. Q. Tong (1987) was de- 
scribed from jingliong in southern Yunnan. The 
name is ilh'gitimatc. as it is a later homonym of Z. 
truncatum Stokes (1812), wliicli is itself illegiti- 
mate, as a nomciudaturally supei'fluous synonym of 
Amomuru zedoaria Christmann 1797 (now Curcuma 
zedoaria (Christmami) Roscoe). Tongs species will 
be acc-epted by Wu and Lars<'ii (in press); therefore. 


I Delineations of Plants, from Ml (Coun- 
tries, with a Short \eeonnt (tf Faeli. Direetiitns for 
a^eineiit sSe. i-Ke. Pondon. 

Oian. Y. Y. IWl. Three new >[>eeies of Zin^ihera< iMC 
from Yunnan. Acta Hot. Austro Sin. *>: 47-33. 

Hidley. II. \. 1920. "New and rare plants from the Malav 
Peninsula. J. Ped. Malay Slates Mus. t(): 128-].V). 

Ruiz Pope/. II. ik J. A. F^ivon. 1798-1802. Flora Peru- 
viana. <'t (Cliilensis, siw doeripeiones, et ieones [>lan- 
tarnm peruvianuni, el eliilensiiun, secundum s}sleina 
linna(\nnnn (li^esla<% enrn eharaet(M"il)Us pinrium ge- 
nerurn e\ nl^atoiutn reformatis. Madrid. 

Stokes. J. IKI2. A Hotanieal Materia Mediea. Consislin< 
of the Generic and Specifn- ('liaraeters of the Plants 
Used in Medicin** and Diet, with Svnonvnis. and Pel- 
erences to Medical \nlliors. |. . .]. London. 

Ton^. S. O. IO!U). Some new laxa of /injj;il)erat cae fi'om 
Yunnan. \ita Pol. Wurman. \\: .'^7—44. 

. 10o7. New plants of Z///^'//jer from Yunnan. \eta 

PliMotax. Sin. 2.'): I I()-I4'>. 

. 1090. One new -.pi'cies at A/iionuuii fi"om Yun- 
nan. Acta Hoi. Yunnan. 12: l.>l-|.).'i. 

T>ai. II. T Ox P. S. Chen. 1970. New m<iterials lor Chifiex' 
Aniomufn P. (/in^iheraceae). Acta Phyl(»ta\. Sin. I 7l t): 


. P. S. (;lien ^K S. W. Zhao. 1081. Aniomum Uoxh. 

Pp. 110-135 ("// r. P. Wu (editor), Plora l{eipuMi(ae 
Popniaris Sinicae. 16(2). Scienc(^ Press. Beijing. 

Wn. T. P. tV K. Parse?i. In press. /in<^ih<Maceae. hr. /. ^. 
WnvK P. II. Pa\en (edilors). Flora of (^hitia. 24. Science 
Press. Peijin<i i.K Missouil Hotanieal (/arden Press, St. 



A New Name in East Asian Eriocaulaceae 

Zhang Zhixidfig 
Beijing Forestry University, Institute of Forest Botany, Xiao Zhuang, Heidian District, 

Beijing 100083, People^s Republic of China 

ABS'ri{A(:'l\ During preparation of the account of proposed the new name, E. kiinmingense Z. X. 

Eriocauhiceae for the Flora of China, volume 24, Zliang, but the reference given for tlie replaced 

it was noticed that one species, Eriocaulon hilo- name was "£". hilotatum [sic] W. L. Ma 1991: 289— 

hdtnm W. L. Ma, desnihed from China in 1991, is 314," i.e., die entire paper in which E. bilobatuni 

illegitimat(^]y named, being a later homonym of E. was published, rather than page or pages of the 

bilohalum Morong, which was described from Mex- protologue itself (pp. 301-303), so the new name 

ico in 1892. The new name (nomen novum) E. kun- was invalid under Article 33.2, Note 1 of the Tokyo 

mingcnsc Z. X. Zhang was proposed in 1999, but Code. Moreover, the reference is not direct, as re- 

du' pagination of the entire paper in which the re- quired by Article 33.2. Therefore, E, kunniuigense 

placed name was publislied was cited, rather than is validated here. Eriocauhm kiinmingense is most 

the pages of tiie protologue only, so tlie new name similar to E. leianthum W. L. Ma (1991: 303), 

is invalid. Then^fore, E. kiinmingense is validated which was <lescribed from northwestern Yunnan. 

Eriocauhm kiinmingense differs from E. leianthum 
in having fetnale flowers with sepals keeled (vs. not 



Eriocaulon kiintnin^M^nse Z. X. Zhang, nom. nov. keeled) and petals glabrous (vs. adaxially villous at 

R<'plac<Ml name: Eriocaulon bilohalum W. L. 
Ma, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 29: 301. 1991. Not 
Morong, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19: 226. 1892. 

center) with an emarginate (vs. acute) ap«^\. 

Acknoivledgments. I thank Bruce Bartholomew 
(Botany Department, California Academy of Sci- 

TYPE: China. Yunnan: Binchuanjizushan, 24 ences) and Nicholas Turland (Missouri Botanical 

Dec. 1946, T. N. Lion 22187 (holotype, PE) 

Eriocaulon bilobatuni W. L. Ma (1991: 301) was 
described from China, with the holotype specimen 
C'ited from Binchuan, in Yunnan {)rovince, and par- 
atyp(*s cited from Guizhou, Sichuan, and Yunnan 
provinces. Unfortunately, the name is illegitimate 
under Article 53.1 of the Tokyo Code (Greuter et 
al., 1994) because an earlier homonym exists: E. 
bilobatuni Morong (1892), described from Mexico. 
Tiie Chinese species will be accepted by Ma et al. 

Garden) for extensive help in preparing the text. 

in their forthcoming account of Eriocaulaceae in 
the Flor(t of China, volume 24 (in press), as oc- 
curring not only in Guizhou, Sichuan, and Yunnan 

provinces of China but also India and Vietnam. zi,.^,,^, /_ x. 1999. MonoKiapl.ic dcr (kUUui^ Knoraulon 
Zhang (1999: 91) also accepted the species and in Oslasicn. Diss. Bot. 313: i-vii. l-28*>. 

Literature Cited 

Greuter, W., K l{. Harrie, H. M. Hurdet, W. il. (llialoner, 
V. Demoulia, D. L. Hawkswortli, P. M. j0i-^enseii, I). II. 

Nieulson, r. C. Silva, P. Trehane & J. McNeill (editors). 

1W4. tiilernational Code of Botanical Nonienelatiire 
(Tokyo Code). Regniiin Veg. 131. 

Ma, W. 1.. 1991. New materials oi Eriocaulon T. from Chi- 
na. Acta Pliytola\. Sin. 2<>: 2H9-3I4. 

, Z. X. /hang t!^ W Stiitzel. In press. Eriocaulaceae. 

In Z. Y. Wu & P. II. Ra\('!i (editors). Flora of China, 
Vol. 24. Si'ienee Press, Beijing, and Missouri liolanieal 

Garden Press. Si. Louis. 
Morong, T. 1*592. Eriocaulon bilohatuw, n. sp. liull. Torrey 
Rot. Clul) 19: 22f)^227. 

N()\()\ 10: 92. 2000 




HaMwiii, n. (i. 1W9. New coinhinatioiis and lU'w j^<'ru'ra 
In tlu' Norlli American lanveeds (Conipositae — Madi- 
iriae). Nnvon *>: 462-471. 

In tlie key to genera of Madiinae, the sole, eii- 
(Icniic Mexiiuii genus, Adenolhaninus, was oiniltt-d. 
The foll()wing changes to the key incorporate Ad- 

Cliange 9h to: 

9b. Plants herbaceous or woody with seasonal 

foliage; North American or South Ameri- 


Between 13b and 14, insert the following couphl: 

13a'. Plants shrubby; Mexican . . . Adeno- 

thnninus D. D. Keek 
131>'. Plants herbaet-ous; Californian (to 

northwestern U.S.A. and southwestern 


NovoN 10: 93. 2000. 

Volume 10, Nuiul)ri- 1, |.p. 1-94 of NOVON was pul.lished on 17 April 2000. 





The Status of Dimorphostemon and Two New Combinations in 

Dontostemon (Brassicaceae) 

Ihsan A. Al-Shehhaz 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

Hideo hi Ohha 

Department of Botany, University iMuseum, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, 

Tokyo, 113 Japan 

Abstuact. Dimorphostemim is reduced to syn- morphological cliaracters that separate the eight 
onymy of Dontostemon, and the combined genus species with united staminal filaments from the two 
consists of 10 species distributed primarily in Chi- species with free filaments. 

na, adjacent Russia, and Mongolia. The new com- 

In our opinion, Dontostemon (including Dimor- 

binations Dontostemon pinnatifidus and D, pinna- phostemon riwX Alaida) is a natural genus, and there 

tifidas subsp. linearifolias are proposed, and are several genera of the Brassicaceae (e.g., North 

detailed descriptions and distributions of the two American Streptanthus Nuttall and Caulanthus S. 

taxa are given. A key to all species oi Dontostemon Watson) that have species with free or connate me- 

is presented. dian stamens. In Thelypodium howellii S. Watson 

(western North America), one subspecies has the 

The genus Dontostemon Andrzejowski ex C. A. "^^^^^^ stamens free and the other has them partly 

Meyer consists of 10 species distributed primarily '« completely united (Al-Shehbaz, 1973). In our 

in China (all 10 spp.), neighbonng Russia (9 spp.), opinion, the union of the median stamens alone 

and Mongolia (7 spp.). The range of D. glandulosus ^oes not justify the splitting of a natural genus into 

(Karelin & Kinlov) 0. E. Schulz extends into India, P^^rly defined segregates. 

Kashmir, Kazakstan, Nepal, and Tajikistan, and 

Although Dontostemon pinnatifidus is known un- 

that of D. dentatas (Bunge) Ledebour includes Ko- ^er different specific epithets in Dontostemon or Di- 

rea and Japan 

morphostemon, none of these epithets has [jriority 

The taxonomic limits oi Dontostemon have been The species was first described as Sisymbrium as- 

controversial mainly because various authors perum Pallas (Reise Russ. Reu'h. 3: 710. 1777), 

placed different emphasis on one character, the which is a later homonym of 5. asperum L. (Sp. PL 

union vs. separation of median stamens. In eight 2: 659. 1753). In transferring S. asperum Pallas as 

species, the median stamens are united, but the the sole species of Dimorphostemon, Kitagawa 

degree of union varies from half to full length of (1939) correctly considered Cheiranthus (as Chei- 

the filaments. These species are kept in Dontoste- lanthus) pinnatifidus Willdenow (Sp. PI. 3(1): 523. 

m,on by all treatments. In two species, D. pinnati- 1800), Hesperis pinnata Persoon (Syn. PI. 2: 203. 

fidus (Willdenow) Al-Shehbaz & H. Ohba and Z). 1807), Hesperis pilosa Poiret and //. punctata Poiret 

glandulosus, the median stamens are free, and (Encycl. Meth. Suppl. 3: 157, 195. 1813), and Sis- 

these have been segregated into Dimorphostemon ymbrium pectinatum DC. (Syst. Nat. 2: 485. 1824) 

Kitagawa and Alaida Dvofdk. There are no other as conspecific with his Dimorphostemon asper Ki- 

NovoN 10: 95-98. 2000. 


No von 

tagawa (not D. asper (Pallas) Kitagawa, as listed by 

Kilagawa; see article 58.3 in Greuter et al., 1994). 

Forty years later, Kitagawa (1979) proposed a new 

combination, Dimorphostcmon pinnatus (Pcrsoon) 

Kilagawa, based on the second earliest available 
epithet, //. pinmitd^ and did not list Cheiranthus 
pinnatijidus in the synonymy. Earlier, Golubkova 
(197'ia, b) proposed th<^ combination Dimorphoste- 

mon pectinatus (DC.) Golubkova, thus adopting the 

fifth oldest epithet for the species. Strangely, Go- 
lubkova (1976) maintained D. pectinatus and fol- 
lowed de Candolle (1824) and Kitagawa (1939) in 
reducing ih*^ earlier published epithets to synony- 
my. Willdcnow's epithet {pinnatifidus) clearly is the 
earbest (1800) available name for the species, and 
a new combination is herein proposed. 

Dvofak (1972) proposed the new genus Alaida, 
but this name is illegitimate because it included .4. 
pectlnata (DC.) DvoMk, which is a synonym of tlie 
type oi Dimorphostemon, Dimorphostcmon aspcr (= 
DofUostenion pinnatijidus). A key for the determi- 
nation of the 10 species of Dontostemon is pre- 

Kk^ to phk Spkciks ok Di}\H)SThMi)\ 





Plants glandular. 

2a. FMals (I()-)I2-I8 X {\-)(^-& uuui Iniils 
flattened; antliers not apieulale, 1.5-2 

mm long fX hispidus Maximowiez 

2h. Petals 2-ii X (),5-:i(-S) mm; fruits trrrte; 
antliers a[>ieulate, 0.2-0.8 mm long. 
3a. All h'aves entire; median stamens 
unllt'd; slfins with minute twisted 


I), intrgrifolius (I>.) C. A, Meyer 

Al least basal leaves dentati-, ser- 
rate, or pinnatifid; median stamens 

free; stems glabrous or with straight 


4a. IVtals obovate, (5~)()— ^5 mm 
long: filaments of median sta- 
mens al)ru[)tly expanded and 
lotjtlu'd heluw antlier; set'ds 
apical ly margined; anthers 

().()-().H mm long 

.... D. pinudlifidus (Vi ilhlcnow) 

Al-Shchbaz & W. Ohba 

4b. Petals spattdate, 2-4{-4.5) 

mm Ion;;; filaments of median 
stamens gradually e\pa?uled 
to base, toothless; seeds not 
margined; anthers 0.2-().4 mm 

long /A glandulosus 

(Karelin & Kirilov) (). K. Schulz 

Phuits not glandular. 

5a. At least some stem leaves petiolate. den- 
tate D. dentatus (Bungc) bedebour 

Sl>. Stem leaves sessile, entire. 


Plants annual or bieimial. never 
wood) liasally; stems with minute 
Ivsisted trichomes. 

7a. Petals broailly obovate, 5-7{- 
8) X 2-,*? mm, apex siibemar- 
ginate; anthers oblong, 0.7- 
0.8 mm; o\ ules 15 to 25 [)er 


D. intrgrifolius (P.) C. A. Meyer 
Petals narrow!) oblanceolale, 
3—5 X ()/)-l nuTi, apex ob- 
tuse; anthers ovate, 0.4—0.5 
mtn; ovuK;s 30 to 50 per loc- 
ule D. micranduis C. A. Meyer 
()l). Plants perennial with woody base; 
stems glabrous or with straiglil tri- 

8a. Stems glabn)u>; leaves some- 
what fleshy, subleathery; fruit 
strongly arcuate or twistctl. 

9a. Fruit terete, Rt rough ar- 
cuate, 1.5-2.5 cm X 1- 

1.7 mm; style 1.5-2.5 
mtn long; plants 5—10 
cm tall; sepals 3—4 mm 
htng; m(Mlian stamens 

3.5-4 mm long 


D. cnissifoliiis 

(Bunge) Maxirnowicz 
Fmit compressed, strong- 
ly twisted, 3-5 cm X 2- 

2.5 mm; stvle rarelv to 
0.5 mm long; plants 15- 
50 cm tall; sepals 5—6 
nun long; median sta- 
mtms 6—8 mm long . . 


.... D. eirgans Maximowicz 
Stems sjKirsely to densely pi- 
lose; leaves not fleshy, IkmIki- 
ccous; fruit straight or rarely 
slightly cui^'cd. 
10a. Plants pilose with sub- 

apprt^ssed trii-homes 

rarely to 1 mm long; 

fruit 1-2.5 cm X 0.9- 
I . I nmi; seeds to 1.4 
nmi long, not margined; 
cotyledons incumbeiU 

. . . D. perciinLs C. A. Mc)cr 
10b. PlarUs hirsute with 
spreading trichomes to 3 

nmi long; fruit (2.5— )3— 5 

cm X 1.4—2 mm; seeds 
to 2.5 mrn long, mar- 
gined or winged; cotyle- 
dons accumbent .... 
.... D. senilis Maximowicz 

Dontostemon pinnatifidus (Willdenow) Al-Sht h- 
haz & H. Ohba, coinh. riov. Basionym: Cheir- 
anthus pinnatijidus Willrlenow, Sp. PI. 3(1): 

523. 1800. TYPE: Siberia, Stephan sm. (ho- 

lotype, B-W #12111). 

Herbs annual or biennial, (5-)10-40(-60) cm tall, 
sparsely to densely glantlidar. Stems erect, ofti'ii sim- 
ple, branched alx^ve. Basal and lowermost stt*m 
leaves sparsely to densely pubescent with simple iri- 

Volume 10, Number 2 


Al-Shehbaz & Ohba 
Status of Dimorphostemon 


chojiu's to 2 nun long, sparsely to nuxlerately glan- 

Plants sparsely to densely pilose, nicxlerately to 

dular; petiole 2-10(-15) mm l<nig; leal blade Ian- densely glandular. Middle stem leaves elliptic to 
ceolate to elliptic or oblong, (0.7-) L5-4.5(-6) em X lanceolate, serrate to dentate or rarely f)innatilid, 
(1.5-)3-10(-15) mm, base attenuate to euneate, (3-)5-10(-lS) mm wide. Seeds oblong to ovate, 
margin coarsely dentate or st^rrate to pinnatifid, cil- 1.1-1.8 mm long; cotyledons obliquely accumbent 
iate, apex acute. Middle and upper stem It^aves nar- to obliquely incumbent, 
rowly linear and entin\ or elliptic to lanceolate and 
dentate to serrate. Fruiting pedicel asct:nding to di- 
varicate, often straiglit, (0.3-)0.5— 1.5(-2.3) cm 
lung, glandular. Sepals oblong, 2— 3(^) X (0.8-)l- 
1.5 mm, apically sparsely hair\^ or glabrous. Petals 

Grassy plains, hillsides, rocky slopes, roadsides; 



Xizang, Yunnan), India, Mongolia, Nepal. Russia. 

white, broadly obovate, (5-)6-8 X (2.5-)3-4(-5) , , ., . i • i i ■ 

■^ . 1 T o 1 T-i spread and well represented ni hen)aria, no spec- 

mm. apex emartziniate; claw 1—3 mm long. Fdaments . -x i i t-l ^ r n- l . 

■ ^ 7 r 1 1 imens are cited here. Ine typ(*s oi Uimorpnostcmim 

of nuMlian stamens 2-3 mm lont;;, free, abniptlv ex- , . . j^ . ? j i \ r i i ■ 

, ,. ., "" snanxiensis, trysimum glanaulosuin^ and t. nookcri 

nand<'d and toollied below anther; filanuuit ol lateral i i - n • i- x- ■ i i i r i ^ 

' ^ are morphologically indistinguishable irom phints 

stamens l.S— 2.5 mm long, slender; anthers oblong- 
ovate, 0.6—0.8 mm long, apieulate. Ovules 8 to 30 
per h)cule. Fruit (l.l-)1..5-4(-5) X (0.8^)1-1.3 mm, 
straight, erect to aseending, tonilose, t(T«*te; valves 
sparsely to densely glaiulular, with prominent mid- 
vein and marginal veins; style 0.5—1.5 mm long; stig- 
ma slightly hibed. Seeds brown, oblong-ovate to nar- 
rowly oblong, 1.1-2.3 X 0.7-1 mm, narrowly 
margined distally; cotyledons ()l)liquely aceumbent 
to incumbent. Flowering and Iriiiting June-Septt-m- 


> X 1 


eti 10 



(Maximowicz) Al-Shehba/ & H. Ohba, stat. et 
comb. nov. Basionym: Sisymbrium gUindidos- 
um (Karelin & Kirilov) Maximowicz var. li- 


Maximowicz, Fl. Tangutica 61. 




of Lake KukuMor, 10,200 ft., 9 Julv 1880, N. 
M. Przcualski s.n. (holotype, LE; isotypes, LE, 

morphologically well-clefined subspecies that have Plants glabrous, very sparsely glandular. Middle 

not yet been collected from the same locality, stem leaves narrowly linear, entire, 0.5-1 (-1.5) mm 
though both grow in the Chinese provinces of Can- ^iJ^. Seeds narrowly oblong, 2-2.3 mm long; col- 


su, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. 

¥.\:\ 1(1 riii. Si Hsi'KciKs ok DovrosTHMox ny^ATitiDi s 

la. Plants pilose, riu>(lrraU'l\ to dcriseh glandular, 
middle stctii leaves elliptic t(j lanceolate, serrate 
to dentate or rare!) pinnatifid. (.'^— )5— I ()(— I 5) mm 
wide: seeds oMong to ovale, 1.1-1.8 mm long; 



eotvletlons ol)li(inelv accnmhent to oljli(|uely in- 

enmbent subsp. pinnalifidus 

Plants glabrous, very sparse!} glatulnlar, mirldle 
stern leaves narnnsl) linear, entire, 0.5-1 (-1.5) 
nnn wide: seinls narrowly oblonc. 2— 2.-'i mm 


lon^; (otvledons incumbent . . . subsp. lincdriJoliiLs 

Dontosteiiion pinnalifidiis subsp. pinnatifulus 

Difiiorpliostrtiioi} shauyiciisis R. [.. (iuo & T. \. (dieo. Hidl. 
Bot. Lab. North-East. Forest. Inst.. Harbin 19o()(r)): 

yledons ineunibent. Flowering and fruiting July- 

Sand dunes, flood plains, grasslands; 3100—1500 
m. Endemic to China (Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang). 

Spciifuens cxdfnincd. (dlTNA. Qinghai: between \la- 
doi and Bayanka ba. .'M"41'N, 9jr7'K. Mcihc, Liu i.K: Son- 
aimo 98-35603 (GOK I", MO); Sari (Harlag) Xian. Uu\vim- 
ma. Jianshe Xiang. S sidt^ of I biang I ie and SU ol 
eonflnenee with Dari He (Oar Qu). 3.r43'4(rN, 
99°2ri"E. JhK Bardioliwww & Gdbcrl 1 151 (BM. CAS, 
H.\\\ \\ MO); Maijin Xian. Nahetjlngma, Youynn Xian, be- 
tween Dari and Huashixia, 33°Ur3<rN, 9*/lO'53"K. IUk 
Hardmlomew & Gdbert 1329 (BM. CAS, ll\\\ P. MO). 

Xinjiang: Hno(|iang. Yueva river to A(](|Ikk<>l. Wu^ Ohbti^ 

Mu\K: Fei 2278 (TI): Ku<Kiiang, Bing He, Wu, Ohba, Wu 
& Fri 4212 (KUN, TI). 

A rather rare taxon known to us onlv from the 

29. 19H(). Syn. nov. FYPK: China. Shanxi: Vt'iitai specimens cited above. 

Shan, 16 July 1907, >. Yabc sm. (holotvpe, NAS). 

Er}sinnun glandidositni Monnet, Notul. Syst. (Paris) II: 

2U. 1912. Syn. nov. TYPE: China. E Tibet: Tongolo, 

Kiala, 10 June 1891, 7.-^ Soulir2l7l (holotype, V). 
Erysunum liookcri Moiniet, Notul. S}st. (Paris) 11: 242. 

1912. Syn. nov. TYPF^: China, E Tibet: Tongolo, Kia- 

Acknowledgments. We arc grateful to Brigitte 
Ziinmer antl Manfred Bassler (B) for their help in 
providing information on the type of Chcinuiihus 
pinnalifidus in the Willdenow herbarium. We thank 
Tatyana Shulkina (MO) for her help in translating 

la, 13 Apr. 1894, J.-A. Soulie 2460 (holotype, F^ various Russian literature, and Neil A. Harriman 

isotype, V). 

for his critic^al review of the maimscript. 


No von 

Lllcralure Cited 

Al-Slu*lil)az, I. A. 197.'5. Tlu' biosysteinatics of {\\c grnus 
Thelypodium (CruciffM'ae). Contr. Ciray llt'il), 204: 3- 

Caridolle, A. P. de. 1824. I{egni Vegetabilis Syslrma Na- 

turale. Trestle & Wiirtz, Paris. 
DvoMk, F. 1972. A study of the '■^pecie^ Arnhis glandulosa 

Kar. R Kir. Fedd*'s R.-pert. 82: 421-;32. 

ex C. A. Mey. (Cmciferae). Rot. Zhurn. (Moseou & Len- 
ingrad) 59: 1638-1639. 

. 1976. De Geiiere Duuorphostcnion Kitag. (Cru- 

ciferat^. Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Kast. 13: 120-130. 
Creuler, W., F R. Barrie, H. M. Rurdel, W. G. C^haloiu-r, 
V. l)<^nioulin, 1). L. Hawksworth, P. M. j0rgensen, I). H. 
Nieolson, P C. Silva, P Treliane .S: J. MeNeill. 1994. 
International Code of Rolanical Nomenclature (lokyo 
Code). Regnnni Veg. 131. 

Gohil)kova. W P. 1974a. Three new eoinhinations within Kitagawa, M. 1939. FineanuMila florae Manschurieae. 

the genus Dimorphostemon Kitag. (Crueiferae). Rot. 

Zhurn. (Moscow & Feningrad) 59: 1453-1454. 

. 1974b. System of llie genus Dontostt'mon Andrz. 

Rep. Inst. Sci. Res. Manchoukuo 3(append. 1): 1—187. 

. 1979. \eo-lineamenta Florae Mansefuiricae. J. 



. Vad 


The Status of Synstemon (Brassicaceae) and the Discovery of a 

Second Species 

Ihsan A, Al-Shehbaz 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

Cheo Taiyien 
Herbarium, Jiangsu Institute of Botany, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210014, People's Republic of China 

Yang Guang 
Piroche Plants, Inc., 20542 McNeil Road, Pitt Meadows, B.C., Canada V3Y IZl 

Abstract. The taxonomic limits of 5ym/emoa are has glabrous filaments and petal claws, 2-lobed 

established, and its relationship to Dontostemon is stigmas, nonmucilaginous seeds, median filanK^nts 

discussed. Synstemon lulianlianus, a new species united near to the apex, flattened replum, no me- 

from Gansu, is described and illustrated. Previously dian nectaries, straight or slightly twisted terete tri- 

described taxa in Synstemon are reduced to syn- chomes, and (in four species) well-developed mul- 

onymy ol S. petrovii. 

The genus Synstemon was established by Bot- 

ticellular glands. The two genera share many 
characters, and it appears that Synstemon is more 
closely related to Dontostemon than to any other 

1 , nc\rc\\ * • 1 J • I * Asian eenus of Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). 

scliantsev (1959) to include one species and two ^ , . , , . . , 

varieties. It was compared with Cymatocarpus 0. 

Because of fear that Synstemon might be consid- 

T-cui \ \ i • J u uij I -J ^red a later homonym of Synostemon F. Miiller, 

L. bchulz and Arabidopsis Heynhold and was said . . j j •> 

» iTi" r *u • u • ■!■ » » 1 1 which is a synonym of Sauropus Blume of the Eu- 

to dilier Irom tiiese m riaving ciliate petal claws, -^ -^ ' 

connate and pubescent median filaments, and phorbiaceae, Botschantsev (1980) proposed %n,s/e- 

margined seeds. Synstemon is unrelated to Cy- ^<'^<^^^hus as a replacement of Synstemon. How- 

matocarpus ov Arabidopsis, '^nA i\ a\so mer<, iiom ^^^^' *^^ pronunciations of the two are quite 

both by having flattened and strongly crisped in- different, and we agree with Brummitt (1992) in 

stead of the rigid and straight trichomas, strongly recognizing Synstemon instead oi Synstemonanthm 

differentiated instead of undifferentiated petal 

The presence in Synstemon of pilose petal claws 

claws, and apiculate instead of obtuse anthers. Cy- ^"^^ filaments is unique among all of the Old World 
ma/ocar/;u5 also has yellow flowers, long setose tri- Brassicaceae. This feature clearly supports the 

chomes, and submoniliform fruits, whereas Syn- 

maintenance of the genus as independent of Don- 

stemon has lavender flowers, soft trichomes, and tostemon, as well as those Eurasian genera with 
torulose fruits. In our opinion, Synstemon is un- connate median filaments. Pubescent petal claws 

related to these genera. 

and/or filaments are known among several genera 

Botschantsev (1959) distinguished Synstemon i" the New World, including the North American 

from Dontostemon Andrzejowski ex C. A. Meyer be- Stanleya Nuttall, Warea Nuttall, Rollinsia Al-Sheh- 

cause of the former's ciliate petal claws, veinless baz, and a species of Dryopetalon A. Gray (Al- 

septa, and mucilaginous seeds, hut a closer exam- Shehbaz, 1982, 1985; Payson, 1923; Rollins, 1939, 

ination reveals that the difference in the fruit sep- 1993), as well as the South American Chilocarda- 

tum (veined vs. veinless) is unreliable, and most of mum 0. E. Schulz, Pterygiosperma 0. E. Schulz, 

the 10 species oi Dontostemon have veinless septa. Sarcodraba Gilg & Muschler, Sisymbrium subscan- 

Synstemon differs in having pilose petal claws, en- dens Spegazzini, and Trichotolinum 0. E. Schulz 

tire stigmas, mucilaginous seeds, median stamens (Boelcke & Romanczuk, 1984; Schulz, 1924, 

united only at the very base, terete replum, median 
nectaries present and confluent with the laterals. 


Synstemon remained monotypic until An (1981) 
and flattened, strongly crisped trichomes, as well as added S. linearifolius An (as linearifoUa) and .S. 
in lacking the multicellular glands seen in some petrovii var. xinglongnicus An (as xinglongnicn). 
species of Dontostemon. By contrast, Dontostemon These two new taxa, along with Botschantsev's 

Novo.N 10: 99-103. 2000. 



(1959) S. petrovii and S. petroidi var. pilosus^ were 
recognized by An (1987) and Zhao (1998a). Be- 
cause S. linearifolius has glabrous filaments and 
petal flaws and because its median stamens are 

Kk^ ro rui: Stkciks w Swstevon 

la. Annuals; stnn Iraves linear, sessile, tMilIrc, 0.5- 
1.7 mm v\i(I(': fniil straight; filaments spars<»ly to 
densely [»ilose 1. .S. petroiii 

connate to the apex, the spt'cies is clearly a Don- lb. Bit-nnials; stem leaves narrowly 1aiK<'(tIale. pet- 

iolate, pinnatilid lo {)Innatiseet. 5-10 tinii ulde; 
frnit areuate; iilamenis ^ilahrous 2. ^. hd'uudhuius 

tnstenum, and we agree with Zhao (1998b) in re- 
duc'ing S. linearifolia to synonymy of D, Lntegrifol- 

ius (L.) C. A. Meyer. Finally, Zhao (1998() 

described S. deserticola Y. Z. Zliao from Nei Mon- !• Synstemon petrovii Botschantsev, Bot. Zhurn. 

gol, l)Ut we believe that this is only a minor variant 
ol 5. petroiii and, as it stands now, Synstemo/i re- 
mained monotypic until the present publication. 

Tlie discovery of a second species of Sytistemon 
was made during a visit by Al-Shehbaz to the Ko- 
marov Botanical Institute in 1998. It prompted a 
closer study of the genus for the forthcoming ac- 
count of the Brassiiaceae for the Flora of China. 

(Moscow & Leningrad) 44: 1487. 1959. .Syn- 
stemouanthus petrovii (Botschantsev) Bot- 
schantsev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 17: 142. 
1980. TYPE: China. Gansu: Injtshuanj, Hoan- 
gho, near Injtshuanj, 18 June 1958, M. Petrov 
s.n, (holotype, LE). 

Syn»U'inon Botschantsev, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow^ & 
Letiingrad) 44: 1487. 1959. Synstemonanthus 
Botschantsev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 17: 

Synslrnton pcfrorii var. pilosus Rotsehantsev, Hol. ZInirn. 
(Moscow & Leningrad) 14: I 188. 1959. Synslctnon- 
anthus petrovii (nolseliantsev) Botseliantsev var. pi- 
losiis (Rotsehantsev) Botsehanlsev, Novosti Sist. 
Vvssh. Hasl. 17: 142. 1080. Svn. nov. TYPK: China. 
Gansu: Tshizlianji. iJeida Slian. ru-ar Jnnt Shan. 28 
June 1958, M. Petroi s.n. (1i<>h'l> [>e, LE). 

142. 1980. TYPE: Synstemon petrovii Bot- ^yf^^'^temou petroni var. xiuglougmcm An, liull. Bol. Res., 
I , ' Harbin 1(1 cK 2): lOl. 1981. Svn. nov. IMM:: China. 

schantsev. ^ O-- i ei < ' n ^ 

Wansu: .\in<;U>n^ Shan, snornmous s.n. (h<>lol\|»e. 

HtThs annual or l)ienniaL Trichomes flattened. 

strongly crisped, simple or minutely stalked and ^3"^";;:;:;" t:::!''±. ^ 1: ^i^U^JS^:'"!""- ^" "^^k 
forked. St<Mns erect to ascending, often hranclied 
basally. Basal leaves petiolate, rosulate or not, sim- 
ple, pituiatipartite to pinnatisect, often withered hy 
flowering. Cauline leaves petiolate or sessile, not 

373. 1998. Svn. nov. TYPK: China. Nei Mon-ol: 

- O 

Alxa Right Ratnier, Ailihugaisurnn. Longshdushan. 8 

June 1983. V. T. I A et al 83002 (holol>|>e. IIIMU). 
Herbs annual, 15-30 cm tall. Stems often 

auriculate, entire to pirmatisect. Racemes e])racle- l^^^"^*hed basally and above, sparsely pilose or gla- 

a*^ r.1^.^«.t^^ \r. f>.„u r^,.;»;., v i r brescent. Basal leaves short petiolate, not rosulate, 

ate, elongatea m truit. rruilnig pedicels ascenunig r ■ .... 

f^ l:, , •^«* Gill J* u r • often withered by flowering, pinnatipailite, 1-2 em 

to divaricate, bepals oblong, ascending, base ot in- ^ ^ * * . ' 

. * r> . 1 1 J L 1 -^ 3-5 mm, apex acute. Stem leaves linear, sessile, 

ner pair not saccate, retals lavender, much longer rv r a Ari % n ^ 

a 1 11 1 u X 111 0.5^ cm X 0.5-1.7 mm, somewhat fleshy, mariiiin 

Riaii se{)als; nia<ie obovate, apex rounded; claw . i m t- i 

1 ,. . 1111 entire, apex acute, sparsely pilose, rruitiiii:; peni- 

suDcquahng sepals, sparsely to densely pubescent. i i- * i- i i i i ^ 

c. ^ , r^ II eels divaricate to ascending, slender, glabrous, 1— 

stamens 6, tetradvnamous; filaments glabrous or ^^ , ^ , ,, ^^^..^,^^^ 

1 , ; , . 1 I .r ^^ ^^ lo"g- ^t^P^l^ oblong, 2-2.5 X 0.9-1.2 mm, 

sparsely to densely pubescent on proximal hall, , , , , i -i r» i ii i a 

*,,,., , ' ,. . . . _ glabrous to denselv pilose, retals lilac, obovate, 4- 

slighlly dilated at base, median pairs united only rf-wi-7.->o ' iii iir 

, ,, , 111 X ^-^ ^ 1.7-2.8 mm, apex rounded; claw 1-2.5 mm 

basally; anthers oblong, apiculate at apex. Nectar i i * i i -i t?i * r 

J 1111 ^^^S^ sparsely to densely pilose, rilameiils ol me- 

glands confluent and subtending bases of all sta- i- 

^ ^ dian stamens 

2—3.5 mm 

long, united at l)ase, 

nu>ns; m.Hlian nectaries present. Ovules 10-16 per .^^^^^.j^ ,^ j^^^^l^ pj,,,^^ ^,^ l^^^^j ,,^1^.. j^^^^j ^j^. 

ovary. Fruit dehisc-.-nt siluiues, linear, latisepfate, ^p„, i_2 „„„ i,,„g pn.,se hasally; anthers ohlong, 

sessile or short stipitate; valves papery, with a dis- 0.6-O.8 mm long. Ovules 10 to 12 per locule. Fruit 

tinet niulveln, sparsely pubescent basally when linear, compressed. (0.5-)l. 3-3 cm X 0.8-1. S mm, 

young, torulose; replum rounded; septum complete, straight; valves sparsely pubescent basally when 

membranous, translucent, veinless; style to 1 mm; y^ung, soon glabrescenf, with a distinct midv.-in; 
stigma capitate, entire. Seeds uniscriate, winged gynophore ca. 0.5 mm long; style 0..5-1 mm long, 
dislully, oblong, somewhat plump; seed coat mi- Seeds oblong, 1.2-1.7 X 0.7-0.9 mm. Flowering 
nutely reticulate, mucilaginous when wetted; coty- and fruiting in June. 

Synstemon petrovii grows on slopes and rocky 


ons mcuni 


Two sp(H-ies: endemic to China (Gansu Province and sandy flats at 1500-2400 m. It is restricted to 

and Nei Mongol Autonomous Region). 

Gansu and neighboring Nei Mongol and is known 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Al-Shehbaz et al. 
Status of Synstemon 


Figure 1. Synstemon lulianlianus Al-Shehbaz, T. 
Median stamens. — E. Fruil and frniting pedicel. - 
0.1 mm. Drawn by Al-Shehbaz from the holotype. 

Y. Cheo & G. Yang. 
-F. Triehome. Scale: A 

A. Plant. — B. Sepal. — C. Petal. 
1 em; B-D = 1 mm; E = 5 mm; F 




thus far only iroin the types and the additional col- blade lanceolate, pinnatisect to pinnatifid, 1-2.5 

lection cited below. 

Although we have not examined the type of 5}7i- 
$t€nu*n deserticola, the detailed description and il- 
lustration leave no doubt that it is a synonym of S. 

petroiii. The trichome density on leaves, stems, and 
sepals of 5. petrovii exhibits continuous variation 

and, therefore, variety pilosus (with densely pubes- 
cent sepals) and varit^ty xinglon gnicus (with gla- 
brous leaves and stems) do not merit recognition. 
The type of S. petrovii has glabrous sepals, but the 
additional coUection cited above has sparsely pu- 
bescent sepals and leaves. Synstemon petrovii also 
varies in the density of trichomes on the filaments. 

X 0.4—1 cm, apex acute. Stem leaves with petioles 

1-4 mm long, blades narrowly lanceolate, 0,4-2.5 

X 0.5—1 cm, glabrescent to pilose, pinnatiseet, 
apex acute; lateral lobes oblong, 1-5 X 0.5-1 mm. 
Fruiting pedicels divaricate, slender, glabrous, 6— 
10 mm long. Sepals oblong, 2.5—3 X 1.2-1.5 mm, 
sparsely pilose to glabrescent. Petals lilac, ob- 
ovate, 4.5—6 X 2—3 mm, apex rounded; claw 2- 
2.5 nun, pilose. Filaments of median stamens 2.5— 
3 mm long, united at base, glabrous; lateral sta- 

mens 1.5-2.5 mm long, glabrous; anthers oblong, 
1—1.1 mm long. Ovules 14 to 16 per locule. Fruit 
linear, compressed, 2-2.5 cm X ca. 1.2 mm, ar- 
cuate; valves sparsely pubescent basally when 
young, soon glabrescent, with a (Ustinct midvein; 
gynophore obsolete; style ca. 0.5 mm long. Seeds 
oblong, ca. 1.3 X 0.7 mm. Flowering and fruiting 

in April. 

Additioriid rollrrfion. CHINA. Caiisu: C)() km N of Syrulemon luUanlianiLS, \^hich is named in honor 

Unehan^. E of Ht-gashan. 20 June V)r)H. Petrov s.n. (I.E). of our colleague Lu Lianli (NAS), an expert on Chi- 

rpi -ii ^ . re. . ■• ■ A/- X nese Brassicaceae, is known thus far only from the 

I he illustration ot Synstemon petrovii \n img et n • mi ■ • ii i ■ ■ i i 

I /i,^o.>\ I 1 X xi_ -J type collection. The species IS readuv distmi^uished 

al. (lyvti) belongs to some other species, and we ^ ^ .. , . . . ' i , 

A closer examination of the type shows, contrary to 
the original illustration, that the median filaments 
are very sparsely pilose instead of being glabrous 
at the base. 

have not seen the specimen on which that illustra- 
tion was based. Neither the petals nor the stamens 

from 5. petrovii by its pinnatiseet lanceolate leaves 

instead of narrowly linear entire leaves. Otlier dif- 

.,, . , J . -i- .. I r ,1 , 11 . ferences are eiven in the key above. 

were illustrated, and il the voucher ol that illustra- ^ ^ 

tlon is indeed a Synstemon, then it must be S. lu- 

Achnouledgments, We are grateful to Tatyana 

lianlianus because of its pinnatiseet cauline leaves Shulkina for her help with the translation of Rus- 

and curved fruits. Il is possil)le, however, that a sian literature, as well as to Neil A. Harriman for 
species of Dontostemon was instead illustrated be- his review of the manuscript, 
cause S. lulianlianus is a bieiuiial with petiolar re- 
mains of the preceding year, and the illustration in Literature Cited 
Ying el al. (1993) clearly represents an annual 

Al-Shehlja/. I. A. 1982. RolUn^ia, a new gt-nus of Cruci- 

ferae frum Mexieo. Taxon 31: 421-122. 
. 1985. riie genrrii of Thelypodieao (Cnu-iferae; 

2. Synstemon lulianlianus Al-Shehbaz, T. Y. 

Brassicaceae) in the soiitlieastern United Stat«'s. J. Ar- 
nold Arbor. 66: 95-111. 

Cheo & C. Yane, sp. nov. TYPE: China. N a« r u ^-7 v ^ io«i \i t ■ i r n* r 

^ ^ ^ , An, L. \\. (Z. A.j. IvHl. !\ew materials tor LIuncse Lru- 

Gansu: Tam-zhi, near railroad station, 22 Apr. 

1909, R Dushendenko 156 (holotype, LE). Fig- 
ure 1. 

ciferae. Bull. Hot. Res., Harbin 1(1 & 2): 97-107. 

. 1987. Sis\ nibricac. ///; T. Y. Clieo (editor). Fl. 

Herba biennis. 7-15 cm alia. |)ili.s crispalis; folia lias- 
alia ct caulina inferiora petiolala, [)iiuiatiseeta vel pinna- 

lifida, 1-2.5 em X 4-10 mm; folia caulina angusle lan- 

eeolata, j)innatisccta, 4—25 X 5— 10 mm, petiolis 1^ mm 
lonjjijis, l(>l)is laleralil)us ohlongis, 1-5 X 0.5-1 mm; ped- 
icelli fructifcri divaricali, glahri. (>-\{) mm lori^I; petala 
lilacina, obo\ata, 4.5—6 X 2—3 mm; unguibus dense pi- 
losis, 2—2.5 mm longis; lilamcnla mcdiana ad l>asim con- 
nata et glabra, 2.5—3 mm longa; fnictns lineari, compressi, 
arcuati, 2—2.5 cm X ca. 1.2 mm. 

Herbs biennial, 7—15 em tall, sparsely eovered 

with crisped trichomes to 0.5 mm long. Stems 

branched basally, unl)ranehed a})ove, sparsely pi- 

Rcipubl. Populari^ Sin. 33; 396—153. Science Press, 

Boelckc, (). & M. C. Romanezuk. 1081. Cnjcifcrac. Fl. 
Patagonica 4a: 373-544. 

Botschantsev, V. 1959. A list of Brassicaceae s[>ccics col- 
lected by M. P. Petrov in norlliwestern China in 1957- 

1958. Bot. Zhum. (Moscow & Leningrad) 44: 1483- 

. 1980. De Cruciferis notac crilicae. 8. Novosti 

lose or glabrescent. Basal and lowermost stem 
leaves petiolate; petiole 0.5-1.5 cm long; leal 

Sisl. Vyssh. Rasl. 17: 139-142. 

Brummitl, R. K. 1992, Vascular Plant Families and Gen- 
era. Royal Hdlanic Gardens, Kew. 

Payson. E. B. 192.3. A monogra[)hie slurly o{ Thelypodium 

and its immediate allies. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 9: 


Rollins, R. C. 1939. The cruciferous genus Stardeya, 
Llovdia 2: 10<>-127. 

. 1993. '] lie Crucifcrac of (^onliru'Tila] Nortb Amer- 

ica. Slanfortl Univ. Prt'ss. Stanford. 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Al-Shehbaz et al. 
Status of Synstemon 


Schulz, 0. E. 1924. Crucifcrae-Sisynibrieae. !n: A. Englcr Zhao, Y. Z. 1998a. Floristic analysis of Synstcrnon. Acta 

(editor), Pflanzenreirh IV. 105(Heft 86): 1-388. 
. 1936. Cruciferae. //;.■ A. Englt^r & K. Prantl (t'<l- 

itors). Nat, Pflanzenfam., ed. 2., 17B: 227-658. Wriag 

von \^ illu'Im Engulinann, Leipzig. 

Ying, T. S., Y. L. Zhang & D. E. Huufford. 1993. The 
Endemic Genera of Seed Plants of China. Science 

Press, Beijing. 

Sci. Nat. Univ. Nei Mongol. 29(1): 85-86. 

. 1998b. On mergence of Synstemon linearifoliiis 

An. Bull. Bot. Res., Harhin 18: 289-290. 

. 1998c. Synstemon deserticola Y. Z. Zhao — A new 

species of Brassicaceae from Nei Mongol. Ada Phyto- 
tax. Sin. 36: 373-374. 

Chorispora tashkorganica (Brassicaceae), a New Species from 

Xinjiang, China 

Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz 
Missouri Bc^tanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

Chco Taiyien, Lu Lianli 
Herbarium, Jiangsu Institute of Botany, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210014, People s Republic of China 

Yang Guang 
Piroche Plants, Inc., 20542 McNeil Road, Pitt Meadows, B.C., Canada V3Y IZl 

Ams in AC'i'. Chorispora tashkorganica, a narrow 
endemic to western Xinjiang, China, is described 
and illustrated. Its relationships and distinguishing 
characters are discussed. 

During work on the genus Chorispora R. Brown 

for the forthcoming vol 

eight of the Flora of 

China, we examined all of the recognized species 
except the two described by Pachomova (1974) 
from central Asia. However, on the basis of the de- 
tailed original descriptions she gave, it appears that 

Chorispora pamirica Pachomova and C. insignis 
Pachomova are synonyms of C songarica Schrt^nk 
and C sihirica (L.) DC, respectively. Among the 

extensive Chi 

material we examined, two col- 
lections clearly belong to an undescribed species. 

hereafter known as C tashkorganica. Regardless of 
the ultimate placement of Pachomova's two taxa, 

re quile different fnmi the new species in 


ey i 

having obovate petals 10-12 mm long, compared 

to the nmch shorter (3-^ mm hmg) oblanceolate 
petals of C. tashkorganica. 

As presently delimited, Chorispora consists of 11 
species centered primarily in central and south- 
western Asia, with the range of one weedy species. 

C tcnella (Pallas) DC, extending throughout Eu- 
rope and introduced elsewhere in the world. The 
11 species of Chorispora are easily separated by 
the following key. 


Plants perennial willi a eaudex; flowering stems 
leafleijs or rarely 1 -leaved. 

2a. All flowers on solilar) pedicels arising 
from rosi^lle 

. C. hungeartd Fiselier iX C. A. Meyer 
s always in raeemes. 

21.. Fl 


3a. Mowers purple. 

4a. Se[)als 3-^4 mm long; piHals 6— 

10 mm long; jiedicfd 0.3-l(- 
1.5) em long; Iniilirig style 

1.5—3 mm long 

C sabuloaa Cambessedes 

4b. Sepals i)-7 nun long; petals 

15—18 mm long; jwxlicel (1.7-) 
2— 3.5(— .5.5) em long; fruiting 
style S-7 mm long 

3b. Flowers yellow. 

C. gn'igii Kegel 

5a. Leaves plmiatiseel; petals 12- 

15 X 5-7 mm; sepals oblong. 

5.5-7 mm long 



C. songarica Sehrenk 

Leaves subentire, si nual in- 
dent ate, to pinnatifid; petals 

5-8(-10) X 2^ mm; sepals 
ovate, 2-3(-3.5) mm long . . 

C. macropoda Iraulvetter 

Plants annual; flowering stems leafy. 
6a. Flowers yellow. 

7a. Petals narrowly oblane<'olate. 3^ X 

0.7-1 mm, rounded at apex; anthers 
0.5-0.9 mm long; st) le 2~\ mm 
long in fruit; fruiting p(^dieels sub- 
ereet to ascending, snbappressed 
. . . C. tashkorganica Al-Sliehbaz et al. 
7b. Petals broadly obovate, 6-20 X 3- 
7 nim, apex emarginale; anthers 
1.5-2 nun long; style 5-25 mm long 
in fniit; fruiting pedicels divaricate 

to recuned. 

Ha. Petals C)-<)(-12) mm long: fruit 

1.5-2 cm X l-1.5(-2) mm; 

style 3-9 mm long; fruiting 
pedicels (6-)7-10(-ll) mm 

long C. sibirica (L.) DC. 

Rb. Petals 10-l8(-20) mm long; 

fmil 2-3H) cm X 2.5-3.5 

(-5) mm; style IO-l8(-25) 
nun long; fruiting pedicels 3- 
5 mm long 

. . . . C. ibcrica (Bicberstein) UC. 
6b. Flowers pur[)le. 

9a. Petals oblaneeolate, & 10(-12) mm 
long; sepals 3-5(-6) nnn long . . . 
C tcnella (Pallas) DC. 

9b. Petals broadly obovate, (I2-)1 1- 

NovoN 10: 104-106. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Al-Shehbaz et al. 

Chorispora tashkorganica from China 


Figure 1. Chorispora tashkorganlai Al-Sliehba/, T. Y. Cheo, L. L. I.ii & G. Yang. — A. Plant. — B. CFlaiul. — C. Sepal. 
— D, Petal. — E. Median stamen. — F. Fruil and pedieel. Scale: A = 1 cm; B = 0.1 nun; C-E = 1 mm; F = 5 mm. 
Drawn by Al-Shehbaz from the hololype. 


No von 

than terminal lobe. Cauline leaves few, similar to 
basal ones but with fewer lobes. Flowers in ra- 

, elongated considerably in fruit. Fruiting 

18(-20) nun long; sepals 7—10 mm 

10a. Fruiting style much longer 
than fruit, curved dislally; 

ftuii exrluiling style ca. 1 em pedicel 1.5-3 mm long, glandular, ascending to 

long C. persica Boissier suberect, subappressed. Sepals yellowish, ovate, 2- 

lOb. Fruiting style at most as long 3 X ca. 1 mm, glandular, margin membranous. Pet- 

as fnnt, straight; iruit exelud- , ,, n a -.y rx n i i i i i i i 

ing style 1.S-3 cm long .... ^^* y^="^*^' ^^ ^ ^.7-1 mm; blade oblanceolate, 

. . . ' C. purpuraseens rounded at apex; claw 2-2.5 mm long. Filaments 

(Banks & SolanJer) Eig 2-3 mm long; anthers oblong, 0.5-0.9 mm long. 

Fruit cylindric-linear, 1.2-1.5 cm X 1.5-2 mm (ex- 

Chorispora tanhkorgaiiiea Al-Shehbaz, T Y. eluding style), corky, strongly torulose and with 5 

Cheo, L. L Lu & G. Yang, sp. nov. TYPE: to 8 lateral articulations on each side, glamhdar; 

China. Xinjiang: Taxkorgan (pronounced as style 2—4 mm long. Seeds brown, oblong, ca. 1.4 X 

Tashkorgan), Subashi, 4000 m, 30 June 1987, 1 nim. Flowering and fruiting June-July. 

Qinghai-Tibet Team 870314 (holotype, KUN) 




Chorlspora tashhorganica is known thus far only 
from rocky slopes at 4000-4200 m in Taxkorgan 

Herba annua glandulosa; eaules 12-20 em longi; folia ^^^^^^ Xinjiang. It is most closely related to C. si- 
hasalia rosulaUi, numerosa, petiolala, pinnatisecta vel sin- birica and C. iberica, both of which are also annuals 

ualo-dcrilata. lobis lateralibus delioideis; p<Mlicelli frueti- -with yellow flowers. The new species is readily sep- 
feri subeiceti \el adseendenles, subaprrssi, elandulosi, * j u •* n i. i j ..l i ^ 

, f- „ . •. . . , 1, ., I. o •} 1 .11 arated by its smaller petals and anthers, shorter 

1.5-3 mm longi; sepala ovala, 2-3 mm longa; petala lutea, 
3-4 X 0.7-1 mm, ohlancrdlata, apice rotundata; h'uctus 
cylindriro-lineari, 1.2-1.5 cm X 1.5-2 mm, glandulosi, 
valdt' tonilosi, articulis lateralibus 5-8; stvlus 2^ mm 
longus; s*»mina ohionga, ea. 1 .4 X 1 mm. 

styles, and appressed, suberect to ascending vs. di- 
varicate fruiting pedicels (see key). 

Pamtype, CHINA. Xinjiang: Taxkorgan, Majin. rocky 
slope, 4200 m, 3 July 1987, Qinghai Tibet Team 870405 

Herbs annual, 12-20 cm tall, densely glandular (KL N). 

throughout, sparsely pubescent at apices of sepals 

Achnowledgments. We thank Wu Sugong (KUN) 

and lobes of young leaves with simple trichomes to f^^ sending his collections from Xinjiang for our 
1 mm long, glabrous elsewhere. Stems several from gj^jy^ ^^ ^^jj ^^ N^jl j^ Harriman for his review 

base, decumbent, unbranched. B 

1 1 

eaves rosu- 

late; petiole 0.5—2.5 cm long, not ciliate, expanded 
at base; leaf blade linear to linear-lanceolate in out- 
line, 1-5 cm X 1-10 nun, densely glandular, base 

of the manuscript. 

attenuate, margin pinnatisecl to sinuate-dentate, 
apex acute; lateral lobes dellate, acute, smaller 

f>iteraUir(' Cited 

Pachomova, M. G. 1974. Species novae familiae Cnicifer- 
ae ex Asia Mt^dia. Rot. Mater. Cerh. Inst. I^it. Akad. 

Nauk Uzb. SSR 19: 34^9. 

Stigmaphyllon hispidum (Malpighiaceae), a New Species from 

Bahia, Brazil 

Christiane Anderson 

University of Michigan Herbarium, North University Building, 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1057, U.S.A. 

Abstract. Stigmaphyllon hispidum, a new spe- ^i^'i ca. 4.5 mm longi, foliolo ca. 3 mm longo, ca. 2.5 mm 
cies of Malpighiaceae, is described from Bahia, '^*^^ subquadrato. Samara ignola. 

Brazil, where it was collected in a remnant of coast- 

al forest, a vegetation type called Mata Atlantica. 
Its floral structure and adaxial laminar vesture are 
most similar to those of S. gayanum, an endemic 
of the region of Rio de Janeiro. The dense axial 

Vine. Stems and branches densely hispid, the 
hairs erect, mostly simple and basifixed, (0.5-)l- 
2.3 mm long, also with some Y-shaped hairs, the 
stalk 0.05—0.7 mm long, the arms 0.1—0.5 mm long 
and at an acute to right angle to each other, the 

with Y-shaped hairs, is unique in the genus 

vesture, composed of simple basifixed hairs mixed i • n i i ^ t 

-.1 ^r 1 II- • • • I second arm occasionally reduced to a spur. Leaves 

alternate?; laminas 17.5-18 cm long, 14—16 cm 

wide, broadly ovate to suborbicular, apex obtuse- 

Siigmaphyllon is one of the wing-fruited genera nmcronate, base truncate to shallowly cordate, 

of neotropical Malpighiaceae. The species are typ- adaxially velutinous, the hairs erect, mostly Y- 

ically vines with long-petioled, elliptical to cordate shaped, with the stalk 0.1-0.7 mm long and the 

leaves and bear clusters of yellow flowers arranged ^^mg 0.1-0.6 mm long, at an acute to right angle 

in compound inflorescences. In most the styles b 

to each other, also with some simple basifixed hairs, 

lateral appendages, the folioles, for which the genus 0.2-1.1 mm long, abaxially densely tomentose with 

is named. My monograph oi Stigmaphyllon (Ander- T-shaped hairs (stalk 0.1-0.6 mm long, trabecula 

son, 1997a) includes 90 species, distributed in the 0.6^1.3 mm long, straight or wavy); the midrib, pri- 

West Indies and throughout Latin America from ,^^^^ ^^^ secondary veins prominulous above and 

southern Mexico to northern Argentina, except in prominent below, and on both sides more densely 

Chile. A recent collection from eastern Bahia, Bra- pubescent than the laminar surface; laminar glands 

zil, proved to represent yet another species, which 0.2-0.3 mm diam., irregulariy spaced, prominent 

is described riere. ^^ slightly raised, borne adjacent to the margin 

abaxially and hidden by the vesture; petioles 3—3,5 

Stigmaphyllon hispidum C. Anderson, sp. nov. cm long, ca. 4.5 mm diam., densely hispid like the 

TYPE: Brazil. Bahia: Mpio. Una, Fazenda Ju- stems, not confluent across the node, with a pair of 

reana, ramal com entrada no Km 18 da Ro- prominent but sessile glands at the apex, each 

dovia Una/Sao Jos6 da Vitoria, Mata Higrofila gland 0.2-0.3 mm diam.; stipules not seen (ob- 

Sul Baiana (Mata Atlantica), 22 July 1998, L. scured by the stem vesture?). Flowers 18 to 25 (to 

A, Mattos Silva et al 3833 (holotype, CEPEC; 30) per umbel, these borne in dichasia or small 

isotype, MICH). Figure 1. 

Liana, caulit)us axibiis petioIis(|ue hispidis, inclumenlo 
pilis simplieibus et pilis Y-formihus immixtis. Laminae 

thyrses (; 

to the 3rd order, hispid), the com- 
pound inflorescence axillary. Peduncles (7.5-)9— 
10.5 mm long, pedicels 4.5-8 mm long, terete, both 

17.5-18 cm longae, 14-16 cm latae, late ovatae vel sub- densely pubescent with T-shaped hairs, peduncles 

orbiculares, supra velulinae, sublux tumentosae, margine (1.3— )1.4— 2 times as long as the pedicels. Bracts 

sparsim glanduloso; petioli crassi, ca. 4.5 mm diametro. and bracteoles 1.8-2 mm long, 0.8-1.2 mm wide, 

Fnflorescentia thypiformis con^^ ex umbeUis florib.s ^j^j^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ j^^^^j ^^_ 

in quaque umbella 18-25(-30); peduncub (^5-)9-l().5 . i-niii ct 

mm longi,pedicelli 4.5-8 mm longi.Pctalalateralia limbo "ceous abaxially, eglandular. Sepals 2.8-3 mm 

orbiculari, margine eroso-denticulalo: pelalum posticum long and wide, glands ca. 2 mm long, ca. 1 mm 

limbo late elliptico, margine fimbriato-denticidato. Sla- wide. All petals with the limb glabrous, yellow, 

mina heteromorpha antheris pubescentibus; antherae se- Ji^^i^g ^^ 1^^^^,^] p^^^j^ orbicular, margin erose-den- 

palis antico-lateraUbus oppositae 1-2 loculis reductis in- . , , i i^ o i • i 

1. . .1 1- ■• 1 , ri .. ticulate, the teeth up to 0.3 mm lone; anterior-lat- 

structae, antherae sepaiis poslico-Ialeralibus oppositae ^ ^' 

steriles. Stylus anticus ca. 3.2 mm longus, utroque foliolo ^^^^ petals: claw ca. 1.5 mm long, limb 11.5-12 

ca. 1.5 mm longo, ca, 1.2 mm lato, reclangnlari; styli pos- mm long and wide; posterior-lateral petals: claw ca. 

NOVON 10: 107-109. 2000. 


No von 



ri»i:iire 1. Sli^ntdphyllon hispidum C. Anderson, — A. Outline oi leaf. — B. Delail showing abaxial laniinar vesture. 
— C. Y-slia[)ecl luiiis and a simple hair from the adaxial laminar vesture. — D. I\)sterior petal (the "da^"). — E. 
Androeeium; slanKMi stn^ond from lelt opposes liie posterior petal. — F. Cynoeeium; anterior st)U^ at left, Seale l)ar: A 
= 4 em, B = I. ."5 mm, C = ',\ nnii, I) = 8 nnn, K, F = 4 mi7i. 

1 mm long, linih ca. 10.5—11 mm long and wide; 1 mm long, iocules absent; stamen npp(»site pos- 

posterior petal: claw ca. 3.5 mm long, indented at tenor petal always shorter tlian the adjacent two: 

apex, limh ca. 8.5 mm long, ca. 7 mm wide, broadly filament ca. 2.5 mm l(mg, anther ca. 1 mm long, 

elliptical, margin fimbriate-denliculate, the fimbri- Anterior style ca. 3.2 mm long, shorter than the 

ae/leeth up to 0,3 mm long. Staniens unt qual, those posterior two, terete, glabrous, erect or slightly in- 

opposite the posterior-lateral petals (and the pos- 

d; each foliole ca. 1.5 mm long, ca. 1.2 mm 

terior styles) the largest, those opposite the anterior- wide, rectangular. Posterior styles ca. 4.5 nun long, 

lateral sepals with the filaments subeijually long, terete, the proximal %-% with scattered liairs adax- 

anthers of those opposite the lateral sepals with the ially, lyrate; fohole ca. 3 mm long, ca. 2.5 mm wide, 

connective enlarged, those opposite the anterior- subsquare. Samara not seen, 
lateral sepals witli 1 or 2 unequal reduced Iocules, 

those oj)posite the posterior-lateral sepals eloculate; This robust and showy species, known only from 

loculale anthers pubescent. StamtMi opposite ante- the type collection, was found in a remnant of na- 

rior sepal: filament ca. 2.8 mm long, anther ca. 1.2 tive forest in a cocoa plantation. The common prac- 

mm long; stamens opposite anterior-lateral petals: tice of retaining native trees to provide shade for 

filaments ca. 1.8 mm long, anthers ca. 1 nun long; Tlicobroma cacao has resulted in the patchy pres- 

stamens opposite anterior-lateral sepals: filaments ervation of the native vegetation of coastal Bahia, 

ca. 3.8 mm long, connectives ca. 1 mm long, loc- which is rich in endemics. 

ules 0.1—0.3 nun long; stamens opposite posterior- 

Stigniaphyllon hispidum is easily recognized and 

lateral petals: filaments ca. 3.8 mm long, anthers readily distinguished from all other species of the 
ra. 1.4 nun Itmg; stamens opposite posterior-lateral genus by the densely hispiil sttMus, axes, and un- 
sepals: filaments ca. 2.8 mm long, connectives ca. usually stout petioles. Tlu* vesture is composed of 

Volume 10, Number 2 



Stigmaphyllon hispidum from Brazil 


a unique mixture of Y-shaped hairs and of simple Both have adaxially velutinous laminas, and a sim- 

basifixed hairs (Fig. IC); the latter are not found ilar androeclum and gynoecium. Stigmaphyllon 

elsewhere in Stigmaphyllon, although they are gayanum also differs in its smaller laminas (4.7— 

known sporadically in other genera, e.g., Pterandra 14 cm long), the basal glands often borne on the 

hirsuta C. Anderson (Anderson, 1997b). At least in slim petiole (1-2 mm in diameter) well below the 

S. hispidum, the simple hairs may result from the base of the lamina, and in its petals, all with fim- 

loss of one arm in a Y-shaped hair. The arms of the briae up to 0.5 mm long. In S. hispidum the large 

Y-shaped hairs are often unequally long; sometimes laminas (17.5-18 cm long) are borne on stout pet- 

the second ann is reduced to a mere spur. In 5. ioles ca. 4.5 mm in diameter and bear a pair of 

hispidum the laminas are abaxlally tomentose, the prominent glands at the base of the lamina at the 

hairs T-shaped, but adaxially velutinous, again the apex of the petiole. The margin of the posterior pet- 

vesture a mixture of Y-shaped and simple hairs. 

al is fimbriate-denticulate and of the lateral petals 

An intriguing aspect of S. hispidum is the alter- erose-denticulate. The only other species with 

nate arrangement of the leaves and the inflores- adaxially velutinous laminas is the Colombian 5. 

cence axes; however, the two specimens I have seen velutinum Triana & Planchon, which also has much 

consist of only a short portion of stem (3 cm, one smaller leaves than 5. hispidum and all petals glan- 

node; 7 cm, two nodes), each with one large com- dular-digitate-fimbriate. Stigmaphyllon velutinum 

pound inflorescence borne in one leaf axil. The also differs in details of the androecium and gy- 

shift from an opposite arrangement to an alternate noecium. All anthers 

glabrous and loculate; 

one near and in the inflorescence occurs in other only those of stamens opposite the anterior-lateral 

species oi Stigmaphyllon (e.g., S. alternifolium Adr. sepals have reduced locules. The styles b 
Jussieu, S. cavernulosum C. Anderson) and other a narrow lateral lip instead of folioles. 


opposite-leaved vines. The only species with ap- 
parently truly alternate phyllotaxy is S. alternans 

Triana & Planchon, of Amazonian Colombia, Ec- 
uador, and Peru; perhaps future collections of S. 
hispidum will reveal that it is a second alternate- 
leaved species. 

Stigmaphyllon hispidum is most similar to S. 
gayanum Adr. Jussieu, endemic to the area of Rio 
de Janeiro. Working S. hispidum through my key to 

.1 J *r -11 /A J 1 on-T \ Anderson, C. 1997a. Mon<)iJ:rapIi o{ SlimjiaphyUon (Mai 

the genus and the regional key (Anderson, 1997a), ^.a-..^^..^ c,.., n... m. ...L r.. ,01 -T 

Acknowledgments. I thank Andre M. Amorim of 
CEPEC for calling my attention to the type collec- 
tion and William R, Anderson for his helpful com- 
ments. For this study, I also consulted the rich col- 
lection of Malpighiaceae at MICH. Figure IB was 
drawn by Karin Douthit. 

Literature Cited 

the reader would arrive at that species, which, of 
course, lacks the unique vesture of S. hispidum. 

pighiaceae). Sysl. But. Monogr. 51: 1-313. 

. 1997b. Revision of Pterandra (Malpip;liia('eae) 

Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 21: 1-27. 

A New Species of Simira (Rubiaceae, Rondeletieae) from 

Northeastern Brazil 

Maria Regina de V, Barbosa 

Deparlatnento de Sisteinatica e Ecologia, Universidade Federal da Parafba, C.P. 506S, 

Cidade Universitdria, 58051-970 Joao Pesisoa, PB, Brazil 

Ariarie Luna Peixoto 

Departamento de Botanica, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 74582, 

23851-970 Seropedica, RJ, Brazil 

Ahstka(^T, The new species Simini gaulneriana thyrses 7-12-fl()wered, peduncles puberulous, L! 

M. R. Barbosa & A. L. Peixoto from northeastern 2 cm long; bracts foliose 2, at apex of the peduncle, 

Brazil is described. This is the first species oi Sim- membranaceous, deciduous, 1-1.5 cm long. Flow- 

ira found in the "caatinga" vegetation. ers subscssile, hypanthium puberulous, 3.8-4(-5) 

mm long. Calyx campanulate, truncate, internally 
Simira Aublet (Rubiaceae, Rondeletieae) is a glabrous, externally glabrous, 2(-4) nmi long. Co- 
neotropical geims comprising about 40 tree species, rolla bellying, 6-8(-9) mm long, externally gla- 
ranging from Mexico to Brazil. Although a regional brous, internally glabrous except at the point of fib 
treatment of Simira from Brazilian Amazonia was ament attachment, imbricate, lobes 6-7, 3-4 

tly pul)lishe(l (Barbosa & Peixoto, 1989), the outside, 3 inside, rounded, ciliolate, ca. 1 mm long, 

last comprehensive treatment of the genus for Bra- the inside smaller than the outside ones, irregularly 

zil was that of Schumann (1889) for Flora Brasi- tripartite at anthesis, then reflexed. Stamens 6-7, 

liensis. During the study of collections of Rubiaceae filaments exserled, attached ca. 1.5 mm from the 

from northeastern Brazil, this previously undescri- corolla base, 5-5.5(-7) mm long, hirsute in basal 

bed sp<HMes was ihscovered by the first author. 

%; anthers apiculate, 2.5-3 mm long. Style gla- 
brous, bifid, at anthesis ca. 7 mm long. Capsules 

Siinira gardneriaiia M. R. Barbosa & A. L. Pei- globose, woody, with lenticels, 3.5^.5 cm diam., 
xoto, sp. nov. TYPE: Brazil. Ceara: Campos 2-valved, valve bipartite, each part ca. 2.5 cm long. 

Sales, Salitre, caatinga, 10 Feb. 1984, A. Fer- 

1.6 cm wide, 0.35-0.4 cm thick; seeds numerous, 

nandes & M. A. Figueiredo 12298 (holotype, A^'- crescent-shaped, 1.8-3.5 X 0.9-1.5 cm, dry- 


ing goin, wings slender. 


Simira gardneriana occurs in the stales of Bahia, 

JPB; isotype, EAC). Figure 1. 

Species nova a congrnrris S. grazielac et .S. riridijlora 

(liineiisionihus petioli el folioruni sed etiam axillis ner- Ceard, Pernambuco, and Piauf, in the caatingas do- 

voniin iKirl.alis, con.lla ventricosa (^7 Icl.ata et stainini- „ji,,iuj,,^ ^^here it is known as Pereiro-de-Tinta or 

bub niiinero ae(|uali (listiri^uitur. r* ■ it- n -tii i . i ■ i -i t 

rereiro-Vermelho. Ihe wood is used in buildings 

Small tree 4-7 m tall, cortex gray, reddish inside; and fences; during the dry season this species is 

branchlets terete, grayish, rarely reddish, glabrous, used as forage. This is the first reference of the 

with lenticels. Leaves concentrated in the apices of genus, which is typical of liumid forests, occurring 

branchlets, oblong-lanceolate, apex short acute, in the caatinga vegetation. The caatinga is a type 

sliglitly apiculate, base obtuse or rounded, charta- of vegetation that occurs in northeastern Brazil 

ceous, glabrous, younger reddish, mature olive- where the majority of species, under severe and 

green, 4.5-6 cm long, 2.5-3 cm wide; petioles slen- long-lasting periods of drought, lose their leaves. 

der, puberulous, 5-7 mm long; secondary veins 8— The currently known specimens of this species oc- 

10 pairs, [irominent above and beneath, intersecon- cur in areas of poor sandy soil with 500-700 mm 

dary veins reticulate, with hairy domatia in the ax- annual rainfall. 

ils of the secondary veins; terminal stipules 0.8-1 

Simira gardneriana Is very closely related to S. 

cm long, narrowing toward the apex, externally pu- grazielae Peixoto and S. viridiflora (AUemao & Sal- 

berulous at base, with one row oi colleters on the danha) Steyermark, which occur in the humid for- 

internal stipule ])ase. Inflorescences axillary, short; ests of eastern Brazil (Peixoto, 1981). These species 

NovoN 10: 110-112. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Barbosa & Peixoto 

SImira gardneriana from Brazi 


2 mm 

Figure 1. Simira gardneriana M. K. Barhosa & A. T.. Peixoto. — A. Habit. — R. Terminal sti])ule. — C. Inn<>n\sceMce 
— D. Flower bud. ^E. Flower. — F. Open corolla. — G. Hypantliium and style. — H. Open fruit. — I. Seed. (A-G, A. 
Fernandes & M. A. Figueiredo 12298; II, I, D. Andrade-Uma & M. Magalhacs 52-1063,) 

have in common an imbricate corolla aestivation er petioles, hairy domatia, and higher numbers of 

that opens irregularly in three or two portions and corolla lobes and stamens (Table 1). 
capsules strongly woody, bivalved, with valve bi- The name honors George Gardner, Scottish nat- 

partite. Simira gardneriana differs in having short- uralist, the first collector of the species, who ^vas 



Table 1. Comparison o( Simira gardneriana, S. grazivlac, and S. viridijlora 



Rladr (liniension 



Lobes and stamens 

Capsule dim**nsi()[is 

S. gardneriana 

Tree to 7 m 
4.5-6 X 2.5-3 em 



3.5^.5 em 

S. grazielae 

Tree lo 30 m 

6-13 X 2.8-5 cm 


2 cm 


6—7 cm 

S. viridijlora 

Tree lu 20 m 
12-12 X 3-13 cm 


1-2.2 cm 


6-7 cm 

responsil>le for a historical collection of plants ish Councilin Brazil for supporting the first author s 

visit to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and to the 
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientffico 
e Tecnologico of Brazil (CNPq) for grants to the 
authors that partially funded this work. We also 

made in northeastern Brazil from 1836 to 1841. 

Paratyprs. BRAZIL. Bahla: Senhor do Bonfim, 25 
May 1974 (fr), D. Andrade-Liwa 74-7665 {WW). Ceara: 
Aiuaba, 8 Jan. 1982 (fl), M. A. F. Comes s.n. (EAC 1 1058, 

UB, JPB, IPA). Periiainbueo: Petrolina, 5 Jan. 1961 (fr), thank the curators of K, EAC, and IPA for allowing 

the study of specimens 

Literature Cited 

D. Andradv-Lima 61-3601 (IPA, JPB); 8 km NK Petrolina. 
cantinga arl)usliva, 28 Dec. 1983 (fl), Folius 3661 (IPA); 
prtSx. Serra Dois Irmaos, estr. Afranio-Paulistana, 23 June 
1952 (fr), /;. Andrade-Lima & M. Magalhaes 52-1063 
(IPA); Afrauio, 20 Apr. 1971 (fr), E. P. Ileringer el uL 200 

^"'r.r^T? f ^''"" '^'l^^'^''^';^un!ffV")^ ^'i ^vt ^^'^^^'^^ f^- ^' V- & A. L. Peixoto. 1989. As esp^eies de 

7rM PA P rr'" 9 n ^" 10 <> n ^h \ ^V ^' " ^'^'''''^' (Ruhiaceae, Rondeletieae) da Amazo.lia Brasl- 

iVJ ( PA); '-^''f/;";- 2 Dec^ 19.9 (H^ A, Fernandas j.i,,, ^^,^ ^^^^.^^^^^ 19^ 27-t6. 

(\- I/elArco s.n. (KAL 750», UB); Sao Kaimundo Nonalo, p^.'v^*.. \ T loui m a • j c- • * i i . j 

19 f^ !()-« /m A r J /iTAi^^ ri,o TTr»^ 1 cixoto, A. 1,. 1 9K 1 . INovas esp^cies de Simira Auhlet do 

12 Dec. 19^8 (fl), A. Fernandes s.n. (EAC 5112, UB); „^h*. A.. V ..(.;*.. <5 .«i n i m n . m r ru 

c in- WA-7M /n^ t r- ■ o-.^ /T,-.*\ norte do Lspfnlo Santo. Isoi. iVIus. Bot. Mun. Cuntiba 

bcrra da Capivara, 1979 (fl), L Emperaire 370 (IPA). . - - _ 


Acknowledgrnenls. We are grateful to the Brit- 

Schumann, K. 1889. Rubiaceac In: C. F. P. Martins, Flora 
Brasiliensis 6(6): 223-235. 

Two New Combinations in Maianthemum (Convallariaceae) 

Shingchi Chen (Xinqi Chen) 

Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, 

Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, People's Republic of China 

Shoichi Kawano 

Professor Emeritus of Kyoto University, 303-204 Greentown Makishima, 
51-1 Motoyashiki, Makishima-cho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0041, Japan 

AliSTRACT. During preparation of the account of tube. Maianthemum lichian ge Jise occurs from 2800 

Maianthemum F. H. Wiggers for the Flora of Chi- to 3500 m in southern Gansu, Sichuan, northwest- 

na, volume 24, it was found that two taxa formerly em Yunnan, and possibly Shaanxi provinces, and 

treated under Smilacina Desfontaines required the M. tubiferum occurs from 2500 to 3000 m in Gansu, 

following new combinations in Maianthemum, Hubei, Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Sic-huan provinces; 

namely M. fusciduliflorum (Kawano) S. C. Chen & both are endemic to China. 
Kawano and M. stenolobum (Franchet) S. C. Chen 
& Kawano. 

The genus Maianthemum (including Smilacina) 
consists of about 35 species and is widely distrib- 
uted in the northern temperate zone as well as 

subtropical montane Asia and Central America. 
Two genera, Smilacina and Maianthemum, have 
been recognized traditionally and historically. 
LaFrankie (1986) concluded that the difference 
between them (trimerous vs. dimerous flowers) was 
not sufficient to warrant distinct genera, and there- 
fore transferred the species of Smilacina to 
Maianthemum. Along with Li (1990) and Hara 
(1987), the present authors agree with LaFrankie's 
transfers and note that the following combinations 
are necessary for their forthcoming treatment of 
Maianthemum in the Flora of China, volume 24 
(Chen & Kawano, in press). 

Maianthemum fusciduliflorum (Kawano) S. C. 
Chen & Kawano, comb. nov. Basionym: Smi- 

Maianthemum stenolobum (Franchet) S. C. 
Chen & Kawano, comb. nov. Basionym: Tovar- 
ia stenoloba Franchet, Bull. Sue. Hot. France 
43: 47. 1896. Smilacina stenoloba (Franchet) 
Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29: 247. 1900. Smi- 
lacina paniculata (Baker) F. T. Wang & Ts. 
Tang var. stenoloba (Franchet) F. T. Wang & 
Ts. Tang, FL ReipubL Popularis Sin. 15: 32. 
1978. Smilacina tatsienensis (Franchet) H. R. 
Wehrhahn f. stenoloba (Franchet) H. Hara, J. 

Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot. 14: 155. 

1987. Smilacina tatsienensis var. stenoloba 
(Franchet) D. M. Liu, in J. M. Xu, FL Sichuan. 
7: 202. 1991. Maianthemum tatsienense (Fran- 
chet) LaFrankie var. stenolobum (Franchet) H. 
Li, in Z. Y. Wu et al., Fl. Yunnan. 7: 744. 
1997. TYPE: China. Chongqing: "pres de 
Tchen keou tin [Chengkou]," Farges 593 bis 
(holotype, P). 

This species is endemic to China, occurring 

lacina fusciduliflora Kawano, J. Jap. Bot. 41: ^^^^^ 2OOO to 3000 m in southern Gansu, western 
354. 1966. TYPE: Myanmar-China (Xizang). pj^^^j^ ^^^ Chongqing (formerly eastern Sichuan) 

''Burma-Tibet Frontier: Adunq [sic = Adung] 

provinces. It has narrowly lanceolate, 5-7-mm- 

Valley, alt. 12000 ft," 26 June 1931, F King- j^^^ j^^^^ ^^^^j^^ whereas the closely related spe- 

don-Ward 9706 (holotype, F). 

cies, Maianthemum gongshanense (S. Yun Liang) 

This species occurs from 2200 to 3600 m in H. Li and M. trifolium (L.) Sloboda, have obovale 

southeastern Xizang and northwestern Yunnan or oblong, 2-4. 5-mm-long inner tepals. A/a/an/Z^c- 

provinces of China, as well as in adjacent Myan- mum gongshanense occurs from 3400 to 3600 m 

mar. It has violet tepals free to the base of the peri- in western Yunnan Province, where it is endemic, 

anth, whereas the closely related species Maian- and M. trifolium occurs from 400 to 700 m in 

themum lichiangense (W. W. Smith) LaFrankie and Heilongjiang, Jilin, and possibly Nei Mongol prov- 

M. tubiferum (Batalin) LaFrankie have white or vi- inces of China, as well as northern Korea, Russia, 

olet-tinged tepals connate at their bases to form a and North America. 

NovoN 10: 113-114. 2000. 



Acknouledgmenis. We thank Anthony R. Brach 
(MO c/o Harvard) and Nicholas J. Turland (MO, St. 
Louis) for help in preparing the manuscript. 

Lileraliire ('ilt^l 

Clien, S. C. & S. Kawano. In jiress. Maianthrmum F. H. 
Wingers, h: Z. Y. Wu ^ P. Fl. Raven (editors). Flora of 

China, 24. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botan- 
ical Garden Press, St. Louis. 

Hara, H. 1987. Notes towards a revision of the Asiatic 
species of the genus Smilacina. J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, 
Sect. 3, Bot. 14: 137-159. 

I^Frankie, J. V.. Jr. 1986. Transfer of the species of Snii- 
larina to Maianthemum (LiHaceae). Taxon 35: 584- 


Li, H. 1990. Iiilrageneric system of the genus Mdianthe- 
mum. Acta Hot. Yunnan., SuppL 3: 1-12. 

A New Combination in Stuckenia (Potamogetonaceae) of 



th A 


Antonio Galdn de Mera and ]os4 Alfredo Vicente Orellana 

Laboratory of Botany, Department of Biology, San Pablo University, P.O. Box 67, 

28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain 

Hamilton Beltrdn Santiago 
Museum of Natural History, San Marcos University, P.O. Box 14-0434, Lima 14, Peru 

Abstract. In this work, we propose the new com- those oi S. filiformis (1-3 cm). The achenes also 
bination Stuckenia punensis (Galan de Mera) Galan differentiate the two species: in S. punensis they are 
de Mera for use in the Peruvian flora. This species globose and in 5. filiformis they are gibbous. Both 
is coincident with S.^/i/ormt.s in its distribution in species are located between 3000 and 4000 m 
the high Andes of Peru. Stuckenia punensis differs above sea level, but their ecological preferences are 
from 5. filiformis in its wider, scabrous leaves and different; whereas S. punensis liv€:s in flowing riv- 
globose achenes. ers, S. filiformis forms dense communities in high 

calm lagoons. Finally, S. punensis is a Peruvian en- 
On account of the recent revision of the world- demic (Galdn de Mera, 1991), while S filiformis is 
wide genus Potamogeton L. (Wiegleb & Kaplan, widely distributed throughout the world (western, 
1998), we elucidate some points regarding the fam- central and northern Asia, North and South Amer- 
ica) (Wiegleb & Kaplan, 1998). 

Additional specimens of Stuckenia punensis. PERU. 
Cuzro: Caira, bottom of no Umbamba Valley al km 54. 
on road to Urubamba, ca. 4 km NW from Galea (8 km SE 
of Yucay), 2900 m, 26 Dec. 1962, //. //. & C. M. litis, C. 
Vargas 846 (US, USM). Junin: Tanna, bottom of rio 
Quishuarcancha, below Hacienda Casa Blanra (ca. 18 km 
(air) SSE of Tarma), 3600 m, 28 Nov. 1962. H. //. & C, 
M. litis, D. & V. Ugent 140 (USM); Yauli, aquatics from 
icy-eold, shallow, swift rio Mantaro, ia limestone valley 
with treeless tussock, grassland along highway to Junfn, 
ca. 8^10 km NW of La Oroya, ca. 3800 m. 4 Dec. 1962, 
Stuckenia punensis (Galan de Mera) Galan de Hugh H. & Carolyn litis, Donald & Vivian Ugent s.n. (US, 

Mera, comb. nov. Basionym: Potamogeton pu- USM); cerea de Paceha, entre La Oroya y Juni'n, Ria- 

ily Potamogetonaceae in Soutb America. 

Recent articles on Potamogetonaceae in America 
include Standley and Steyermark (1958), Haynes 
(1974), Haynes and Wentz (1975), Haynes and 
Holm-Nielsen (1982), Tur (1982), Haynes (1985), 
and Galdn de Mera (1991). After reviewing the no- 
menclatural novelties of Les and Haynes (1996) and 
Haynes et al. (1998), we propose an additional new 
combination of Stuckenia for the Peruvian flora. 


Galdn de Mera, Phytologia 64: 495. ^^^^^^^ 3800-3900 m, 10 Jan. 1949, Ramdn Ferreyra 

1988. TYPE: Peru. Puno: Lampa (on San Ro- 
man border), at road and railroad crossing of 
stream draining lago Jaracocha, ca. 9 km SW 

5259 (US), 

Table T A comparison of Stuckenia punensis and S. 

of Santa Lucia, 12 Jan. 1963, alt. ca. 4000 m, filiformis. 
H. K & a M, litis 1441, D. & K Ugent (ho- 
lotype, USM; isotype, US). 

Although Wiegleb and Kaplan (1998) suggested 


5. punensis 

S. filiformis 

Leaf width (mm) 



Nunil)er o 


f leaf 

3 to 5 





Bomer] are synonymous, the two species are very Stipules (cm) 

different in their morphological and ecological Fruit morphology pjlobose 




characteristics (see Table 1). Stuckenia punensis 
presents much wider leaves, with 3 to 5 nerves, 
thickened and scabrous. The leaves oi S. filiformis 
are narrower, with only 1 nerve, and smooth. The 
stipules of 5. punensis are longer (5-8 cm) than 


flowing rivers lagoons of calii 



C horology 


W, C and N Asia, 
North and Soutl 



NovoN 10: 115-116. 2000 



Acknowledgments. This work was supported by 
the 12/98 USP project of San Pablo University and 
by a grant from llie Agencia Espanola de Cooper- 
acion InternacionaL We thank L. Hamalainen for 
her linguistic assistance. 

Literature Cited 

(ialaii (]c Mcra, A. TOO]. Notas sohre el genero Potamo- 
gclon ].. (Potann)geloiiaeeae) eii el Pen'i. Publ. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. "Javier Vnu\o'\ Ser. I], l?(.l. 35: 1-6. 

lla\ii«'s, l{. l\, l*^7k \ revision of North Ameriean Po- 
taniogelofi subsection Pusllli (I'olaniogetonaf^cae). l?ho- 

(lora 76: 564-61-9. 

Potaniogi-ton (Potaniogelonaceae) from the northern An- 
des. Sysl. Bot. 7: 498-500. 

& W. A. Went/. 1975. Potaniogelonai-eae. In: Flo- 
ra of Panama. Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 62: l-IO. 
, D. H. Les & M. Krdl. 1998. Two new eombiria- 

lioiis in Stiickenia, the eorreel name for Colvogeton (Po- 
tamogetonaeeae). Novon 8: 241. 

bes, D. H. & K. R. Haynes. 1996. Coleogeton (Polarno- 

getonaceae), a new genus of Pondweeds. Novon 6: 389- 


Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyerinark. 1958. Potamogclon b. 
!n: Klora of Guatemala. Fieldiana, Bot. 24(1): 70-72. 

Tur, M. N. 1982. Revision del genero PoUuuogcton b. en 

la Argentina. Darwiniana 24: 217-265. 

. 1985. A revision of the elasping-leaved l^ota- Wiegleh, G. & Z. Kaplan. 1998. 7\n aeeount of the speeies 

mngrfon (P(ttaniogetonaeea<^). Sida 11: 173-188. 

iS b. R. llohn-Nielsen. 1982. A new species of 

of Potamogcton h. (Potaniogelonaeeae). Folia Geohot. 
Phytotax. 33: 241-316. 

New Mesoamerican Species of Dichorisandra and Tradescantia 

sect. Mandonia (Commelinaceae) 

Jason R. Grant 

Laboratoire de Phan^rogamie, Institut de Botanique, University de Neuchatel, 

ch. de Chantemerle 18, 2007 Neuchatel, Switzerland 

Abstract. Two new species of Commelinaceae 

Free-standing, erect, single-stemmed, perennial 

are described from the Neotropics. Dichorisandra herb to 1.5 m, upper half branched, arising sea- 

amabilis J. R. Grant, widespread from southern sonally from tuber-bearing roots Roots thin, fi- 

Mexico to Panama, consists of erect herbs formerly brous, often with distal tubers; tubers 3—5 X 0.5- 

included in Z). hexandra (Aublet) Standley, which 1.5 cm, thick, succulent, tan. Stems robust, green 

is here restricted to scandent plants. Tradescantia to glaucous-blue, often with vertical white stria- 

petricola J. R. Grant, disjunct from Costa Rica to tions. Branches axillary, 4 to 9 in number. Leaves 

Venezuela, belongs to Tradescantia sect. Mandonia 6-20 X 1.5-7.5 cm, spirally arranged on the main 

D, R. Hunt. axis, distichous on the lateral branches, sessile to 

petiolate, oblique, typically ovate-oblong, but vaiy- 

During preparation of the treatment of the Com- ing from linear-lanceolate, ovate, elliptic, to ob- 

melinaceae for the Manual de las Plantas de Costa ovate, basally acute to rounded, apically acuminate, 

Rica, two new species were encountered. In order firm but flexible, not leathery; sheaths glabrous, cil- 

that they may be included within this flora, they iate along the fused edge and toward the sheath 

are here described as Dichorisandra amahilis J. R. summit; blades glabrous to sparsely scabrous, 
Grant, and Tradescantia petricola J. R. Grant. 


short-ciliate. Inflorescences raceme-like thyrses, 
terminal on both the main axis and the lateral 
branches, diffuse, broadly ovate to oblong in out- 
line, (2-)5-8(-13) X (2-)3-5(-7) cm; peduncle 1- 
Dichorisandra is a taxonomically difficult genus 4 ^^ j^^g^ glabrous to velutinous; cymes (5) 10 to 
not only at its northernmost extent in Mesoamerica ^5 (33^ j^ number, 2-3.5 cm long, each subtended 
and Mexico, but throughout its primary range in ^ ^ decrescent bract 5-60 X 2^ mm. Flowers 2- 

South America. While 25+ species are recognized 

15 per cyme, either bisexual (perfect) or male, both 

in South America, the name Dichorisandra hexan- ^f^^^ blooming on a single cyme together on a given 

dra (Aublet) Standley has previously been used for j^^^ pedicellate. Pedicels 2^ X 1 mm. Sepals 3, 

an all-encompassing species of two or more distinct f^^^^ (5-)9-ll X 4-7 mm, unequal, green to white, 

elements in Mesoamerica and Mexico, e.g.. Hunt glabrous, acute to obtuse to rounde.l at apex. Petals 

(1994) in Flora Mesoamericana. The description 3^ f^^^^ 7,15 >< g_^^ ^^^ obovate, pale blue, lilac, 

here of a species that ranges from southern Mexico lavender, blue, purple, or white, rounded at apex, 

to Panama attempts to alleviate some of the prob- Stamens 6, equal, 8-11 mm long; filaments gla- 

lems within the genus at the northern extent of its j^^^^^^ 3,5 ^ i mm, antepetalous filaments shortly 

range. epipetalous at the base; anthers 6, dorsifixed toward 

the base, ovate in outline, base slightly cordate, 5- 

Dichorisandra amabilis J. R. Grant, sp. nov. 5 x 1-2 mm, dehiscing by two terminal pores, 

TYPE: Costa Rica. Puntarenas: Canton de Es- bi^^. Pistil 4-8 mm long; style slender, 2.5^.0 

parza, Macacona, 10°0r40"N, 84°36'33"W, mm; ovary glabrous, 1.5-2.0 X 1.5 mm. Capsules 

400 m, 26 July 1992, Hammel, Castillo & Her- dehiscent, trilocular, 9-14 X 7-10 mm, oblong to 

rera 18543 (holotype, US; isotypes, CR, F not obovate, often tinged purple, with 2 to 6 seeds per 

seen, INB, MO). Figure 1. 

locule. Seeds robust, 4- to 6-sided, all sides 3.5— 

u ' n- u ■ J h J cr ' jk 5.0 mm, ribbed to rugose, blackish with whitish 

Haec species uichorisandrae hexandrae aiiinis, sed ab ' o ' 

ea habitu erecto, caule robustiore, foliis secus axem prin- indumentum on the sides facing other seeds, tan on 

cipalem spiraliler dispositis, secus ramos laterales disti- the side(s) facing the wall of the locule; aril orange. 

Dichorisandra amabilis ranges from the southern 
Mexican states of Veracruz, Oaxaca, and Chiapas 

chis, vagina foliari infra glabra ad apicem subtiliter pu- 
bescente atque inflorescenlia ex ihyrso diffuso late ovato 
terminali constante distinguitur. 

NovoN 10: 117-123. 2000. 


No von 

Figure 1. Dichorisandra anmhilLs J. [{. Cnuit. —A. Hahil. (A and K, Grant & Rundell 92-02007 in cultivation.) 
— B. St(Mn and underground tuber-bearing roots. (Based on Gomez 207 19, NY.) — C. Flowering branch. (C and D based 
on Atwood & AW// Aj\I40, N>.) — D. Detail of leaf sheaths. — E. Infloreseenee; the n[)[)er opened flower is bisexual, 
the lower opened (lower Is male. 

Volume 10, Number 2 


Two New Species of Commelinaceae 


through Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nica- 
ragua, and Costa Rica to the Darien of eastern Pan- 
ama. Future collecting may reveal its presence in 

both Belize and the Choco of Colombia. It occurs 
from sea level to 1650 m in altitude. In contrast, 
Dichorisandra hexandra has a continuous distri- 
bution from Peru and French Guiana to Panama 

and Costa Rica, and is disjunct in Belize. Although 

D. amabilis and D. hexandra are known from both 
Pacific and Atlantic slopes, D. amabilis tends to 

occur (or is at least collected more frequently) on 

Pacific slopes, and D. hexandra more so on Atlantic 

slopes (at least in Mesoamerica). Furthermore, D. 

amabilis is most commonly found in sunny, dis- 
turbed sites often near streams or on alluvial ter- 
races, whereas D. hexandra is restricted to shady 
primary forest. 

In morphology, Dichorisandra amabilis can gen- 
erally be distinguished from D. hexandra in its US). Veracruz: Pohlado 6 (La bagiina), Wendt et at. 2674 

erect, non-scandent habit, glabrous sheaths, and (US); Poblado 2, Wendt ei at. 5306 (US). GUArUMALA. 

1 11 » * ui /* .u .1, 11 . Alta Verapaz: Cubilquitz, Tuerckheim 8325 (US). Jiitia- 

broadly ovate to oblong (rather than globose to . ^ u j p i ^ono i\iir\ mv ifc\ c 

-. - / \ ' n rt- 1 J P^- Atescalcmpa, Heyde & Lux 6393 (MO, NY, US); San 

slightly ovate) inflorescences. Dichorisandra ama- je,6nimo. Harmon & Dwyer 3331 (MO); Monson on Hwy. 

bilis also approaches Z). ulei J. F. MacBride from CA-8. Harmon & Fuentes 5918 (MO); San Crisluhol along 

northern South America. The latter species, how- CA-2. Dunn el al. 232 1 1 (MO, NY). Peten: San Luis, 

ever, is a taller, more robust species with thick ^rttz 2185 (US). Solola: Santa Barbara, Shannon 245 

T 1 -I? 1 r 1 1 111 (US). Zaoapa: 41 mi. S of lurnoff to Peten (near Morales), 

stems, densely villous leaf sheaths and peduncles, ^^^^, ^^^^^ ^^^y y^ SALVADOR. Ahiuaohapan: 23 mi. 

main axis; leaf sheaths glabrous throughout to 

ciliale on the fused edge. 

2a. Plants with multiple stems; sepals and pet- 
als both purple; anthers yellow; leaves spi- 
rally arranged on terminal as well as axillary 
branches; plants of cultivation, native to 

southeastern Brazil 

Dichorisandra thynijlora J. C. Mikan 

2b. Plants with a single stem; sepals green to 
wfiile. petals pale blue, lilac, lavender, blue, 
purple, or white; anthers Llu*^; leaves spi- 
rally arranged on the main axis, while those 
on the axillary branches distichously ar- 
ranged; plants native to Mexico (Veraemz, 
Oaxara. and Chiapas). Guatemala. El Sal- 
vador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rii-a 

to the Darien of eastern Panama 

Dichorisandra amabilis J. R. Grant 

Paratypes. MEXICO. Chiapas: Estacion Hiologiea 
Chajul, Dominguez 160 (US). Oaxaca: Arroyo llamaca, 
Wendt et al 4161 (US); Sta, Marfa, Hernandez 1204 (MO, 

and generally longer (15-26 X 4-8.5 cm) leaves. 

NW of San Francisco Menendez, Croat 42088 (US); P.N. 

Three published names in Dichorisandra from El bnpossible, Toledo 6 (MO). La Libertad: Uos Chorros, 
northern South America were considered as poten- Sta. Tecia, Rohneder 628 (MO). San Salvador: San Sal- 

tially applicable to the erect Mesoamerican species. ^f ^^' enson }oo \\iri\ c^^ ^ ^\t^-'^ \ "V 

chagua, Rohweder 633 (MO). San Vic-ente: Uagnna de 

However, examination of tbeir type material from Apa^'stepeque. Rohweder 624 (MO). Sanita Ana: Rio Ama- 

Prague has revealed each to be synonymous with yo near Hacienda Agua Caliente, Rohweder 626 (MO); 

D. hexandra. These names are: Dichorisandra oval- Santa Ana Metap^n, Rohweder 629 (MO). Sonsonale: San 

ifolia C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1: 140. 1825; D. in- Salvador-Sonsonate, Rohweder 625 (MO); Salvador, 9 km 

J r> T, ^ r, 1- u i i i ^r. i oor j E of La Libertad, //or/orj S64,? (US). HONDURAS. With- 

aequaiis L. rresl, Keliq. Haenk. 1: 14*U. loZo; and , . i t. u » u i "7 ; mc\ 

^ ^ out exact iocalitv, eastern rionduras, Jownsend s.n. (Lo). 

D. mexicana C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1: 140. 1825 Allantida: Tela", Standley 52700 (US); Lancetilla, Chick- 

(likely from South America, not Mexico). These ering 213 (MO), Yuncker 4743 (MO, NY); Lancetilla Bo- 
names are mentioned to indicate that each was in t^/ii^^l Gardens, Croat & Hannon 64592 (MO). Kl Par- 

r, .J J Ji'-x] u u-» J aiso: drainaiire of the Rfo Yeeuare, Molina R. 4041 (MO, 

tact considered and eliminated, whereby it was de- ,,^, ,, ,. ^„ .,,, . ,,_, f " r^- i « 

_..-,.., I w . ■ 'JS), Mohna R. 4124 (US); km 73 entre Ojo de Agua y 

hnitively decided to name the Mesoamerican entity r^^ California, Molina R. 14489 (NY); Las Manos, Cor- 

as a new species 

Kkv to the Nativk and Cti;ri\ ated Si*eciks oi- 
DiaiORiSANDKX IN Mksoamkrica 

la. Climbing, clambering, or trailing vines; stems 
slender to wiry; inflorescences terminal only on 
short, often remote, axillar> branches, compact, 
globose to slightly ovate in outline; leaves always 
distichously arranged; leaf sheaths pilose 
throughout, or only along the fused edge; Belize, 
Costa Rica, and Panama to French Guiana and 
Peru . . . Dichorisandra hexandra (Aublet) Standley 

lb. Free-standing, erect herbs; stems robust; inflo- 
rescences terminal on the main stem, also at the 
ends of axillary branches, diffuse, broadly ovate 
In outline; leaves spirally arranged at least on 

dillera Dipilto, Molina R. 30575 (MO). Graciaw a Dios: 
Rfo Patiica, Wampusirpi, Clewell 4539 (MO). Morazan: 
Barrosas, JSolasco 130 (NY). Ohineho: Pinares, Nelson & 

Romero 4656 (MO). NICARA(;UA. Without province: Se- 
govia District, Sangsangta, Schramm 55 (US). Boaro: El 
Porton, Stevens 9268 (MO, US); Cerro Mombachito, Ste- 
vens el al. 14710 (MO, US); Rfo Fonseca, "Los Garcfa." 

Moreno 10187 (MO, US); 4 km al Oeste de Boacu, Moreno 
10201 (MO, US); Camoapa, Stevens 22986 (MO, US). Car- 
azo: La Paz de Oriente, Moreno 10699 (MO, US). Chin- 
andega: Ameya, Maxon el al. 7114 (US), Maxon et al. 
7201 (US); Volcan Chonco, Sandino 1377 (MO); Santo 
Tomas del Nance, Moreno 1 1846 (MO, US); X'olcan Casita, 
Montanas Kl Uval, Crijalva & Crijalva 1458 (MO, IS). 

Chontales: Cuapa, Neill 7457 (CR. LS), Stevens 3637 
(MO, US), i\ee & Sebastian 28471 (MO, US); 6 km E of 
Santo Tomas, Hernandez & Stevens 618 (MO. US). Esteli: 
Salto de Estanzuela, Alwood &^ Neill AN140 (MO, NY, 


No von 

US), Sterms vl al 14398 (MO, US), Casiro et al. 1176 bagri hasta Rfo Llei, (7o>;^f^::ei a/. 2;i/S0 (MO, US); Parque 

(MO, US), Soza et al. 146 (MO, US), Moreno 24390 (MO, Nacional Tortuguero, Eslacion .\^ua Fria, Robles 1215 

US), Hernandez et al. 637 (MO, US). Granada: Grenada (CR), Robles & Flores 1625 (CH), Solano 55 (MO, US); 

(le Niraragiia, P. iJ^vy 1060 (P); Volrdn Mombacho, Al- 12.5 km S of the San Jos^-Lim6n Hwy. b<^Iween Germania 

wood & Neill AN186 (MO, US), Moreno 1458 (MO, US), and Siquirres, Grant & Rundell 92-01948 (CR. US). Puii- 

Moreno 1506 {M0\ Moreno 2614 {MO. \]S\ Sandino 1306 larenas: forels du Rio Naranjo, Tondiiz 7657 (CR); Rio 

(MO, US), Sandino et al. 2906 (MO, US), Moreno 16465 Sdndalo, Osa Peninsula, Dodge & Goerger 10080 (CR, 

(MO, US), Marin iSi Cisneros 137 (MO), Grijalra et a/. 
2902 (MO, US), Soza iSc Moreno 74 (MO, US); Comarea 
La Fuente, Guzman et al. 604 (MO, US). Jinutega: Fl 
Cedro, Moreno 810 (MO, US). Madriz: San Juan de Rio, 
Stevens et al. 17669 (MO). Managua: Casa Colorada, 
Maxon et al. 7375 (US); Las Niibes, Maxon et al. 7492 
(US); El Crucero, Stevens 3511 (MO); along Hwy. 8 ca. 
2.4 km SW of intersection with Hwy. 2, km 28. Stevens 
3993 (MO, US); Rio Los Mangos, Hwy. 12 bridge, Stevens 
9788 (MO); earretera entre Las Conchilas y Masaehapa, 

MO, NY, US); Palmar Norte, along Rio Grande de Terraba, 
Allen 5313 (NY, US); 8 km al SF de Golfito, A. Jim(<nez 
2264 (CR, NY); entre Lagarto y Boruca, A. Jimenez 3472 
(CR); Cabo Blanco Nature Reserve, Burger & Lies ner 6669 
(CR, NY); MIramar turnoff. Gentry 1330 (CR, NY); be- 
tween Golfito and Rio Claro, Maas & McAlpin 1438 (CR); 
Baron de Fsparta, Oeampo 1307 (CR); liomca, Buenos 
Aires, Oeampo 1396 (CR): Barranca Site, ai^out 15 mi. N 
of Puntarenas, Janzeu 10743 (MO); sendero entre Boca de 
Barranca y Cabezas, GiSmez-Laurllo 6865 (CR); Fspar/a, 
km 27-30, Guzman & Castro 1956 (MO, US). Masaya: Macacona, Gdmez 20749 (MO, NY, US); Corcovado Na- 
Laguna de Masaya, Neill 1034 (MO); Panjue Nacional tional Park, Acevedo 515 (US); Santa Klena, S of Agua 
Volcdn Masaya, NeUl 4647 (MO); Jardin Botanico UCA, Caliente, Davidse et al. 28232 (US); Finca El Fden. km 
Sandino 3491 (MO, US). Matagalpa: Cerro Apante, San- 193, R 2, Gomez 22949 (MO. US); 7 km SF of Quepos, 
dino 75/ 7 (MO, US); Cerro Fl Apante Grande, Soza et al. Grayum & Sleeper 5925 (MO, US); Santa Elena to Coyolar 
124 (MO, US); Rancberia, II km al NE de Muy Muy, de Guacimal, near Lomas Angeles, Hamniel 17105 (CR, 
Moreno 24454 (MO, US). Nueva Segovia: Ocolal, Que- MO); Parque Nacional Corcovado, Sirena, OUas Trail, Ker- 

brada Fl Nancital, Stevens 3086 (MO, US); San Fernando, 
Stevens 3219 (MO, US). Rio San Juan: San Bartolo, 5e>'- 
mour 6212 (MO, US), Robbins 6222 (NY); Rfo Indio, Ri- 
viere 297 (MO). Rivan: Isla Ometepe, Volcdn Concepcion, 
La Com-epcidn "El Floral," Robleto 1049 (MO, US); Isla 
Oinetcpe, Volcan Matleras, "La Pabna," Robleto 1215 

nan 1262 (CR, MO, US); Parque Nacional Guanacaste, 
Estacion Maritza, Chavarria 170 (CR, MO, US); Parque 
Nacional Corco\ado, Fstacion Sirena, Saborio 88 (INB, 
US); Reserva Absoluta Cabo Blanco, Chavarria 277 (INB, 
MO, US); Monleverde Cloud Forest Reserve area, Burger 
& Baker 9778 (CRj, Dryer 885 (CR), Pounds 181 (MO), 

(MO, US). Zelaya: Rio Punta Gorda. Atlanta, Moreno & llaber & Zuehowski 10759 (CR, US); Las Cniees Biol<»g- 

Sandino 12812 (MO, US); Nueva Guinea, Araqulstain ical Station (\^'iIson Botanical Garden) area, /?are/i 2780^ 

3023 (MO); Wany, Ortiz 44 (MO, US); Santa Rosa, Ortiz (CR), Raven 21896 (CR, MO), Webster 21973 (CR), Burrh 

66 (MO, US); Was[)ado, Ortiz 245 (MO, US); road between 4545 (MO), Meerow et al. 2001 (CR), Grayum 3361 (US), 

Nueva Guinea and Verdun, Miller & Sandino 1119 (MO, Grayum 5599 (CR, MO, US), Kress & Di Stilio 94-^1109 

US); Fl Zapote, 6 km S of Colonia Verdun, Nee & Vega (US), Kress & Calderdn 94-5207 (US). San Jose: bords 

27888 (MO); Sector Mina Nueva America, Ortiz 2148 du TilirU Tonduz 6952 (CR). Tondiiz 8834 (IJS); La Piihua. 

(MO, US). COSTA RICA. Alajuela: San Ram^n, Brenes Stork 438 (US), Stork 430 (US); San Luis de Turrubales, 

14430 (US); San Pedro de San Ramon. Brenes 4321 (NY), Valeria 653 (CR); La Palma, trail to Gua|>iles, Burger 4139 

Brenes 11 (NY); Tapesco de Zarcero, Austin Smith 780 (CR); Rfo Hondura, below Bajo U Hondura, Tavlor &- 

(NY);Zapote,.4ii^n>iS/ri[7/i 9//(NY);LaPenadeZarcero, Taylor 11895 (NY); Rio Claro Valley below La Palma, 

Austin Smith 996 (NY); Quel)rada Azul (San Carlos), Bre- Burger et al. 9420 (CR); Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo, 

nes 23069 (NY); San Rafael de Guatuso, Grecia, .4. G<Smez-Laurito 6445 (CR); Montailas Jamaica, Carara Rc- 

Jimenez 1084 (CR); Quebrada Lajas, Buetia Vista de San 
Carlos, A. Jimenez 2318 (CR); N of San Ramon, Lellinger 

serve, 9°45.ryN, H4°33' W, Grayum et al 5867 (MO); Zona 
Prolectora La Cangreja, Grayum 8626 (CR); Zona Protec- 

& White 1252 (CR, MO, US); 3 km NNE of Bijagua, Bur- tora EI Rodeo Ciudad, Colon, Q. Jimenez et ai 855 (CR, 

ger & Baker 9836 (MO). Cartago: Rfo Aguacaliente, Pit- MO, US); Santa Rosa de Puriscal, Morales 313 (MO); Can- 

tier 2634 (US); foret de Tuis, Cartago, Tonduz 11360 (US); ton de Santa Ana, Brazil de Santa Ana, Hanimel et al. 

El Muneco, Standley * Torres R. 51719 (US); Turrialba, 19045 (INB, MO, US). PANAMA. Bocaj^ del Toro: \^'ater 

Croa/ 5-?iS (MO), Croa/ 590 (MO); Alto VelodeNovia,Le/i/ Valley, von Wedel 970 (MO. US), von Wedel 1431 (MO), 

1013 (CR); 10 km S of Tapanti, Burger & Stolze 5626 von Wedel 1498 (MO), von Wedel 1542 (MO); Isla Colon. 

(CR, MO, NY), Burger & Burger 7575 (CR); Tapanti Hy- vicinity of Chiriqui Lagoon, von Wedel 2798 (MO, US), 

droelectric Reserve, Croat 36165 (US); Quebrada Cangre- von Wedel 2798 (MO); Quel)rada Huron on Cerro Bonyik, 

ja, Liesner & Judziewiez 14482 (MO. US), Guanaeaste: Kirkbride & Duke 608 (NY); La Zorra, Kirkbride (t Duke 

Tilaran, Standley & Valerio 44544 (US); Comelco Property 827 (MO, NY); 12 mi. from Rfo San Felix, D/lrry 16318 

near liagaces, Opler 317 (CR); Parque Nacional Santa (MO, US); Fortuna Dam area, D'Arcy 16401 (MO, US). 

Rosa, Barringer et al. 4008A (CR); Pan|ue Nacional Rin- Chiriqui: Puerto Armuelles, Woodson & Schery 824 (MO, 

c6n (\r li Weja. Rivera 664 {M0)\ 10 km S of Santa Cruz US); San Bartolom^ Penfnsula de Burica, Woodson & 

near Vista al Mar, Grant & Rundell 92-02007 (CR, US). Sehery 883 (MO, NY); E of Gualaca, Allen 5029 (MO); 

Ileredia: El Roble, F. L Stevens 626 (US); Zona Protec- Bo(iuete, 6 mi. N of Concepcion, FAnnger 750 (MO, US); 

tora g. Canta Rana Magsasay, /. Chaeon 865 (CR). Li- N of San Felix, Mori iS: Kalliinki 6007 (MO); Cerro C 

nion: Forets de Tsaki, 'lalamanca, Tonduz 9515 (CR); Rfo orado, Bocas Road, Folsom & Collins 1736 (MO); Haras 

Reventazon bcKm Cairo, Standley & Valerio 49008 (US); San Miguel, near Rio Mula, Folsom 3950 (MO, US); Vol- 

Toro Amarillo, SolCs 23904 (CR); hi Lola. Carlson 3274 can to Rfo Serano, Folsom 4058 (MO, US); Cerro Colo- 

(US); 10 mi. SW of Guapiles, Walker 181 (US); between rado, Folsom et ai 4793 (US); "km 8S," Him 567 (MO, 

Siquirres and tlie Rfo Pacuare, Burger tt Liesner 6972 NY, US); road to Rfo Sereno from Volcan, Murphy 1104 

(US); Cahuita National Park, Hammitt 145 (CR); Ugo Da- (MO); Fortuna Dam area. Churehill 5387 (MO. US). Co- 


Volume 10, Number 2 


Two New Species of Commelinaceae 


cle: Cerro Valle Chiquito, Seibert 511 (MO, NY); between fro^ the green of the stem and whitish green of the 

eaves spirally arranged, succulent; 

Las Margaritas and El Valle, Woodson et al. 1235 (MO, cVipotlic T 

NY); El Yalle, I^ Mesa, Gentry 5653 (MO); El Valle de , i V. r i r i in i-rr • i 

Anion, Allen 1978 (MO, NY US); Penonome lo Coclecito, ^^^^^hs 0.5-1.5 cm long, markedly different m col- 

9 km N of Llano Grande, DWrcy & Hammel 12297 (MO); or from the blade, whitish or with green tinge with 

between Rfo Blanco and Cafia Susio, Sytsma et at. 2468 vertical veins standing out in light green, just short- 

(MO). Col«Sn:Gatim,//«>e. 7 77 (NY); 8 km NW of Gam- ^^ j^ j^^g^j^ ^j^^^ ^j^^ 1^^ internodes, glabrous, 

boa. Nee 7598 (MO); Pipelme Road near Gamboa, ,, , ., /c .logo x fl-H-S cm lancen- 

Schmalzelet al, 775 (MO). Darien: road from El Real to ^^^^^^ sessile, [ty )i6 16 X (i jj 5 cm, lanceo 

Pino^ano, Duke 5142 (MO, US). Herrera: road between late-oblong with a strong-impressed false midrib. 

Las Minas and Pese, Duke 12306(3) (MO, NY); Alto de acuminate to acute at apex, rounded to cordate at 

Las Minas, Carrasquilla 253 (MO). Los Santos: 17.8 mi. 

base, glabrous and lustrous above, the stomates so 

S of Macaracas. I^u^s et al 1602 (^2;^J}^^^^^ large as to give a pocked appearance to the blade; 

Duke 11865(3) (MO), Lewis et al. 2209 (MO, NY); Rio , . , ^ , i i r 

Pedre^al, 25 mi. SW of Tonosi, Lewis et al 2912 (MO); ^^^'^^ ^"^^^^ puberulous; leaf margins maroon, 

Guaniqnito, abont 10 mi. N of Tonosi, Luteyn & Foster entire, undulate to crispate, ciliolate; leaves slrong- 

1371 (CR, MO, US). Panama: Cerro Gordo, near Culebra, ly decrescent on the flowering shoot. Inflorescences 

terminal and axillary, sessile to subsessile. Bracts 
strongly unequal when paired, acuminate, 8—60 X 


Pittier 3740 (NY, US); Arraijan, Woodson et ai 1395 (MO, 
NY); Salamanca Hydrographic Station, Rio Pequenf, 
Woodson et al. 1593 (MO, NY); Rio Pacora, Bartlett & 

Lasscr 16959 (NY); Chilibre, Dwyer 1029 (US); Las Cru- 3-15 mm, with vestiture as in the leaves. Pedicels 

ces Trail, E of Snmmit Gardens, Welch 19645 (MO, NY); glabrous, green, erect, white below, 11-13 mm 

halfway between El Llano and Rfo Mamoni, Duke 5539 Jo^g, recurved after flowering. Flowers bisexual, 

i'^^O^vl^^T'i ^'' ^•'''r^.^-T;J^M'' ^^^r ^^^\ ^ f' without any noticeable scent, 15-20 mm wide. Se- 

SW 01 Guabala, Lewis 434b (MU); iNuevo Lmperador, Ki- ' . ,, ri'^r 

pals o, not renexed, navicular, 5-8 X z-^.5 mm, 

Trail, Croat 11666 (MO); Port Kobbe, near Tndo Beach, lanceolate-elliptic, green or tinged with reddish 

Sullivan 233 (MO); Farfan Beach, D^Arcy & D^Arcy 6061 purple, becoming mostly reddish purple post an- 

(MO). Sullivan 576 (MO); Trocha C, Isia Bayana, Altos de ^j^^gj abaxial acute and glabrous, adaxial pair cu- 

Maje, Q/niaWt" /97(MOj;Cumndu,9°00'N, 79°35'W,50 .. ., .. • i. n r i i i v - 

,, ., r-^ /\/ir\ TTt:\ n n ) J t I 1 c. cuUatc With a Small aoical tult ol eeiandular hairs. 
m, Hamilton 5/o (MU, Ub); narro Colorado Island, Stan- ^ ^ 

dley 31354 (US). Standley 41 139 (US), Ebinger 547 {W), Petals 3, pale lavender, white medio-basally, 8-11 

US), Croat 4323 (MO), Croat 6315 (MO); Madden Dam X 7.5-9(-ll) mm, broadly ovate, apically obtuse, 

and Forest area (Parque Naeional Sobcrania), Boy Scout f^ee to the base. Stamens 6, equal, fertile, spread- 

Sv^^^^^.^^^7^/■*.^^^^^^^^ ing^ filaments white proximally. lavender and 

(NY), Kirkhride & tlias 2b9 (MO, NY), Hamdton & Stock- , , , i i . i i ^ - -i-r i • 

well 1150 (MO, US), Nee 6546 (NY), Croat 11876 (MO), densely bearded with long, white moniliform hairs, 


2-3 mm, distally; anthers basifixed, reniform; con- 


tween Escuela Aj^^ricola Alto Piedra and Calovebora, 15.6 nective deltate; anther sacs small and distal, de- 

km NW of Santa Fe,Cro«/ 27757 (MO ^j . downward; pollen bright yellow. Ovary 

erspoon et al. 8853 MO), McPherson 10651 (MO . ■ , , • , \ i i • n i • 

ovoid, white, densely puberulous apically; style ir- 
regularly bent distally, lavender but white in prox- 
imal third and just below the stigma; stigma white, 
capitate. Capsule ca. 5 mm, oblong-ellipsoid, de- 
Tradescantia petricola J. R. Grant, sp. nov. hiscent. Seeds dark gray to black, coarsely 12- 
TYPE: Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Canton de Ba- ribbed radially, whitish gray in depressions, nar- 
gaces, Parque National Palo Verde, Valle del rowly trigonal, 2-3.3 mm long, 1.2-1.5 mm wide, 
Tempisque, Sendero Guayacdn, 10°21'00"N, 1 mm thick; hilum linear; embryott^ga dorsal. 

85°2rOO"W, 10 m, 6 Sep. 1994, Chavarrfa 
1035 (holotype, US; isotypes, CR not seen, 
INB, MO not seen). Figure 2. 

Haec species Tradescanliae velutinae Kunth & C. D. 
Bouclie et T. amhiguae Martins affinis, sed ah ambabus 
canlibus pedieellis et sepalis glabris ab ilia sepaHs lon- 
gioribus atque seminibus majoribus, robuste costatis, ni- 

Tradescantia petricola is known best from the 
tropical dry forest of Parque Naeional Palo Verde, 
Guanacaste, Costa Rica, where it is locally abun- 
dant in the forest understory on low limestone hills. 
It grows in tight crevices on vertical rock ledges 

and large boulders, h 

the epithet. It is to be 


griscentibus, 2-3.3 X 1.2-1.5 mm metientibus dislingui- expected in adjacent areas with similar vegetation 

and geology, such as Parque Naeional Barra Honda. 

Robust perennials, rather clumsily erect to some- Three collections from Venezuela are also tenta- 

what decumbent, arising seasonally from tuber- lively placed here. 

bearing roots, not rooting at the nodes. Stems green, Tradescantia petricola (Costa Rica, Venezuela) is 

suffused with reddish purple between vertical white notable in its essentially glabrous stem, pedicels, 

striations, from a distance appearing checkered and sepals, though the sepals (5—^! X 2—3.5 mm) 



10 cm 

5 mm. 

Figure 2. Tradvscantia pclricola J. H. Grant. — A, Habit. — B. Upper stems before flowering. — C. Inflorescenee 
D. Seeds. (A-I) (imnt S: Hundcll 95 02347 in cultivation.) 



have an apical tuft of eglandular hairs. Its complex. While most inflorescences are sublentled 

seeds are robustly ribbed, 2-3.3 X 1.2-1.5 mm, by a pair of bracts typical of the genus, some have 

and are dark gray to blackish. Both T. velutina only a single bract, or rarely, none at all. In ma- 

(Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua) and T. ambigua turity, each inflorescence may consist of complex 

(northeastern Brazil) have pilose inflorescences. T clusters of up to 5 or more inflorescences with sin- 

velutina has shorter sepals (2.5^.5 mm long) that gle or paired bracts on short axillary shoots. 

vclutinous to short tomentose, and tan, 1-2 X 
1 nun seeds. T. ambigud has pilose sepals, 8(— 9) 




Paraiypes. COSTA RK^A. Cuaiiaoa»4te: l*anjne Na- 
cional Palo Verde, Area Conservaeion Teinpls(jue. Ivsta- 
In Costa Rica, Tradescantia petricola flowers in cion Palo Verde, Sendero Cactus. 10"20'00"N. 
the rainy season from late September to November. 85°2I 'RrW, 10-100 m, 12 Dee. 1990, Chaiarna 195 

nus m 

Flowenng begins wUh ,he appearance of a cincin- [^^f ^vfnk/.^.Tf f'""' fl ""'ssw f M '''^' i'^' 

. • r I r 1 r ^ I US). VENKZLLLA. Falcon: 4 km SSW of Mene de Mau- 

tne axis oi eacri ol the upper o to o leaves; / i i r u j -.i z i- c. . \ f^ . ■. Mt 

^ ^ ' roa (ea. 4 km tntm border willi Zulia Stale), Distrito Mau- 

however, no paired bracts are yet visible. As the roa, 100 m, 1/0 1984, Wiugfidd I Mm (US). Lara: Agua 

inflorescences grow, they become increasingly more Blanea. eerca de Ban|nisimeio, 19.30, //. C. 126 (VKN); 

Volume 10, Number 2 


Two New Species of Commelinaceae 


Largo de Valencia, Isla el Horno, 18 Sep. 1952, Var. & t^e manuscript. Bobbi Angell skillfully prepared 

Gessner 1875 (VE.\). *i. t j • r l *l n* l • j t •/■ 

^ ^ the line drawings ot both uichorisandra amabilis 

and Tradescantia petricola. I especially thank Rob- 

Acknowledgments, I thank the staffs of the fol- ert Faden for sharing his wealth of knowledge on 

lowing herbaria for assistance during my visits to the Commelinaceae. 
examine material: COL, CR, G, GH, INB, MO, NY, 

P, R, RB, US, and VEN, and for the loan of her- Literature Cited 

barium specimens from CR, INB, PR, and VEN. Hunt, D. R. 1994. Commelinaceae. Pp. 157-173 in: G. 

Barry Hammel and Michael Grayum provided DaviHse, M. Sonsa S. & A. 0. Chaler (editors), Flora 

I _^ J ^ r 1 Mesoamericana, Vol. 6, Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. 

much support and encouraeement lor my research tt • ■ i i v . i * .' j \h^ • \n^ ■ 

^^ o / Univertijdad INaeional Autonoma de Mexico, M^^xieo 

on Dichorisandra. Barry Hammel, Robert Faden, d.F.; Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis; The Natural 

and two anonymous reviewers meticulously edited History Museum, London. 

Typificalion and New Combinations in Abrus Adanson 

(Fabaceae, Faboideae, Abreae) 

Daniel K. Harder 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

AnsiKAt:!. A lectotype is indicated for.4/;ras me- Hassk." believed to have been penned by Hasskarl 

lanospcrmus Hasskarl. Two new combinations 

that has no conflict witli the protologue for A. me- 

provided lor widely distributed taxa of Abrus oc- lanospermus cited above. This specimen with a 

earring in Central, West, and East Africa, Bolivia, young infl 

I designate as the lectotype. 

Brazd, Venezuela, and New Caleilonia. These no- Another specimen at K with a printed label indi- 

menclatural clarifications are necessary anteied- eating, "Herb. T. Horsfield, Java, Purchased 1859," 

ents for tlie consideration of this genus for Flora then handwritten "L. 14, Abrus melanospcrmus 

Zamltrsiaca. Hassk. (M)," is from the same collection. This is 

During the preparation of 

also consistent with the protologue, but it lacks 
the treatment of flowers and fruit and is here considered an isolec- 

Abreae (Fabaceae, Faboideae) for Flora Zamhes- totype. 

iaca, taking into account the flora of Caprivi Strip, Based on this lectotypificalion of .4. mclarwspcr- 

Bolswana, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, it be- mus, the following new combinations are needed for 

came clear that the designation of a lectotype for infraspecific taxa of Abrus occurring in the Flora 

with current nomenclalural ndes. 

Abrus melanospcrmus Hasskarl was needed. The Zambesiaca region 
following new combinations are needed to treat the 

taxa of /l/;ru,s within the Flora region in accordance Abrus melanosperinus subsp. suffrulicosus 

(Boutique) D. Harder, comb. nov. Basionym: 
Abrus suffrulicosus Boutique, Bull. Jard. Bot, 
£tat 25: 127. 1955. Abrus pulchelliis subsp. 
suffrulicosus (Boutique) Verdcourt, Kew Bull. 
24: 249. 1970. TYPE: Democratic Republic of 
Congo. Lubumbashi [Elisabethville], dc Giorgi 
s.n. (holotype, BR). 

Abrus melanospcrmus Hasskarl, Cat. hort. bot. 
bogor: 282. 1844. TYPE: Java. Horsfield L 14 

(lectotvpc, designated here, K; isolectotype, 


Abrus pnhlicllus Wallicli ex riiuaites, Eriuiu. pi. zeyl: 91. 

1859. Syn. nov. TYPE: Sri Lanka. Belangcr, Thuai- 

frs I k)7 (isotypes, (i. K, I*). 

There is no precedent established for designating 
types of taxa described by Hasskarl (1844). Here, 
luuni-rous protologues of new species were pub- 
lished from cultivated material without a specimen 
reference, including the protologue oi Abrus melan- 

ospermus. Two specimens at K comprise original 
materia! as defined by Article 9.7 footnote 1 of the 
Inter nalional Code of Bolanical Nomenclature Literature Cited 

(Greuter et al., 1994: 11), since it can be shown (ireuler, W., E R. Rarri<% H. M. bunKl, W. C. Chaloncr, 

Abrus melanosperinus subsp. tenuiflorus (Ben- 

tham) D. Harder, comb. nov. Basionym: Abrus 
tenuiflorus Bentham, in Martins, FL bras. 
15(1): 216. 1859. Abrus pulcheUus subsp. ten- 
uiflorus (Bentham) Verdcourt, Kew Bull. 24: 
250. 1970. TYPE: Brazil. Santarem, Spruce 
786 (holotype, K; isotypes, BM, C, G, NY). 

that the description validating the name was based 
upon tliis material. 

At K there is one specimen with a liandwritten 
label marked "Herb. Javanicum Dr. Horsfield, L. 
14" and a determination, *'' Abrus melanospcrmus 

V, Denioulin, I), L. Ilawksworth, P. M. j0rgenspn. D. IL 

Nicholson, P C. Silva, P Trrliane & J. McNt-ill. 1994. 

■ M 

International Code of Botaniciil Nonienclature (lokyo 
Code). Rt'^nuni \('^. l.'5L 
Hasskarl, J. K. 1841. Catalogus plantarum in horto l)otan- 
ico hogoriensi cullaruin all(*r. Djakarta. 

N()\()\ 10: 124. 2000. 

Amorphophallus zengianus (Araceae), a New Chinese Species 

from Yunnan 

Long Chunlin and Li Heng 

Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Heilongtan, Kunming, 

Yunnan 650204, People's Republic of China 

Abstfmct. Amorphophallus zengianus C. L. Long 

Distribution, Known only from Jinping Xian, 

& H. Li from Yunnan, China, Is described as new. southern Yunnan, China, in secondary forest and 
It is similar \o A, hrausei Engler in having an erect, shrubs in valleys, from 760 to 1820 m above sea 
boat-shaped spathe with a sterile portion between level. 

male and female parts, but differs in having a 

Amorphophallus zengianus resembles A. hrausei 

spathe without spots, an appendix shorter than the (from western Yunnan, China, and northern Myan- 
spathe, and a pleasant odor. mar). However, the latter species differs in its in- 

florescence, the odor of which is most unpleasant 
Amorphophallus zengianus C. L. Long & H. Li, and reminiscent of a natural gas leak; its spathe, 
sp. nov. TYPE: China. Yunnan: Jinping Xian, which is pale yellowish green adaxially, the base 
MaWdi (22°40'N, lOSnO'E), 900 m, 25 June pale green with many small, slightly elongate or 

1998, a L Long 98003 (holotype, KUN). 

Species Amorphophallo kraiisei Engler affinis, sed spa- 

irregularly ridge-shaped warts; its spadix, which is 
nearly as long as the spathe; and its peduncle, 

fUo • . K • ; J- I ■ I which IS marked with partly or almost entirely con- 

tha mtus basi atro-purpurea, appendice spadicis subcy- t^ J J 

lindrica 6 cm longa, 2-2.4 cm crassa papillosa et basi A"^"* spots and white dots. 

rugosa, inflorescentia neutra inter inflorescenlias femi- Morphologically, Amorphophallwi zengianus, A, 

neas et masculas 2 cm longa. 2.5 cm crassa staminodiis krausei, and other species such as A. konjac C. 

fusiformibus usque 6 mm lontris 5 mm crassis suffuha, j/- u a • t? i a a i i • 

,.pr f Koch, A. yunnanensis hngler, and A. kacninensis 

Engler & Gehrmann belong to the same section. 

Tuberous herbs; tuber obovoid or depressed-ob- i.e., section Conophallus Engler. They also have 

conical, ca. 14 X 12 cm, producing short globose the same chromosome numbers, i.e., 2n — 26, dif- 

offsets. Leaf unknown. Inflorescence long-pedun- fering from A, paeoniifolius Nicolson in section 

culate; peduncle ca. 56 X 1.5-2.3 cm, pale green Cundarum Engler, which has 2n -= 28 (Long et 

with sparse (denser at base), blackish green, ob- aL, 1989; Li et al., 1990). Chromosome number is 

11 spots, smooth; spathe erect, boat- not significant to identify species from the same 

shaped to ovate, ca. 20 X 15 cm; basal part dark section, but it may be useful to differ sections in 

purple, convolute, ca. 9.5 X 3(at base)-6 cm, Amorphophallus, 

slightly papillose; limb light green abaxially, green The new species is named in honor of Zeng Xia- 

adaxially, deUoid, ca, 10 X 10 cm, the apex erect, olian, a botanical illustrator and artist at Kunming 

acute. Spadix sessile, shorter than spathe, ca. 14 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 

cm, emitting a faint, orange-like fragrance; female for his great contributions to the research of Ara- 

portion ca. 2.5 X 2 cm, the ovaries green, ovoid, ceae and other taxa in China. 
ca. 2.5 mm diam., 2-ovulate; style pale green, ca. 

1.5 mm, the stigma brown, slightly 3- or 4-lobed; 

Acknowledgments, The study is supported by 

sterile portion of spadix yellow, ca. 2 X 2.5 cm, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (the Knowledge 
the staminodes fusiform, ca. 6X5 mm; male por- Innovation Project and a grant numbered KZ951- 
tion of spadix yellow, ca. 3.5 cm X 2.2 mm, the Al-104). We are grateful to Zhou Yi-lan, who is 
synandria obconical, ca. 1 mm; anthers subglo- cultivating the type collection in hvr private gar- 
hose, short, pores apical; appendix of spadix deep den. Special thanks are extended to Zhou Qi-xing 

yellow, cylindric, ca. 5.5 X 2.2 cm, the base ru- for making the chromosome count, and to Wang 

gulose, the apex acute, entirely papillose. Chro- Ling for preparing the illustration. We also thank 

= 26. Nick Turland (MO) for his comments and help in 

NovoN 10: 12S-127. 2000. 

mosome number: 2n 




1 mm 

Figure 1. Amorphophallus zengianus C. I-. Long & H. Li. — A. Inflorescence. — B. Part of peduncle showing cataphyll. 

— E. Pistil and longitndinal section of pislil showing ovules. All drawn from the type 

C. Tuber. — I). Synandrinm. 

collection, C. />. l^ing 98003 (ilrawn hy \^ang ling). 

Volume 10, Number 2 Long & Li 



Amorphophallus zengianus from Yunnan 

the preparation of the manuscript, and Thomas on [he kar>'olypes of Amorpliophalhv^ fruui China (II). 

Croat (MO) for his valuable comments. , ^''''Y'^, ^^!i'^; ^^y^f „ , . , 

Long, C. L. Z. J. Cu & H. I.i. 1989. Report on the kar- 
I iteralnre Cited y"*yP^^ o{ AniorphophalJu.s from China (I). Cuiliaia 9(4): 


Li, H., Z. J. Gu, C. L Lon^ & Y. P. Van- 1990. Report 

Marsdenia gallardoae (Asclepiadaceae), una Nueva Especie de 

Chiapas y Oaxaca, Mexico 

Lucio Lozuda-Perez 
Fac'uhad de Ciencias, UNAM, Aparlado Postal 70-208, Mexico D.F. 04510 

Rksi'MEN. Marsdenia gallardoae, una nueva es- ice acuniinado o agudo, margenes enteros, base 

pecit' de Asclepiadaceae i\v- Chiapas y Oaxaea del aguda, ohtusa o redondeada, venacion [)iniiada, con 

sur de Mexico, se cararttTiza por tener el interior 4—5 pares de venas lalerales, haz vt^rde, glahro, 

de la corola densaniente puberulcnta y por no pre- es})arcidamente puberulento, o con indumcnto s()lo 

scnlar un callo en los senos dc la rnisnia. Coniparte en la vena c(Mitral, 2—4^ glandulas en la base de la 
con M. (ririrgulata Bartlctt caracteristicas foliares 

y el color de la (lor. 

Abstract. Marsdenia gidlardoae, a new s| 
of Asclcpiadaceae from Chiapas and Oaxaca in 
southern Mexico, is characterized by a densely pu- 
bendenl corolla interior and absence of a callus in 

lamina, env^s verde palido, glabro o pub(*rulento, 
princ-ipalmenle en la vena central; pcciolos 0.3—0.8 

the sinus within the corolla. It sliares with M. (ri- 
virgidata Rartletl loliar characteristics and the col- 
or ol the flower. 

En la di^terminacioti de colectas recientes de As- ^ 

cm de hirgo, puberulenlos. Flores 2—^, dispuestas 
en una cima um!)elif()nne lateral, 0.7-1.0 cm de 
largo, sesil o con pedunculos ca. LO mm de largo, 
pu})enilentos o glabros; bracteas 1.2-1.5 X 0.4—0.5 
mm, ovadas a estrechameiite ovadas; pedicelos 1- 
2 mm de largo, puberulentos. Caliz del mismo ta- 
mano que el tubo de la corola, lobulos 1.7—2.2 X 
0.8-1.2 mm, lanceolados a estreehamentt^ ovados, 
glabros o puberulentos abaxialmt^nte, ciliados en el 

1.1 _^ 1 1 t J- ] 1 n- 1 mareen, con una dandula en cada seno; corola 

clepiatiaceae, como parte (1<m esludio (1(* la iloniia ^ ^ 

en la region de Nizanda en el Itsmo de Tehuantepec 
del estado de Oaxaca, Mexico, (jue realiza id la- 

boratorio de Ecologfa de la Facultad de Ciencias 

blanca o blanca con lineas rojas, campanulada, 5 
7 mm de largo, tubo 1.7—2.2 mm de largo, lobulos 
2.3—3.5 X 1.0—1.8 mm, lanceolados a estrecha- 

1 1 TT . • 1 I M • 1 \ i' \ \ii ■ mente ovados, apice obtuso a aiiudo, oblicuamente 

(ie la L niversidad iNacionat Autonoma de Mexico . . T _ _ ^ 

(UNAM), se descubrio una nueva especie. Esta es- 
pecie qut; a c(Uilinuaci6n se deseribe e ilustra, se 
acteriza ])or ser d<'nsamente puberulenta en el 

interior de la corola y por jio presentar un eallo en 

emarginado, glabros abaxialmente o con algunos 
pelos cortos, densameute pubcndentos adaxial- 
mente, incduyendo el tul)o. Giuostegio ligeramente 
conico, corto-estipitado, 1.3-1.5 mm de largo (sin 

los senos de la misma, entre otros caracteres c 


1-, incluir el apcndice estilar); corona de 5 lobulos, 

unidos a la base del giuostegio, cada lobulo 0.7— 
0.9 X 0.7-0.8 mm, muy ampliamente ovado, tan 
altos como las antt'ras, l6l)ulos laterales amplios. 

Marsdenia gallardoae Lozada-Perez, s{). nov. 

TIPO: Mexico. Oaxaca: Distrito Juchitan de ^ubriendo la cavidad estigmatica; apendice de la 

Zaragoza, Municipio Asuncion Ixlaltcpec, ha- ^"^^'^^ membranoso, caudado, margen crenado, un 

cia el "Agua Tibia", a 0.5 km al N de Nizanda, ^^^^*^*^ '' ^'^'"^ ^'' ""*^^^ '^'^ ^^ longitud del apendice 

16^40'02"N, 95^00'35"W, bosque ripario, 215 ^^^'^'^''^ polmios 0.30-0.32 X ca. 0.1 mm, coqnis- 

m, 1 ago. 1995. C. Gallardo 1561 (holotipo, ^"^'^^ ^'^- ^-^^ '""^ '^'^ ^""'^''^ ^'^'^'^^^ apendice estilar 

MEXU; isotipo, MO). Figura 1. 

Haer species Mursdrnide Irnirgulaftu' Hartlrll affinis 

sed ab ea ron»l]a adaxialiler dense pubeiula ad siniiin 
iiiler lubulos eallis ahs<'iililiu>. lohulis corona** 0.7— ().9 

conico, rostrado, 1.0-1.5 X ca. 0.4 mm, apice agu- 
do, ligeramente dividido. Folfculos napifomies, dp- 
ice largo-atenuado, 9.0-10.5 X ca. 1.0 cm, glabro. 
Semillas 0.8—1.0 X 0.5—0.6 cm, ovadas, con un 

inm'longisJ).7-o!8rmilalisiHdliniis0.3^ margen engrosado de color bianco, superhcie in- 

gis, coqxisculo ca. 0.12 rnni longo n-cto di(Tcrt. terior lisa, de color verde claro, con una cara con- 

Trepadora con savia lechosa, tallos lenosos y 
auberosos en la base, glabros, ramas jovenes gla- 
bras o retrorsii-pulu'iulentas, el indumcnto dis- 

puesto en una linea. Hojas opuestas; laminas 3—6 

X 1.0—3.5 cm, ovadas, lanceoladas o eliplicas, Ap- lata caracteristicas de forma, tamano, color c in- 

vexa y la opuesta c(nieava, (*sta ultima con una 
eresta que se extiende desde el apice hasta el cen- 
tro; coma ca. 3.5 cm de largo. 

Marsdenia gidlardoae comparte con M. triiirgu- 

NovoN 10: 128-131. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 2 


Marsdenia gallardoae de Mexico- 




Fij;ura 1. Marsdenia gallardoae l.ozada-Penv.. — a. Habilo mostrando cl arrcglo de las flures y liojas. — h. Dclallc 

de la hoja y la iiifloresrencia. 

(If la corola. — e. Ginoslc^io mostrando los Jolndos de la corona y el apendice estilar. — f, Polinario. — g. Fnilo. — h. 

. Flor mostrando la pubesccncia en la rara adaxial de la corola. — d. Vista adaxial 

Seniilla. (a-f, C. Gullardo 1561; g, h, E. Perez 1647). 





m m 




m m 

Fi^niii 2. Marsdf'nid tririrgnhitd Barll<'lt. 

A. Visln a<la\i;il vie hi corola. 






a la <()i()ra('l('»ti vino <> i'4tj(i palido. 
I'uliiiarict (C (Uitlnrdo 2i^H. IX^MI'). 

B. Gitutsti'^io moslrando los lobiilds 

las maiulias (mi I(ts It'ihiilds (^'orrespoiulrn 
(le la coiuna v el ajHTulicc estilar. — C. 

diunento de las liojas; el lipo de infl(»R'scencia tain- ya que se encuentra desde Sonora, Mt^'xico, hasta 

hieii es similar, jxto M. galhirdoac tiene de 2 a 5 Panama en la llannra eostera del Oeeano Pacifieo. 

fiores por inlloreseeneia, a difcreneia de M. triiir- Ambas especics tienen como habitat los bosques 

guhitu (jiie tiene ca. 8 flores. Aunqne las etiqut-tas Iropicales drciduos y la vegetacion cereana a los 

de lu^rbario meneionan que los espeefmenes de am- rios en suelos de origen ealizo, desde el nivel del 

bas espeeies al nionu-nlo de ser eoleetados en el mar hasta los 750 m de allitud. Marsdenia gallar- 

campo presentan eorolas de color l)lanco eon h'ncas done floreee de julio a septiembre y fruetifica de 

y inanehas rojas, tal eoloracion no se mantiene en septiembre a noviembre; M. truirguhita floreee de 

los ejemplares de herbario. Sin embargo, M, g(d- septieml)re a noviembre y no se eonoee euando 

lardoae se reeonoce por tener Hores de color muy fruetihea. 

palido, en cambio, las flores de M. truirguhita eon- 
stTvan tonos de color vino o rojo {)alido. Olros car- 

El epiteto especifico boma a Claudia Gallardo- 
Hernandez, botanica de la Facultad de Ciencias de 

aeteres de la conJa ignalmente utiles para (Ui(T- la Universidad Nacional Autdnoma de Mexico, por 
emiar a cstas espeeies son el indumento y la ^^ contribucion al eonocimiento de la flora de La 
presencia o ausencia de un callo en el seno de los Lnmantla y INizaiida, Uaxaca. 

lobulos de la corola; M. gidJurdoac es densamenli 

Panitipos. Mf^lXKX). ('hiapas: Mpio. Fronlrra (^om- 

pul>crulenta en el interior de la corola y carece de ^^|^^^,^,_ ., ,,; j^^.^,^^ ^,^. ,^^ carrHera 1*)(). 28 km al \ dv VA 
un callo en el seno de los lobulos, en cambi(», la JocoU* ((Mnpaltnc). a :^7 km de La Tririilaria. 650 in, 10 
corola i\r M. trivirguJdta (Fig. 2) carece de inihi- scp. P>aa W. /A Stnvns & E. Marl mez 2.1739 (MKAll): 

Mpio. (j)mitaii de Diimiii^^ucz, 16 km al S\\ tic Tzimol, 
1.5 km al S\\ (ic la hilurcacion dc la carrctera, 710 in, 

mcnto en su inttTior (los ejemplares examinados de 

Mexico son glabros. sin eml>argo, algunos csi>cci- ^^^ ^^^ jj^^^j^ ^ j^ ^^^^.^,^.^^^ ^^, ^ Martinez 2580.1 

mcncs de Nicaragua j)resentan indumento, pcro (MKXi:). Oaxaea: Distrito Juchitan de Zara^o/.a. M(>I(i. 

este es nmy esparcido y mas largo) y presenta un Asuiu-ion Ixlalu-pcc, ,"5 km a! S de Ni/anda, ccrca dc la 

via d(^l tivn Transisinico, 16'3H'()K"N, 95°(H)' UrW, 2(M) 

,., . . , m. 20 die-. P>08. /•:. Perez lhl7 (MKXU), 14 sep. 1998, 

tamhien urcsentan ducrencias nnportantes entrc las .. ;>, p /? /> i-ni i\M\\\\ w r i ii . 

' ^ h. rerez <x />. Keyes I.vt4 (Mr.XU ; Mpio. Liuilad l\tr pre. 

callo en cada s(*no. Los caracteres del ginostegio 

dos espeeies; ambas presentan un apendice estilar Ixtcptv, 25 Jul. 19:56. E. Maiuda 916 (MFXU); Disiriio 

muy largo y bilido en el apic-e, pcro en M. triiir- SanU» Domingo IVlmanlrprc, Mjiio. Salina (aniz, 4 km al 

S de Salitia (auz. carretera a l*la\a la Vcntosa, 27 jiil. 
1984. A'. Torres & C. Martinez ,1680 bis (MEXC); Mpio. 
Santiago Laollaga. 15 km al N Ac Laollat^a. 'M){) in, 2."^ 

guJiitii la division apical del apendice estilar es 
mds largo que en M. gallardoac; esta ultima es- 

pecie tiene lobulos de la corona casi tan largos ,^,^,,^ 19^4^ f{ f^^res & C. Martmez .18.12 (WV.M); Mpio. 
como anchos qu(^ alcanzan el apicc de las anteras; San Matro del Mar, Hua/anllan d<'l l?i'o. carreiria iiinlo- 

lfj)e(*-Hiiazandan. 1 km antrs dc Hua/antlan. 5 m, 12 
a-o. 1978. /). Zizttmho & P. Colunga 286 (MIAT): Mpio. 
Sania Maria Mi\tc(|iiilla, a 18 km dc Mixlcqiiilla. carre- 
tera a Paso Fsrondido, 16°27'N, 95°19'\\, .'^(K) m, 21 srp. 
1994. /. Calzada 19268 {WVW): Mpio. Sanio l)omin<^o 
Teluiaiilcpec. Fl Limori. 17 km al \\ de IrlHiaTiIrpcc. cn- 
Irando por Verba Santa. 19 a<^o. 1985. C. Marlffiez 110 
(MKXL'); Arroyo Yerha SanIa, a 2 km de la carrelera Te- 

luianteprr-Oaxaea. 16°2I'X. 95°22'\\. 10 ago. 1988. C. 

el (^orpilscnlo es recto y corto con respecto a los 
polinios y en M. tririrguhitd los lobulos dc la co- 
rona son mfis anchos que largos y generalmente 

solo la base de las anteras; el coq)Usculo 
es virgulilorme y casi Ian largo como los polinios. 
Marsdenia gallardoae se conoce solamente de 
los estados de Oaxaca y Chiapas, Mexico; en cam- 

bio M. trivirgulata es de mds amplla distrd)uci6n, Martinez /6r^^ (MKXU): 4.0 km al X\^ de A^nasealienU's, 

Volume 10, Number 2 


Marsdenia gallardoae de Mexico 


caiiii.u) a Santa Clara, Salina Cruz, 180 in. 1 sep. 1986, y gyg valiosas obscrvaciones y comentarios. A Jo^e 
R. Torres & C, Martinez 8924 (MKXU), ' j , ^ .„ ^ , , ^, , ,^ 

Meave del Lastillo y hduardo rerez responsables 
Agradecimientos. A Jose Luis Villasenor Rios del proyecto Florula de Nizanda. La ilustracion fue 
por la diagnosis en latin, la revision del manuscrito realizada por Laura Padilla H. 

New Combinations in Tricfiophorum., Scirpoides, and 

Ficinia (Cyperaceae) 

A, Muthama Muasya 
Herbarium, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 45166, Nairobi, Kenya 

David A, Simpson 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AB, United Kingdom 

Paul Qyetghebeur 
University of Gent, Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium 

AiisriiACT. Recent DNA studies suppoil the rec- (1870) adopted a broad circumscription ol the latter 
ognition of four new combinations for species orig- and includtnl plants with characters such as a sin- 
inally assigned to Scirpus. Trich(>j)horiim rigidum gle pseudolateral spikelet and the absence of peri- 
has a singh* pseudolateral spikelet and lacks peri- anth segments. However, tliese are not consistent 
anih segments. Scirpoides burkci has a woody rhi- with Scirpus as currently circumscribed (branched 
zome, compact gloI)ose inflorescences, and spirally inflorescence with many spikelets and the presence 
arranged glumes and lacks perianth segments. Fi- of perianth segmerits). Although the plant supeHi- 
cinia trullii is a robust species lacking perianth seg- cially resembles holepis in having rather small 
ments. Ficinia nodosa has a woody rhizome and a spikiJets, its placement in this geims was carried 


out at a time whtui this genus was poorly circum- 
scril)ed. We consider it to be morphologically closer 
The genus Scirpus L. (Cyperaceae) is generally to Trichophorum in having erect leaves and a single 
accepted as being split into several segregate gen- spikelet. Analysis of molecular data (Muasya e! al., 
era on the basis of gross and embryo mor{)hology 1998; Muasya et al., submitted) makes this taxon 
(Bruhl, 1995; Goetghebeur, 1998). However, the sister to Trichophorum cespitosum (L.) Hartman, 
placetnent of several species originally assigiicd to thus supporting our morpliological intt^rpretation. 
Scirpus has been uncertain due to conflicting mor- 
phological characters. Recent studies ol chloroplast ^ . . . . i . //^ r» /^-i i ^ /^ . i r 
' • /- f .• 1 Scirpoides burkei (C. b. (Jarke) Goelgheheur ex 

DNA in Cyperaceae, focusing on parsimony anal- 
ysis of sequence data obtained from the rbch gene 
and the trn\.-Y non-coding regi(m, have now clari- 
fied the placement of these taxa (Muasya et al., 
1998; Muasya et al., submitted). The following 
combinations are made to place the species into 
appropriate genera and maintain these genera as 

Trichophorum rigidiiiii (Steudel) Goetghebeur, 

Goetghebeur, Muasya & D. A. Simpson, comb. 
nov. Basionyin: Scirpus burkei C. B. Clarke ex 
C. B. Clarke, in Thiselton-Dyer, Flora Cajx 7: 
227. 1898. TYPE: South Africa. Burke 231 
(lectotype, here selected, K). 

Distribution, South Africa. Seasonal wetlands; 

1000-2500 111. 

This species has some characteristics of Scirj)us 
as currently circumscribed, in particular tin 

Muasya & D. A. Simpson, cmnh. nov. Basion- branched inflorescence vvilli numerous spikelets. 

ym: Isolepis ngida Steudel ex Lechler, Ber- However, several other characters place it in Srir- 

berid. Anier. Auslr. 56. 1857. Scirpus rii^idus ■ , i *u i i ■ # i i 

' ^ jundcs, sucfi as trie woody rtnzome, compact i;lol>ose 

(Steudel) Bockeler, Linnaea 36: 492. 1870. ^ 

inflorescences, spikelets with spirally arranged 

Baeothryon rimdum (Steudel) Sojak, in Cas. i i .i i r * fi «.^ . ti 

-^ ^ ^ y J ' glumes, and the alisence ol periantii segments, liie 

Nan Muz. (rrague), 148: 193 (1979 publ. 

new combination, Scirpodes burkei, was provision- 

1980). TYPE: Peru. Lechler 2064 (holotvpe, B; „ i i r » u i noQr^ i 

^ \ . t » .^lly made by Uoetghebeur (1980) based on mor- 

isotype, K). 

phological data. DNA analyses (Muasya el al.. 

Distribution, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru. Paramo; 1998; Muasya et al., submitted) make the taxon 

sister to Scirpoides holoschoenus, thus supporting its 

3700-4400 m. 

Tliis species was first described in Isolepis but placement in Scirpoides, Scirpoides burkei is (Ustin- 
was sul)st^qLit*ntly transferred to Scirpus, Bockeler guished fnim other members oi tlie genus by the 

No\ ON 10: 132-133. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Muasya et al. 

New Combinations in Cyperaceae 


well-developed leaf blades and miUTonate glumes Sclrpiis nodosiis Rollboll van nuurosia<h\us Benlliam, Fl. 

with broad-hyaline margins. 

Scirpus schinzidnus, cited by Clarke (1894) in 
synonymy, is a manuscript name from two collec- 

Austral. 7: 331. 1878. Syn. nov. TYPE: Australia. 

Oldfield s.n. (holotype, K). 

Distribution, Widespread in the Southern 

tions [Rehman 469 1, 6889, not located) and was Hemisphere, Including Australia, Chile, New Zea- 
never validly published. Despite the orthographic land, South Africa, St. Helena, and St. Paul. Coast- 
similarity it is not connected with Scirpus schinzii al sand dunes, stream sides; 0-1500 m. 

Bockeler, which is a synonym of Scirpoides dioecius 

Ficinia nodosa has often been treated as a mem- 

(Kunth) J. Browning. The lectotypification proposed ber of Scirpus (e.g., Gordon-Gray, 1995) or Isolepis 
here avoids possible confusion associated with (e.g., Wilson 1981, 1994) even though it has char- 
these names. acters typical oi Ficinia, such as the woody rhizome 

and presence of a gynophore. The main justification 

Fieiiiia trollii (Kukenthal) Muasya & D. A. Simp- for this lies in its distribution pattern. Ficinia has 

son, comb. nov. Basionym: Scirpus trollii Kli- traditionally been considered as occurring only in 

kenthal, Fcddes Repert, 53: 72. 1944. Isolepis sub-Saharan Africa, whereas Scirpus and Isolepis 

irollii (Kukenthal) K. Lye, in Lye & Haines, are widespread. Ficinia nodosa is widespread in 
Bot. Not. 130: 313. 1977. TYPE: Tanzania. the Southern Hemisphere, and its inclusion in Fi- 

Troll 4916 (holotype, B). 

cinia markedly extends the distribution of this ge- 


11* 1 • rp . ,7. nus. DNA analyses (Muasya et al., 1998; Muasya 

Mozamriique, lanzama, and Znn- . ,, , , . . , . ... 

babwe. Alpine grassland on broken quartzite rocks; 
1600-2400 m. 

Although first described as a member of Scirpus 

et al., submitted) place the species within a Ficinia 
clade that, together with the morphological char- 
acters indicated above, make its placement in Fi- 

s.L, Lye in Lye and Haines (1977) transferred this ^^ ^ 

species to Isolepis without any comment. Haines 

Acknowledgments. We thank tlu^ curators of B, 

IJockeler, 0. 1 870. Die Cypcrareen des Kunl^lichen Her 
bariums zii Berlin. IJnnaea 36: 271-512. 

and Lye (1983) supported this placment and based C, K, and P for access to or loan (»f specimens. The 
it on the shared absence of a gynophore. They also first author acknowledges receipt of a Ph.D. stu- 
suggested that it is "possibly more closely related dentship from die Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, dur- 
to the genus Ficinia . . . than to other species of ing the tenure of which this work v/as carried out. 
Isolepis,^^ being a robust plant with "a tussocky, al- 
most woody base . . . unlike that of any other {Iso- Literature Cited 
lepLs) species" (Haines & Lye, 1983: 140). DNA 
studies (Muasya et al., submitted) support the latter, 

with F. trollii embedded in a clade comprising Fi- Bruhl, J. J. 1995. Sedge genera of tlie world: Relalionsliips 

cinia species. We therefore consider it appropriate «"J ^ '^ew classifiealion of the Cyperaeeae. Austral. 

.0 place the species in f .ci^a although a revision ^^_ 1^ ^' ^''^^^^^^.^ , ^^ ,,^„, ,„ ^ „„. 

of this genus is highly desirable in order to estab- ,^,„^, g^ h. Sehin/, Conspectus Florae Afrieae 5. Janlin 

hsh generic limits and review the characters that Buianique de rf:tat, Brussels. 

distinguish the group. Coetghebeur, P. 1986. Genera Cyperacearum. Ph.D. tlic- 

Ficinia trollii is thagnosed by the woody rhizome, '^^' Universiteil Ont, Hel-iuni. 

leaves with scabrid margins, terete spikelets, flow- 
ers lacking perianth segments, and smooth, shiny 

. 1998. Cyperaceae. Pp. 141-190 in K. Kuhilzki, 

The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Springer, 

(rordon-Gray, K. 1). 1995. Cyperaceae in Natal. Strclitzia 

2. National l^otanical Institute. Pretoria. 
Haines, R. Vi". *S K. A. lye. 1983. The Sedges and Rushes 
of East Africa. Fast African Natural History Society, 

Lye, K. A. & H. W- Haines. 1977. Studies in African 
Cyperaceae XVI. Bot. Not. 130; 311-313. 

Muasya, A. M., D. A. Simpson, M. \\. Chase & A. Cul- 
ham. 1998. An ahseshuient of the suprageneric phylo^j;- 
eny in Cyperaceae using rbcL DNA seciuences. PI. Syst. 
Evol. 2U: 257-271. 

141: 62. 1972. TYPE: South Africa. Koenlg Wilson. K. L. 1981. A synopsis of the genus 5cir/>i/^ sens. 

Fieijiia nodosa (Rottholl) Goetgheheur, Muasya & 
D. A. Simpson, comb. nov. Basionym: Scirpus 
nodosus RottboU, Descr. PL Ran 24. 1772. Is- 
olepis nodosa (Rottboll) R. Brown, Prodr. 221. 
1810. Holoschoenus nodosus (Rottboll) A. Die- 
trich, Sp. PI. 2: 165. 1833. Scirpoides nodosus 

(Rottboll) Sojak, Cas. Nan Mus., Odd. Prin 

s.n. (holotype, C). 

Isolepis monoceph<da Sleudel, Syn. Cyp. 97. 1855. Syn. 
nov. TYPK: Chile. D'Urville 785 '(holotype, P). 

lat. (Cyperaceae) in Australia, leiopea 2: 153-172. 

. 1994. Cyperaceae. Pp. 238-35() in N. G. Walsh 

& T. J. Ktitwistle (editors). Flora of Victoria, Vol. 2. 

Inkata Press, Melbourne, Sydney. 

New Species of Siparuna (Siparunaceae) III. Three New Species 
and One Newly Ranked Entity from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru 

Susdjine S. Renncr 

DeparliiM^nl of Biology, University of Missouri-Sl. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Rd., 

St. Louis, Missouri 63121, U.S.A., and Missouri Botanical Garden, 

St. Louis, Missouri 63166, U.S.A. 

Gerlinde Hausnrr 
Werner-Hilpert-Str. 67, D-65197 Wiesbaden, Germany 

AbsIKact. Three new species of Siparuna (Si- African genus of dioecious straggling shrubs (Ren- 

parunaceae) are described, illustratt*d, and placed ner, unpublished obs.), very similar to Siparuna. 

in a phvlogenetic context: S. gentryana from west- Siparuna comprises 15 monuccious and at least 50 

ern Ecuador and adjacent Colombia, S, lozaniana dioecious species. Ongoing molecular phylogenetic 

from the western Andes in Colombia, and 5. las- work in the genus (Renner & Won, in prep.) indi- 

queziamt from Amazonian Peru. In addition, Sipa- cates that the dioecious species form a single de- 

runa calantha from the Sierra Nevada de Santa rived clade, while the monoiX'ious clades are more 

Marta, originally described by Janet Perkins as a basal and form more than out* clade. Of the spt cies 

variety of a Mexican entity, is raised to species rank described here, three are dioecious, while one, 5. 

because its broader leaves and more immerous car- gentryana, is monoecious; none have been se- 

pels nvidily distinguish it from its apparent closest quenced. 

relative, a species from the western Colombian An- 

Although a few papers now exist on tlic polli- 

des. Each of tlu; species is known from several col- nation and fl(»ral function of Siparuna (Feil, 1992; 

lections, which allowed the securtMnatcliing of sex- Renner et al., 1997), we still have considerable 

ual morphs in the three that are dioecious. work ahead of us before fully understanding the 

evolutitm of Siparunaceae floral morphology and 

Visits by th<' first author to nuijor Colombian her- breeding systems. We would ]>e extremely indebted 

baria (COAH, COL, CUVC, HUA, JAl M, MEDEL, to anyone who would send us liquid-preserved flow- 

TULV, UDBG, and VALLE) in 1997 and 1999 ers and/or heaves dried in silica gel to he used in 

brought to light abundant material of several pre- ongoing anatomical and phylogenetic studies. Ad- 

viously undesc-ribed species of Siparuna, a genus (htionally, somt^ nint^ suspected new species from 

that we are monographing (Renner & Hausner, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru await the 

1995, 1996, 1997). Three of the species are now collection of flowers of both sexes before they can 

known from flowering and fruiting coHections. How- he described, and we would be happy to supply 

ever, we i 

still awaiting fully fruiting material of details to botanists collecting in these countries. 

5. vasqueziana. Siparuna lasqucziana is unitjue in 
th<' getuis in its flower size and morphology and can 
therefore be k<'yed out easily even in the absence 
of matun' fruits. 

Th(* Siparunaceae are a distinct lineage of Laur- 
ales (Renner, 1999), the sister group of \vhich are 
the Comortegaceae from Chile (otu* species) and 
the Atherospermataceae from Chile and Australia, 
New Zealand, Tasmania, New Caledonia, and New 
Guinea (14 species). Siparunaceae are thus only 
distantly related to Monimiaceae sensu stricto, 
which are closest to Lauraceae and Hernandiaceae 

Siparuna gentry ana Renner, sp. no v. TYPE: Ec- 
uador. Carchi: Tulcan, Reserva Etnit a Awd, 
Parroquia El Chical, Centro Gualpi Medio, Rio 
Canumbi, 1150 m, 19-28 Feb. 1993, .1. Gri- 
jalra, C. Aulestia & J. Taicuz 606 (holotype, 

QCNE; isotypes, AAU, MO, NY, QCA, 

QCNE). Figures 1, 2, and 3. 

A Sipdruna cristala (Pocppi*; *!i' KniUieher) A. IXl. fiuc- 
libus miiioriliiis UibeRiilalibu.->(,jut' (lirf<'rl. 

Monoecious tree, 4—20 m tall and reaching a 
(Renner & (^handerbali, in press). Sipanmaceae DBH of at least 34 cm, branchlets terete but flat- 
consist of *Si/;a/u/ia (including ^rac/ea/i//iu,s Ducke) tened at the nodes, densely grayish brown pubcr- 
and its sister group Glassocalyx, a monotypic West ulous or glabrous. Leaves opposite, the petioles 1— 

NovoN 10: 134-143. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Renner & Hausner 

New Species of Siparuna 





Sipuruna gfntryana Renner, rlrawn froni 

53606. MO), —h. Fruit [MonsaUv R, 167K MO). 
— f. Lower leaf surface induiiientuni. 

rejiresentative paralypes. — a. Flowering specimen {(ienlry el al 
:. Inflorescence [Tipdz 2491, MO). — <l. Male flower. — e. Rud 


No von 


Figure 2. Sipanum gejilrMuui Reniu'r (Grijulia el al. 606, MO). — a. Inflorescctice; female flowers on tlu' left with 
exserled styles (seale har etjiials 2 nun), b-tl. Seanniiig eleetion niiiToj^rapfis. — b. iVlature female flower (scale bar 
e(jiia!s O.S mm). — e. Longiludinal section tliroiigli a male flower, the j)olhMi-sao valves still closed (scah^ bar e(|nals 
0..'^ mm). — d. lAin^iludinal section thntugh a fcniale flower, showing two carpels, (heir st>les, and the floral roof, which 
tightly sheaths the st)les where the) emerge frofu tlu' flovver (scaltr bar e(|uals 0.3 mm). 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Renner & Hausner 
New Species of Siparuna 


dor and Colombia (primarily in the Choco phyto- 
geographical region) in primary forests from sea 
level to 1150 m. In Colombia, it has also been col- 
lected in Cauca and Valle, but not yet in Narino 
where it probably occurs as well. Several sterile 
specimens from the department of Choco are sus- 
pected to represent S. gentryana, but cannot be dis- 
tinguished with confidence from S. cristata (see dis- 
cussion below). Flowering and/or fruiting material 
has been collected in every month of the year. 

Etymology. The species is named for the late 
Al Gentry who, during inventory work in the Choc6 
region, collected it at least nine times. 

Common name. Comida de mono (Ecuador; in- 
dicating possible seed dispersal by primates). 

Siparuna gentryana resembles 5. cristata (Poep- 
pig & Endlicher) A. DC. in leaf shape and vena- 
tion, but that species has smooth fruits that reach 
3.5-4 cm in length, whereas S. gentryana fruits are 
tuberculate or spiny and only half that size. In S. 
cristata^ pedicels of the male flowers often elongate 
luring flowering, becoming up to 2 cm long, a char- 
acter not seen in 5. gentryana^ where pedicels re- 
Figure 3. Distributions of Siparuna gentryana (closed "i^^^ relatively short. Inflorescences and young 

circles), S. calantha (cross), S. vasqueziana (open eircles), hranchlets in 5. gentryana often have a puberulous 
and S. lozauiana (squares) in northwestern Soulli America. indumentum (Fig. 2a-d) that is nol: seen in S. cris- 
tata. Siparuna cristata occurs throughout the Am- 


azon basin and reaches northern Venezuela, adja- 
cent northernmost Colombia, and Panama; its range 
therefore overlaps with that of S. gentryana in the 


1.8(-3) cm long, the lamina drying dark reddish 
brown or rarely pale green, stiff-cliartaceous to 
leathery, oblong, 20-35(-40) X (8-)10-15 cm, the 
base acute to obtuse, the apex cuspidate, the tip to 

1 cm long, lamina above and below glabrous except « , mi (\\^u^ \ \^ n u r v on 

^' t> r raratypcs. LULUMblA. Valie: tJajo Lalima, 20 m, 

for the midrib, which may be minutely puberulous 28 iun/vHA, Cabrera 559 (F); Mpio. Bjenaventura, Que- 

the petiole, with 6 to 13 pairs of secondary brada San Joaqnfn. ICK.) in. 7 May 1968. hlroho & Garzon 

veins, flat above, slightly raised below, the margin ^-^^^ (<^f^L); cr. 15 km N of Buenaventura, 50 m, transect 

r r o Q t I w 1 I WIT- 9, 14 Feb. 1983, Gentry el al 40208 (COL, JAL'M, MO), 

entire. Cymes 2-3 cm long, short-bram^hed (rigs. / i- 1 r ,nuj /- , ] r tn-ynn \nrJ 

^ c% \ \ • ■ 1 1 r I transect 9, 1.) reb. 198,5, (rentry et al. U)2Hi) (COF, 

Ic, 2a) and mostly borne m pairs in the leal axds ^^^ ^10). 26 Mar. 1986. Geuiry et al. 53606 (MOj. ca. 

as is characteristic of the genus, with 15 to 20 flow- 20 km N of Buenaventura. 12 Apr. 1987. Crentry et al. 

ers, the pedicels 2^ mm long and densely puber- 56802 (CUVC, MO); Concesioii Pulpapel Buenaventura, 

ulous. Male flowers at anthesis 1.5-2.2 mm diam., ^^^ "^' ^^ ^^''''- ^'^^'*' Monsahe B. 610 (COL. JAUM, 

I , , . V I , I ' MO). 3 June 1987, Mon.uilve II 1508 (MO). 20 Aug. 1987, 

sunglobose in shape, the receptacle as puberulous i^ » d jaia /Mn\ i c ioq^ if / /? ja-^o 

^ ^ ^ ^ Monsalve H. Io4o (MU), 1 Sep. 198/ . Mon.salre ti. 16/ H 

as the cymes, the 5 tepals fused to a thick rim, (MO), 16 Out. 1987, MonsaUe B, 1973 (MO), 1 Aug. 

when fresh cream, the floral roof a barely visible 1989, Monsahe B. 3141 (CUVC, MO), 26 May 1987, Fa~ 

membranous rim within the tepal rim (Figs. Id, 2c); l>^r-Uing<'mlovn el al. 654 (t:LIVC, MO), 4 Jul) 1987, Fa- 
stamens (5)9 to 20(30). Female flowers closely re- ^'•'-.-We'^^/om U57 (MO): Mpio. Buenavontura^Q,rn-p 

^ ^ / in I n 1 i- "^J^ Cahnia, Vila, han Isidro. ,50 in, 1^ Mav 1989, Daly 

sembhng the male flowers except that the floral roof ^.^ ,^/ f^g^g (^^jVC, HUA, MO); Costa del Pacifico, Rio 

forms a short cylinder tightly sheathing the styles Micay, en Guayabal, 5 m, 25 heb. 1943, Cuatrecasas 

(Fig. 2b, d); styles usually 5 (Fig. 2b). Fruiting re- 14126 (F, VALLF). Cauea: Mjiio. Guapf, Panj. .Nae. <le 

ceptacle 1.5(— 2) cm diam. and c<)nsj)icuously tu- 
berculate (Fig. lb), the tubercles fleshy and up to 

Isia Gorgona, 250 m. 16 Mar. 1975. Cabrera R. ct Rangel 
3260 (CUVC), 1 June 1986, Ljzano C. & Rangel 5096 
(COL); Costa del Paeffico, Rfo Naya, Correg. Puerto Mer- 

4 mm long; mature fruits purple or red, drying hiiMv, 15 m,2\ Veh. I94:i, Cuatrecasas 14024 {VS,\A\.- 
brown or black; drupelets 1 to 4. LE). ECUADOR. Esmeraldns: bita to San I.oren/o. km 

25, near Alto Tamho, 740 in. 19 Julv 1988. Dodson & 
Gentry 17529 (MO, QCNE); Fila de Bilsa. 7 km E of San 

Distribution (Fig. 3), habitat, and phenolo- 

gy. Siparuna gentryana occurs in western Ecua- Je Bilsa, ea. 80 km due SW of Esmeraldas, 12 km 



SK of Kl Salto on AtacanH's-Muisiic rd., transerl 1, 280 
in. 28 Jan. 1991 , Crnlry & Josse 72777 (MO, OCNK); I'Joy 
A I faro. liC'iLTva l'"A'ol6)j;ita Cutacachl Ca\a()as. San Mi- 

Andean Cordillera in central Colombia where il ap- 

pears common in llie states of Sanlander, Boyaca, 
f^ui^r'i;U)\"n7 ir> '\m^^'\^m^li^^2^^^^^ m\ \Y, ^"^ Cundinamarca. Growing in wet montane forest, 

OCNE), Tipaz 2(hrA (MO, (JCNK), Tipaz 2644 (MO, in paramo and subparamo at 1600-3300 m eleva- 

tion. Flowering and fruiting collections have been 

Siparuiiu lozuiiiana R*Miner & Hausncr, sp. nov. 

made throughout the year. 

Etymology The species is named in honor of 
TYPE. Coloml>ia. Cundinamarca: 12 km SE of Gustavo Lozano C, curator at the Colombian Na- 
Gachala, 2410 m, f<Mnale specimen, 21 Sep. tional herbarium (COL) and professor at th(* Col- 
1944, M. L Grant 10213 (holotype. COL; iso- ombian National University, who was among the 

types, NA, NY, US, WIS). Figures 4 and 3. 

A Siparuna pvtiohms (Kuiitli, in HunibuKIt iX l^imp- 
larulj A. DC. fructihus \i\ tnlie^rcnlalilius (lilfcrt. 

first to collect il. 


mon name. 




Sipurumi lozaniana is easily recognized among 
Colombian species by the combination of oblan- 

Dioecious shrub or treelet, 1—8 (rarely to 16) m i . . i . i .u „ i i . • a 

' ^ ^ /' ceolate to ob(»vate leather)' leaves, pendent uirio- 

tall, youtii:; branchlets subani!;ular or terete, subii;!- -.i • i . r i 

'' J ^ ^ . rescences with a sparse initumentum ot appresseu 

abrous or sparsely stellate-pubescent. Leaves in r i u i i • i n i i r ■. n«i 

^ ^ ^ ^ , lew-branched liairs, and small glolK)se truits. Other 

whorls of 3 or opposite, the petioles 0.7-5 cm lone, r- i l- ■ m • .• i • -i 

/ ' \ ^ ^ Colombian species that sonu'tnnes have snnilar 

ihr lamina dryini!: reddish brown, oblanceolate to i c .■ ; ■ r »i, 4 a j 

■^ ^ ' leaves are >. petiotans Irom the western Andean 

obovate, rarely broadly elliptic, 8-14(— 26.5) X 

Cordillera and S. cahintha (described below) from 

2.7— 5( II) cm, the base acute to obtuse, tlie apex *i c tvt j i c . tm .^ d .i \'ir r 

^ ^ ^ tlie bierra INevada (ie l^anta IVlarta. both (iiiler Irom 

S, lozaniana in having distinctly spiny or spiny- 
tuberculate fruits. 

Paratxpes. COLOMIUA. B4>yara: iKMvvcen Sii^arnoso 

acute to obtuse, the lip 0.5—0.8 cm long, leaves 
above and below with lew minute appressed stellate 
to subl(*])idote hairs, occasionally glabrescent, 
young leaves above sometimes with conspicuous 

appressed silverv stellate-lepidote liairs, with 9 to ^"^^ l^ijarito. km 80. 2550 ni. 10 Mar. 1080. Brrnal-M. 

..^ • r ' 1 -a n , 1 J. 341 (COIl 10 Mar. 1980, Benud-M. 376 (COL); vie. of 

Iz pairs ot secondary veins, these Hat above, dis- . , o^rwx ori i\ . ir»^-) l^ • / t^ p if , 

* ; ' ' Anabnco, 26{)() ni, 29 Oil. 196,^, Espuial-1. &: Monte- 

nrgro-.M. 1412 (COI.); Mpio. Arciihuco, Vda. I**'nas blan- 

cas. II. K. I,as Dclicias. 2()()() m. 10 Mar. 1^)9(). hrrttrindez- 
A. et (il. I 1 1 1 2 {(]()] .): Arcahnco, Idvvanls si'tio La (antih!<\ 

tinctly raised below^ the margin serrulate or serrate. 
Cymes 2.5-4 cm long and often pendent, with 10 
to 15 flowers, pubescent like the young branchlets. 

Mini » d • on oo V l ^-^00 tu. 22 Mav 1979. \alrnr{a & Jvrcz-F. 16 (COL); 

Male lloral cup at anthesis Z.V—Z.y mm diam. and ^ , \r i i i" i .,mo -.• r c u o/ww\ oV 
1.5—2.5 mm high, broadly obconical to semiglobo- 
se, glabrous except for a few api)ressed bifitl or few- 
branched hairs, lepals 4 or 5(6), narrowly triangular 
to almost spatulate (Fig. 4b), 2^ mm long, fresh 
greenish vellow or whitish, the floral roof distinctly 

raised, and glabrous; stamens 9 to 12. Female floral 

cup al anthesis 3.5—4 mm diam. and 3—3.5 mm 

high, subglobose, the i)ubescence as in the male C^'niry & Repizzo 78067 (MO); Carpanla Biological Re- 

below Xadoliondo, km iU)2, siliu I -a Sabana. 2{K)() in. 24 
Feb. I9ryl, Idroho S: JaramiUo-Mejia 1.177 (COL); Mpio. 
Pajarito. (^onc^. de ('orinto. 2200 m. I I Oit. 19(>7. Ia)Z- 
(ino C. el id. H.V) (COL); fnUt- Monitiuinl atu! (/a( liantixa. 
2000 in, 14 Ma) 1996. Mangel ct uL i:i238 (COL). Ciiii- 

dinaniarca: Mpio. Juiifii, Corrc^. liis|»eccioiies Clius- 
cales, Kes. Hiol. Carpanta. 2500-;i;^(H) in, 27 \[)r. I9HH, 

Lulevn et id. 12203 (F, NY): Cliin^aza National Lark. Cor- 

(lillt'Va Oiienla] L of Ht.gota. 2[]00-300() m. 30 Oct. 1992, 

flowers, the floral roof raised to a cyli.ulncal l.ulge -;-' ^^^ ''^r^i^fT • ^'r! ■'''"' "r '■'Vi'', 

- , - - , pizzo cv iAiUe !()/ (vIO); IVIpio. Llnnj^a/a. lioitut lv()2 

separated by a f^roove from an acute central lube (LpBC). Godm 1964 (UlJBC). Mela: Mpio. LI Calvario. 
sheathing the styles (Fig. 4f), 


Irj'ing dark brown; 

styles 2 to 5. Fruiting receptacle 1—1.5 cm diam., 
globose and basally usually with minute (less than 

1 mm long) protuberances (Fig. 4e); when fresh and 
mature red with cream spots (lenlicels) and a strong 
lemon sm(41; dnipelets 1 to 3. 

Distribution (Fig. 3), habitat^ and phenolo- 

Fiiua San Lm's. 2250 ni, 4 \lai\ 1981, Canmrgo-C. & 
Huertas-G. 7875 (COL). Sanlander: hoRlcr to F^oyacil, 

Cnrrcg. Virolfn. Finca La Sierra. 2;")00 lu. 1.'^ Ma\ I97(), 
[A>zano C. el al. 2429 (COL); Mpio. Cliarala, Vda." Kl Tal- 

adro. kni 50—55 of rd. frorn Dnltaina to Viroli'ii. 22H0 in, 

6 Dee. 1978, Ih'az-P. 1635 (COL); Mpio. Charala, Correg. 
Virolfn, near Rfo de la Lrscada. IH.'^O in. \'.\ Mav 1982, 
Valbiiena &: llarker 038 (COL); M|>io. (^harahi, Corrog. 
Virolin. rd. to Olival. Vda. Hcloj, 1700 in. 3 M.n. 1981, 


Siparuna lozaniana is restricted lo the eastern Diaz-P. 22/0 (COL); (-orrep. Virolm, 2180 ni, Esealiar ct 

Figure 4. Siparuna lozaniana HoruKM' *.K llausner (('aniargo-G. <K: llnerlas-d. 7875, CX)L, cxcoj)! wlirrc indicated). — 
a. Frmalr spccinifii. — b. Male fhtwer (Rangel 2171. (X)L). — e. Longitudinal seilion ihnuigli a male flower {Di'az-P, 
2270, COL). — d. Male indoresccuee (Rangel 2171. COL). — e. Yoini^ frnil uitli rniiuite lubeitlc^ near tlie base. — f. 
Female (lower. — g. Leaf venation. — h. Male iudorescenees (Rangel 2171, COL). Drawn from represenlali\e paralypes. 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Renner & Hausner 
New Species of Siparuna 



No von 

ill. 3072 (UrA); Mj)i.K Clu.rala. 21^0 nu H ,Ma> 19[]6, kins, H. 11. Smith 847, is a male plant, and Perkins 

Moreno & Mendvz 78 iCOI.); Chaiala, 1990 m, 20 \uix. .i r i i i i, i .i . i- i i . 

,,,_,, ,, , .,,_, .,.>., /. ,,,., ,, . .. , , . ./ , tht^relore could not have known liiat leniale planis 

19*9, Kangcl 2171 ((AM.. U, I r^); iVljiio. (»aiiil)ila. \ (ia. ' 

Kl Tala.In*. 2150 ni. 13 N(u. 19H1, Canuirho et al. 92 ^>f ^^i^ ^'^^'ity would have spiny fruits. A female 
{CO\.).()roz(<> /r;/rS (COL): vir. of n<.<^(Maeit(>. IHOOtii. 27 plant had in fact been eolleeted by Smith (//. //. 

Nov. 1978. Ihaz-R 1204 (COL); nl. ARaluiru to La Lai- <^^^^i^j^ 2508) a few months earlier also on the Sierra 

ma. 3 Jiil\ 197L Cuuri'n M. & \iUancal 1070 (LI^IC). , r, ,, , ^ i n i ■ 

(le banta Marta, i)ut unlortunalely rerknis appt^ars 

not to have received it on loan. She initially iden- 
tified Smith 847 as "5. pateUiJhrmisT'' (a Central 
American synonym of 5. gesnerioides) but later de- 
scribed it as a variety of the Mexican 5. riparia (a 
synonym of 5. thecaphont). apparently in an attempt 
to accommodate the deeply serrate leaf margins of 

the Sierra Nevada material. Tilt; type of .S. riparia, 

Calcotti 269 ^BH 3 sheets, G, K 2 sheets, LE, P 3 

Siparuiia calanlha (Perkins) Renner & Haustur, 
Stat. nov. Basionym: Siparuna riparia van cal- 
antha Perkins, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Bcrlin-Dah- 

lem 10: 164. 1927. TYPE. Colombia. Magda- 

lena: Sierra Nevada de Santa Maria, Las 
Nubes, ca. 1500 m, male specimen, Dvv. 
1898, //. //. Smith 817 (holotype, B ilestroyed; 

isotypes, BM, BR, COL, E, F, G, (iH, K, L, 

Figures 3 and 5. 

LE, LL, MO, NY, P 3 slu-ets, S, U, UC, US). ^^''^^^^ ^ ^^■"""■: ^^^■'"■•, I'^»""* '^^^^^^- '^ '"'^•'*''^ 

one of few specimens of S. thccaphora that have 
(Hstinil leaf teeth. Even so, Perkins's assignment of 
Dioecious shnil) or treclet, 1-10 m tall and Smith 847 to .S. ripami remains problematic, he- 
reaching a DBH of at least 7 cm, the young branch- ^.^^^^ ,1,^, iga^^y of 5_ calanlha are about three 

or I 



. L 

lets distinctly angular, densely brown pul)crulous ,i„^^.^ jj^^. ^j^^ ^^j- ^^^^^^^ ^£ ^^e type of S. riparia, not 

s in vvhorls of 3, often unequal in ^^^ niention the implied Verac-ruz-Santa Marta dis- 

Tlie Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, a geograph- 
ically isolated mountain range, is known to harbor 
many locally adapted, morphologically distinct 
forms, and we therefore prefer to recognize S. cal- 

antha at the species lev(d, rather than ranking it as 

size and petiole length, the petioles 2—9 cm long, 
the lamina di-ying dark brown, papery to charta- 
ceous, obovate, 16.5-27 X 7.5-15.5 cm, the base 
acute, obtuse, or almost rounded, the apex acute or 
acuminate, the tip to 1.3 cm long, both surfaces 
loosely covered with small appressed or u[)riglit 
stellate hairs especially along the midrib, with 12 

no • r I ■ .1 n . I ii subspecies of the m(»rnholoiricallv similar .S. pe- 

to 18 pairs of secondary vems, these liat above, . / ... 

J. .■ ,1 'III 4i -111 . //o/(/n5 from Antioquia, Ouindio, and Valle. The two 

distnu-tly raised below, ttie margni tioul)ty serrate ^ i ^ v ' 

species resemble each other in the spiny fruiting 

or dcntat<'. Cymes 2^ cm long, with 10 to 15 flow- 

ers, sparsely pubescent with spreading few- "-"'t-Pt^^l^-^^ ^"^ ««rrate leaf margin, but difier in 

branched hairs. Male floral cup at anthesis 2.5-3.5 ^^^ ^^i^^'^ {S. pctiolaris has narrow, lanceolate 

mm diam. and 2-2.5 mm high, broadly obconical, '^'^^'^^ ^"^ ^- (^<i^<intha relatively broad, obovate 

tepals mostly 5, broadly triangular, when fresh ytd- ""es) and number of carpels (5 to 8 in S. calanlha 

lowish green, turning yellow, the floral roof mod- vs. 3(4) in S. pcUulaiLs). Fruiting rece})tacles in S. 

erately raised, glabrous and membranaceous; sta- petioJaris measure 0.6-1 cm in diameter, while 
mens 20 to 22, the filamenta broad and those of S. ca/a/iY/ia reach 1-1.5 cm in diameter, 
membranaceous. Female flowers at anthesis similar 

to the male flowers, the floral roof sliglitly raised 

and glabrous; styles 5 to ?,. Fruiting recei)tacle glo- I'aralypcs. COI.OMUiA. .\laf;(lal*-iia: Siena Nevada 

hose, 1-1.5 cm diam., with conspicuous protuber- '''" '^^''''^' ^'^"■'^'' "^"^" orcidr.ital, Mpio. Ci^naga, 1.5.-,0 

, _ I I . , . , « , rii, A Ai)r. I*)6(). RomcrO'Castaurdu 82. rl (A AL , COL, \^, 

ances 1—/ mm lon^. tii(*s(* eitlier snnple or ilat and ncn c:- m i i w: . m . r^ i i i i- 

^ ^ {>): ^irrra Nevadii de >anla Vlaiia. ijiicluaila Indiana. 

1600 in. 27 Ang. I*)72. Kirkhnde l<)i:i (AAU. COb. W. 

VS). M) Aug. t972. Kirkhride 2007 (COb. NY. US); Que- 
hrada bolclla. 1700 ni. 20 Sej). 1072, Kirkhride 22:18 

(AAL, \\, LS); \\ (if QiK'brada b(»t('lla along trail to San 
Pc.ho (It- la Siena. 2000 \n. 6 Oct. 1072. Kirkhride 2 1 1 1 
Distribution (Fig. 3), habitat., and phenido- (COL. [N\, US); La dan Vi'a to San Pedro de la Sierra, 
gy, Siparuna calantha is endcMnic on the Sierra L')I0m. lOMu) V)K\.Esiobar & Santa 3W) {\\\ \,\\\. 

branched, soft when fresh (Fig. 5), fruit and tuber- 
cles with few minute stellate hairs; when fresh and 
mature whitish, cream or yellow, strongly lemon- 
scented or with a pungent odor; drupelets 2 to 5. 

Nevada de Santa Marta, where it occurs in upper ^'^^*^'^' Mira. IIOO-L'^OO ni, IGjune Vm. Madruidn 331 

montane forest al elevations between 1200 and 
2()()() ju. Flowering and fniiting collections have 
been made in m(»st months of the year. 

(MO); Alio de Miratlor, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. 
1200 ni. I I Mar. I0<^2, Gvntry & Saenz 762:16 (MO), Gen- 
try & Saenz 76288 (MO); Sierra Ne\ada (!<- Santa Marta, 
Kl Caini.ano. transeet 10-11. 1700 in. II June \'n\, Grn- 

The tvpe of Sijxiruna riparia var. ctdantha Vvr- try & Ortiz 79848 (MO). 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Renner & Hausner 
New Species of Siparuna 


FIjj;vire 5. Slpanuui calantha (Pt'ikins) Reniu'i & Hausner {Gi^nlry & Ortiz 79818, MO. paralvpe). I'luitiiig specinuMi 
(scale bar equals 10 tni). 




Figure 6. Siparuna nisf/iifzianu Rviuier <.K llausner. — a. Ft-male sju'rirnen (Rojas et uI. 0280, MO. panit\|K': scale 
har t'ciuals 10 cni). — h. MaK- inflorescence aritl Ilowcr (\'(Ls(fU('z et a/. 21278. MO, paralype; scale luir e(|uaU 1 em). 

n .. .« ,.; o i'>-'o \\t\. 1 I ^ in . .\ 

-c. Male specimen (rfi.V(/aec e/ al, 24278, MO; scale l»ar equals 10 em). 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Renner & Hausner 
New Species of Siparuna 


Siparuna vasqueziana Reiiiier & Hausner, sp. than any other species of Siparuna known. Among 

nov. TYPE: Peru. Amazonas: Distr. El Cenepa, Ecuadorean and Peruvian species, it is further dis- 

Comunidad de Tutino, Pumpu-entsa, primary linct by its combination of strongly quadrangular 

forest, 340 m, male, 28 June 1997, R, Vdsquez, branchlets and large smooth (not buUale) leaves. 

A. Pena, E. Chavez & £". Quiaco 24278 (ho- Similar quadrangular branches are seen only in 5. 

lotype, AMAZ not seen; isotypes, F, HUT not macrotepala, but that species has smaller leaves 

seen, MO, MOL not seen, NY, USM not seen, and much shorter tepals (cf. the Latin diagnosis 

W) . Figures 3 and 6. 

Differt a Siparuna macrotepala Perkins foliis inajorihus 
(26-37 X 17-10 cm vs. 9-23 X 5-11 cm), floril)us ma- 
joribus, tepalii longis (3—10 X 1.5—3.5 miti vs. 0.6-4 X 
0.3-0.6 mm). 

Dioecious treelet, 4—5 m tall, branchlets distinct- r? u inn^ i/^ . / oo /o// 4 ^4 a v l ui r 

' ' reb. 1997, Vasqnez el al. 22424 (AMAZ, r, HL F not seen, 

ly quadrangular, flattened at the nodes, with short, mO, MOL not seen. NY, USM not seen. W). Loreio: 

simple or few-branched hairs. Leaves opposite, Dislr. Las Amazonas, Explornapo camp, 140 m, 6 Jan. 

above, which contrasts the two species in terms of 
leaf size and tepal length). 

Paratypes, PLRU. Amazonas: Distr. El Cenepa, Co- 
mnnidad de Mamayaque, 400 m, 11 Aug. 1997, Rajas 
0280 (F, MO, NY. US, W); Distr. El Cenepa, Comunidad 



1993, Vdsquez 18285 (MO). 

Acknowledgments. We thank Jose Luis Fernan- 
dez Alonso (COL), Ricardo Callejas (HUA), and cu- 
rators of the smaller Colombian herbaria cited in 
this paper's introduction for gracious permission to 

^ Barbara 

sometimes unequal in size and petiole length, the 
petioles 2.5—9.5 cm long, the lamina dr)ing green- 
ish brown, papery and brittle, broadly obovate, 26— 
37 X 17-19 cm, the base obtuse, rounded, or trun- 
cate, the apex short-acuminate, both surfaces with 
scarce short simple, bi-, or trifid hairs, with 16 to 
18 pairs of secondary veins, these flat above, dis- 
tinctly raised below, the margin denticulate, the 
teeth most pronounced near the blade base. Cymes 
up to 7.5 cm long in the male, 3- or 4-branched 
(Fig. 6c), often on leafless nodes, with 10 to 12 
flowers, pubescent like the branchlets. Male floral 
cup at anthesis 1.3—2.1 mm diam. and 1.1-1.6 mm 

high, subglobose, with short (0.05-0.2 mm long) Fed, J. P. 1992. Reproductive ecology of dioecions .Sj>a- 

study Siparuna material in their 
Alongi is thanked for the two drawings and Santi- 
ago Madrinan (Universidad de Los Andes, Bogota) 
for being a wonderful host during SB's visits to Bo- 

Literature Citeil 

simple to three-branched whitish hairs, some of 
these also on the tepal surfaces and margins, the 4 
tepals spatulate to oblong (Fig. 6b), 3-10 X 1.5— 
3.5 mm, fresh yellowish, the floral roof moderately 
ised, glabrous; stamens 22 to 24. Female flowers 

at anthesis similar to male flowers, the floral cup 
3.3-3.7 mm diam. and 3-3.5 mm high, the floral 
roof tightly surrounding the styles; styles 15 to 20. 
Receptacle in young fruits smooth {Vdsquez et aL 
22423), mature fruits unknown. 

Distribution (Fig. 3), habitat^ and phenolo- 
gy, Siparuna vasqueziana currently appears to be 
restricted to Peruvian Amazonian primary forests at 
elevations of up to 400 m. 

Etymology. The species is named to honor its 

collector, RodoUo Vasquez, curator of Peruvian ma- 
terial at the Missouri Botanical Garden and author 
of the first comprehensive florula for the Peruvian 
Amazonian lowlands (Vasquez Martinez, 1997). 
Siparuna vasqueziana has much longer tepals 

runa (Monirniaceae) in Eciudor — A case of ^all midge 

pollination. Hot. J. Linn. Soc. 110: 171-203. 
R(Miner, S. S. 1999. Circumscription and pliylogtMiy of the 
Laurales: Evidence from molecular and moq>liological 
data. Amer. J. Bot, 86: 1301-1310. 

& A. (]handerba]i. In [iress. What Is the relation- 
ship between llernandiaceae, Lauraceae, and Monimi- 
aceae, and why is this question so difficuh to answer? 
Int. J. Plant Sci. 

& G. Hausner. 1995. New Sfx^cies of Sipanma 

(Monimiaceae) I. Four n(»w species from Kcuador and 

Colombia. INovon 5: 61—70. 

^T 1996. New Species of Siparuna (Mon- 
imiaceae) II. Seven new sprcirs from Ecuador and Co- 
lombia. Novon 6: 103-116. 


. 1997. Siparunaceae, Monimiaceae. !n 

C Harhng & b. Andersson (e(htors). Flora of Ecuador 

59: 1-125. 

, A. E. Schwarzbach & L. Lohmann. 1997. Phy- 

logenetic position and floral function of Siparuna (Si- 
parunaceae: Laurales). Int. J. PI. Sci. 158(6 supfib): 
Vasquez Martinez, R. 1997. Florula de las Reservas Biol- 
o^icas de Iciuilos, Peru. Mono^r. Sysl. l!5ot. Missouri Bot. 

Card. 63: 1-1046. 

Two New Species in Oritrophium and Floscaldasia 
(Asteraceae: Astereae) from the High Andes of Ecuador 

Petr Sklendf 

DeparlriHMil of Botany, Charles University, Benatska 2, 128 01 Prague 2, Czech Kepul)lie 

Author for correspondence. 

Harold Robinson 

U.S. National Herbarium, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 

\^ashin^lon, D.C. 20560, U.S.A. 

AmsiRACT. Two new species fiuni llie family As- been receiill) treated by Cuatn-casas (1997) with 

teraceae, tril)e Astereae, were collected during bo- the report of 19 species and 6 subspecies. One ad- 

tanical investigations in the Ecuadorian Andt-s. Or- ditional species has since been drsjcrilxMl from the 

itrophiufti Uiingnnatense Sklenaf & H. Robinson Mexican highlands (Nesoni, 1998). T\w genus rang- 

and Floscaldasia azorclloides Sklenaf & H. Rob- es from Mexico to southern Bolivia, with no reports 

inson are here described and illustrated. Oritro- from die mountains of C<uitral America. Most spe- 

phiimx Uanganatcnsc is distinct from other species cies ol Oritrophium occur in Venezuela, Colombia, 

of the genus by a combination of abaxially lanate and Ecuador, where they typically inhabit wet }>ai1s 

leaves with <ni\rr phyllaries narrowly ovatt* to ob- of paramos (Cuatrecasas, 1997). The position o( (he 

long. Floscaldasia azorclloides differs from the oth- genus in the tribe Astereae has been discussed by 
er species of the geiuis by its three-lobed leaves. Nesom (1992) and Cuatrecasas (1997). 
The two species inhahit the upper superparamo and 

are restricted to remote areas of the Ecuadorian Oritropliiiiin llanganateiise Sklenaf & H. Rob- 
Eastern Cordillera. 

inson, sp. nov. T\PE: Ecuador. Tungurahua: 
Cerro Hermoso, SW ridge of mountain, humid 
upper superparamo vegetation on wet rocks, 

ri4'S, 78°18'W, 4200-4300 m, 6 Sep. 1997, 

P. Sklendf <£' V. Sklrndfovd 3651 (holotype, 
QCA; isoty[)es, PRC, QCNE). Figure lA. 

Ill l)ract(Ms involiicri inae(|iialil)iis linearilms vel oMon- 

gis On'Oopluo llmnophilo (Scltiill/ l^i|>.) Cualrecasas .sliii- 
ilis s(mI in loliis ahaxialitcr lanatis (liffrrl. 

Small perennial rusettiform herb with siiort rhi- 
Floscaldasia azorclloides difiere de las otras espe- zome-bearing fibrous roots; rhizome 1-2 X 0.5-1.0 
cies del genero por tener las hojas trilobadas. Las ^^^ -h vertical. Leaves 12 to 20 in rosette, sprcad- 
espe(^ies se encuentran en el sup.-quiramo alto en j^g. petioles 4^7 X 1.5-2.5 mm, lower part and 

dreas remotas de la Cordillera Oriental del Ecua- ^^^^i ^l^eaths with long, p(Tsistent, creamy-while, 

Rksumkn. Dos imevas especies dc la familia As- 
teraceae, tribu Astereae, se colectaron durant*^ in- 
vesligaciones botanicas en el superpdramo del Ec- 
uador. Las dos especies, Orilrophiuni llanganatense 
Sklendf & H. Robinson y Floscaldasia azorclloides 
Sklenaf & H. Robinson, se describen e ilustran. 
Oritrophium llanganatense dific^re de las otras es- 
pecies del genero por tener hojas lanosas abaxia- 
damcoti' y bracteas exteriores ovadas a oblongas. 


silky hairs at margins coxcring leaf bases; blades 
firm, flat with revolute entire margins, adaxially 
In the last lew years, the flora and vegetation of bright yellowish green, glabrous, abaxially densely 
the Ecuadorian superparanu) have been studied by sordid lanat(^ except for the midrib, narrowly ovate, 
the senior author. During several field trips to re- acut*;, 15—20 X 4—8 mm; ctMiter of rosette produc- 
mote and infrequently visited areas of the Eastern ing up to 5 scapes covered with white hairs, blearing 
Cordilh'ia, new species of Oritrophium and Flos- narrowly elliptic-oblong alternate brads 4-7 X 
c(ddasia were collected. The species are here de- 1.5-1.6 nun, sparscdy white lanate abaxially. Ca- 
scribed, illustrated, and compared with otlier spe- pitula tenninab s(jlitai7, 5-6 mm high, 5-7 lum 
cii*s, and their ecology and dislril)ulion are briefly wide; involucre witli phyllaries 3- to 4-seriat(% un- 




Thi' germs Oritrophium (HBK) Cuatrecascis has 

equal, glabrous, bright to dark green, dark purple 

at apices or from upper lliird, margins mem 



N()\()\ 10: 144-148. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Sklenaf & Robinson 
New Asteraceae Species 


Figure 1. 

- — A (left). Hal)it of Oritroplnum Uanganatejise Sklenaf & H. Kol)ins<)n 
azorclloides Sklenar & H. RuI)inson. From isot}pes. Scale l>ar = 1 cm. 

B (right). Habit ol tloscaldasia 

ceous, apex shortly ciliate; outer phyllaries 4—5 X long; pappus 2.9-3.1 nun long, yellow-brown; cyp- 
1.4—1.8 mm, narrowly ovate to oblong; inner phyl- selas shortly sericeous with white straight setulae, 
laries narrowly elliptic to linear-lanceolate to linear, mature ones not seen, 

5.5—6.5 X 0.7—1.1 mm, shortly acute. Ray florets 
20 to 28 per capitulum, corollas 3.5-4.1 mm long; 
limb white, linear to narrowly oblong-lanceolate, 
canaliculate, apex acute, 1.6— L8 X ca. 0.2 mm, 
tube pale greenish, with scattered short trichomes, 
which are longer and more numerous at the tube- 
ligule junction, 2.1-2.2 X ca. 0.2 mm; style 3.8—4 
mm long, with style branches 0.9—1.1 mm long, 

brownish in upper half; pappus 3.0-3.3 mm long, 
brownish below, yellow-brown above middle, sca- 
brid; cypselas shortly white sericeous, not seen ma- 
ture. Disc florets 7 to 10 in capitulum, corollas 3.0- 

3.2 mm long, pale green, narrowly funnelform, with 
5 equal triangular lobes 0.3—0.4 mm long, corollas 
outside with scattered short trichomes and multi- 
cellular glands, which arc longt^r and clustered at 
the tube-limb junction, trichomes short and more 
numerous on lobes; style branches ca. 0.8 mm long, 

Because of the hairy leaf sheaths and the broad 
outer phyllaries, Oritrophium Uanganatense would 
key to 0. limnophilum in Cuatrecasas (1997), the 
only other species in the genus with such involucral 
bracts. From this species, 0. Uanganatense differs 
by the bright yellowish green color of the upper 
surface, the densely lanate lower surface, and the 
revolute margins of the leaves. The name of 0. llan- 
ganaterise is derived from the name of the Llan- 
ganatis National Park, where the species was col- 

Paratypes. ECUADOR. Tungiirahua: Cerro Hcrmo- 
so, S^\ ridge of the riiounlaiii. sparse vegetation of tlie 
ufjper superparamo on wet nnks with shallow soil, rich 
hryophyle cover, Tl I'S. 7}n8'W, 4300 m, 6 Sep. 1997, 

l\ Sklenar & V Skleru'ifovd 3630 (MO, QCA, US). 

The genus Floscaldasia Cuatrecasas, previously 

densely papillate, linear-lanceolate; anther thecae credited with one species, F. hypsophila Cualreca- 
1.0-1.1 mm long, apical appendages ca. 0.2 mm sas, was described from the Colombian paramo 



(Cuatrecasas, 1969). It was distinguished from oth- long, branches 0.3-0.4 mm long, brown, papillate, 

er genera oi the tribe by the strueture of the pap- triangular-oblong; papj)us 1.0-1.3 nim long with 

pus, which had segments smooth and somewhat few bristles much shorter, golden brown, smooth, 

curved, formed by cylindrical cells (Cuatrecasas, somewhat curved. Disc florets functionally stami- 

1969). Nesom (1993, 1991) has studied the subtri- nate, 9 to 11 per capitulum, corolla 1.6-1.8 mm 

bal classification of the genus. Floscaldasia closely long, with limb light to dark purple, limb 1.1-1.2 

resembles the genus Liiestadia Kunlh ex Lessing, mm long, with S triangular acute lobes, lobes 0.4- 

from which it differs primarily by the presence of 0.5 mm long, throat with numerous short biseriate 

a pap})us. For years, the genus was considered en- hairs, tube 0.5-0.7 mm long, pale green; styles ca. 

c to the paramos of Colombia (Cuatrecasas, 1 mm long, exceeding the lol)es; anthers 0.6—0.7 

1969; van der Hammen & Cleef, 1986). However, mm long; pappus 1.5-1.6 mm long with few shorter 

rci-ently a specimen previously determined as L(ies- bristles, otherwise as in ray florets. Achenes laler- 

tfulid from northern Ecuador was recognized as K ally compressed, biconvex, 1.4-1.6 X 0.5-0.6 mm, 

hypsophila (Nesom, 1993). 

in rays more strongly arched and with numerous 
glandular dots mostly along outer margin, in (hsc 

Floscaldasia azorelloides Sklenaf & H. Robin- florets more symmetric and with few glands. 

son, sp. nov. TYPE: Ecuador. Chimborazo/Mo- 

rona Santiago: Cerros Yuibug-Pailacajas 

Floscaldasia azorelloides is unmistakably con- 

/yi-T'jA 1 \ II *u 17 • 1 r generic with F. hypsophila by the form of the heads 

(473U m a.s.L), rocky slopes on the E side ol ^ . - i i- i 

a 4 • ■ 1 I *j beini:; terminal, solilarv, subsessile becominti; loner 

trie mountam ridge, very riumid upper super- ^ ^ .' do 

• ,i I • i TY' -I ■;■ ! pedunculate and because of the smooth bristles of 

paramo witli cusluons ot werneria humilis and ^ 

c r* 1 ,' J 1 1 the pappus. The new species has the i^eneral habit 

grasses oi Lalamagrostis poaopnora and r tr , , , . . i. i i 

Agrostis spp., r45'S, 78°27'W, 4100 m, 31 

of F. hypsophila, although it has slightly smaller 

July 1997, P. Sklenaf & V. Sklendfovd 2950 ^^P'^"^^ ^"^^ ""'"*^*"' ^"^' ^^"" "''^''^" ^""'"^^'^ "'"'"S" 

(holotype, QCA; isotypes, AAU, MO, PRC, ^^.^\ requirements. However, ,t is unquestionably 

distinct in the 3-lobed leaves. The leaves oi F azo- 
relloides resemble those of several Ecuadorian Azo- 
rella Lamarck species, e.g., .4. corymhosa (Ruiz & 
■ r ^ 1 Pavon) Persoon, and the species is named accord- 

QCNE, US). Figure IB. 

A Floscalddsid Iwpsuplida in foliis Irilohalis {liffcrt. 

Small rosettiform perennial herl 


) wiin rannne( 

horizontally spreading, creeping rhizome; rhizome 
brownish yellow in older, and pale greenish in 


Paralypes. ECUADOI?. Cliimhorazo: Kl Altar, N 
younger parts, with membranaceous bracts; short sidr of the volcano, humid suprrpdramo on the ridge be- 
low the Canoningo peak, 1°41'S, 78^24'W, 4400 m. 19 

stem bearing terminal rosette of small leaves. 

Leav(^s alternate, sessile, 10 to 18 in cluster, pale A"^; ^'^'^t ^' '^'^'^"/'^ ^' ^* KnsU'<<kovd 93-13 (QCA, 

,, . , I , ■ I r OCNK), 4500 III. P. Skli'/idr & I. kostcchoid 90~6 (AAU, 

gnn^n to yellowish green, Habrous or with tew, ,,c\ !»• i • i /tv \t ■ i r . • • i o 

J D ' o ' vb). 1 ieliincha/I\ap<»: W side ol a mountain nd^e ca. z 

short, appressed hairs along the veins, flat, 4-6 X i,,, j^^ d,^. ^r j-^.^^^^^ (^^.,.,.^^ SaraUrcu, humid suporpilranio on 

1.2-1.8 mm, narrowly oblong to oblong, membra- metain(H])hic rocks, 0°()()'S, YT^ST'W, 4100 m. 29 Aug. 

naceous at the base, 3-lobed at apices, but a h^w ^^^^^'^^ (■ ^f^h-ndi' c?- K Koste<^kord 102-H (PRC. QCA), 

1 -a 1 o II 1 r.- 1 1 u 11 mountain ri(]ii:<% 4200—1-350 m. 30 Aue. 1995, P. Sklcndr 
leaves with 1 or 2 smaller additional lobes, lobes u y t^ , .f \ j,-u /...n A-^rn ^^n^^ -m \ 

u 1 1 A 1 r/ 1 o^ s^ n o n -7 . n ^ ^- ^'^•^^t'^/'"^''' ^^'^'^ (AAU), 43;>0-410() m, 30 Aug. 

subequal, L0-Lo(-1.8) X 0.3-0.7 mm, acute. Ca- 1(^5^ p Skhndf & V Kostr^kord 1179 (QCA). Chinibo- 

pilula terminal, solitaiy, subsessile at onset of an- raz<i/lVIorona Sanliago: Cenos Ynihug-Pailacajas (4730 

thesis, becoming long pedunculate, up to 4 cm m a.s.l.). along a small stream on llie E side of the mnun- 

long, puberulous with scattered glandular dots, with 
a few small bracts. Individual capitulum 2.5—3.0 

tain ridge, lunnJd cu^^hion supeiparamo with Azorclla, Wer- 
neria humilis^ Valrriatia^ and many mosses, 1°45'S, 
78°27'W. 42(K) m, 31 Jnlv 1997. P Sklendi' & V Sklrn- 

mm high, 4.5-6.0 mm wide; phyllaries 2- to 3-se- ,/;r,^,.j j^;^ ^pi^(^ QQ^y 
riate, pale green to green, glabrous, purple at api- 

ces. 2.5-2.8 X 0.7-1.1 m.n narrowly ell.ptic-oh- Disthiiu Tlor^ and Ecoi.ocy 
long, shortly ciliate at the apices, margins 

membranaceous. Ray florets female, 35 to 45 per The two described species occur in the open, 

capitulum, corolla with limb purph^ to dark purj^le patchy vegetalicm of tln^ upper superparamo (scmsu 

(occasionally light purple to yellowish), 0.9-1.1 mm Cleef, 1981) in ver)' humid areas of the Ecuadorian 

long, entire to bidentate at apex, narrowly linear- Andes (Fig. 2). The species Oritrophium llangan- 

lanceolate, canaliculate, spreading, tube 0.8-0.9 atense is known from one locality. It was collected 
mm long, pale greenish to brownish yellow, with in pennanenlly moist habitats in shallow soils 
numerous short biseriate liairs; style 1.3—1.4 mm around rocks, usucilly associated with abundant 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Sklenaf & Robinson 
New Asteraceae Species 








Ecuador >/;:« 

America/ i 


150 km 

> 2000 m 

> 3000 m 

> 4000 m 

Figure 2. Dislribiiliori of Floscaldasia azondloides (#), F, hypsophila (O, near Cayambe, Antisana. and Cajas), and 
OrUrophiuni llanganatense (I. near Cerro Hennoso) in Ecuador; white slurs indicate major iee-capj]ed voleanueb. 

bryophyles. The species Floscaldasia azorelloides such as Distichia Nees & Meyen and XenophyUum 

was collected from altitudes between 4200 and V. A. Funk (Cleef, 1978; P. Sklenaf, pers. obs.). 

4500 m, where it forms loose mats in very shallow. Due to its limited occurrence at the highest ele- 

vvet, sandy substrata on both metamor{:)hic and ig- vations, the genus Floscaldasia represents a typical 

neous bedrock. The other species of the genus, F. superparamo element (see also van der Hammen & 

hypsophila, is known from similar environments Cleef, 1986). 

from high altitudes, (3900-)4 100^550 m. Besides 

Despite recent research, the remote areas of the 

the first Ecuadorian locality from Cayambe (Nesom, Eastern Cordillera of Ecuador remain botanically 

1993), the species was repeatedly collected on Vol- poorly known. The newly described species are 

can Antisana in northern Ecuador, and there is a both known from only a few localities. However, 

record from Cajas National Park in the southern further exploration may expand their geographical 

part of the country (P. Sklt^naf, unpublished data). range within, and perhaps also outside, the country. 

Its known distribution in Ecuador is shown in Fig- This is especially plausible in Floscaldasia azoreU 

ure 2; the distribution in Colombia is given by van loides, since this species can easily be overlooked 

der Hammen and Cleef (1986: fig. 7-3d). Unlike [^ ^j^^ field. 

F. azorelloides, the plants of F. hypsophila were 
found growing upon the surface of cushion plants 

Acknowledgments. The fieldwork of RS. was 



Iween \hc Soullicrn lVrn[)eratP Zone and the IVopical 

Moiinlaiiis. EnKviss. Forsth. 11. \\ iesl)a<lt'n. 

. 10{>1. The \'eg<4allun of iIh' Paramos of ihc Col- 

sLippurU'd hy the Danish Rescaivh Acadt^iny (For- 
skerakadcmiet) and l)y the Grant Agenry of the 

CzvL'h Rcpuhlic (grant ru). 206/97/0336). The INE- ^„,,^;^„, Conlillrra Orin.Ial. Dissertalio.u'.. Hotanicae 

FAN is thanked lor issuing collecting permits. H. 61, J. (aanu-r, Xadiiz. 

Balslev and R. Valencia are thanked for general Cuatreeasas. J. \^H)^). Prima flora (iolomhiaiia. 3. ('om- 

positae-Astereae. Wt hhia 24: l-.'^3.'). 

. 1997. Syiiu|)sls of llu* N**oln)pi('al ^enus Orilro' 

support during fieliKvork. Tlu: laxonouiical study at 

die U.S. National Herl)arium was supported hy a 
shorl-tenn visitor grant from the OFG, Smithsonian 
Inslitution, to P.S. ; the visit was organized l>y V. 
Funk. J. Pruski is thanked for information on the 
latest puhhcations ahoul Oritropliluin. V. Hollowell, 
G. Nesoni, and one anonymous reviewer provided 

valuable comments on the manuscript. C. UUoa 
kindly revis<Ml the Spanish text. Curators of the her- 

ria F, MO, QCA, QCNE, 

cess to tluMr collecti(uis. 


1 for 

l.ilcraHirc (alcd 

(!lct'f. \. \1. P>7H. (!liaractrristics of neotropical [tararno 

/// C. IVol 

and its suhaiilan'tic rclalions. Pp. 365-390 
c^ W. hauin". (ieoecolo^Ical Hclation^ Bc- 

phium (Astcraceae: Aslcrcae). HioLania (Caracas), Ed- 

icion Kspccial 6; 287—303. 

Hammc!!, T. va!i der & A. \\, (^Iccf. I9HC). Development 
of tlic high Andean p;1ramo flora and vegelation. Pp. 
153-201 in F. Vnilleiiniier & M. Motiasterio. High \1- 

litiule rro|)ical Hio^(M)ti;rapIiy. Oxford Lni\. Press. Ox- 
Nfsom, Vj. L. 1992. Oritropliiiun orlzahcnsc (Asleraccae: 
Aslerea*^), a new species and die first report of the g(^- 
rms from North America. Phytologia 73: 3*^5— 31-4. 

. 1993. HoscdlddSKi I \steraceae: Astereae): hirst 

record hdrn F<iiador and comments on Its classifrcallon. 

lMi)loh)^ia 75: *^66— .'^Oo. 

-. 1994. Suhtril)al classifK ation of the Asleieae 

(Asteiaceae). Ph>toh)c^ia 76: 193-274. 

. 1998. A second species of Oritrophium (Astera- 

ceae: Ast<Teae) from Mexico. Sida 18: 523-526. 

Valeriana eupatoria (Valerianaceae), a New Species from Rio 

Grande do Sul, Brazil 

Marcos Sobral 

Faculdade de Farmacia UFRGS, Av. Ipiranga 2752, 90610-010, Porto Aleg;re, RS, Brazil 

AmsTRACT. Valeriana eupatoria, a new species Valeriana eupatoria Sobral, sp. nov. TYPE: Bra- 

native to Araucaria forests from upland Rio Grande 
do Sul, southern Brazil, is described and illustrat- 
ed. It is apparently related to V, chamae dry folia, 
from which it is set apart chiefly by its larger inflo- 
rescences and non-lobate, pubescent, and larger 


Rl-'.SUMEN. Se describe e ilustra Valeriana eupa- 
toria, una nueva especie nativa de los bosques 
montanos de Araucaria de Rio Grande do Sul, en 

zil. Rio Grande do Sul: Linha Quiuze, Gra- 
mado, 29°20'S, 50"53'W, Oct. 1997 (stam. fl), 
M Sobral & C. Miro 8604 (holotype, ICN; iso- 
types, FLOR, MBM, MO, RB, SP, US). Figures 

Sfx'L'ies nova V. (JKimaedryfoUae proxinia. a (jiia foliis 
lion lohatis, pubescent ibiis, foliis el infloresciMiliis lon- 
giorihns distincta est. 

Dioecious, erect or occasionally prostrate, sym- 

el sur de Brasil. La especie aparentemenle esta re- podially branching undershrubs or shrubs 0.5-1.5 

lacionada con V. chamaedryfoliay de la cual se di- ni high. Twigs, leaves, and inflorescence axes pu- 

ferencia principalniente por las inflorescencias mas bescent with hyaline hairs 0.1-0.3 mm long, 

grandes y sus hojas no lobadas, enteras, pubescen- Leaves opposite, simple, lanceolate, elliptic-lance- 

tes y mas grandes. elate or ovate-lanceolate, discolored when dried, 

pilose on both faces, more densely so abaxially, 8— 

The familial status oi Valerianaceae is debatable 13 cm long and 2.2-3.7 cm wide; apex narrowly 

in light of recent studies; Judd et al. (1994) merged acuminate; base cuneate and decurrent along the 

it in Caprifoliaceae based mainly on morphological pseudopetiole; central nerve adaxially plane or sul- 

and anatomical similarities. Molecular studies cate, abaxially salient; secondary nerves 4 to 6 (8) 

(APG, 1998; Backlund & Pyck, 1998; Pyck et al., pairs, plane or sulcate above and salient below, the 

1999) point to the close relationship of both groups, second pair stronger than the others, the two first 

establishing the derivation of Valerianaceae from a pairs sometimes diverging at a narrower angle than 

caprifolioid ancestor; these authors, in spite of the that of the other veins (about 30°); margins irreg- 

opinion of Judd et al. (1994), maintain Valeriana- ularly serrate, with 16 to 25 teeth 4-6 mm long 

ceae as a separate family. I have chosen to follow near the blade midpoint; pseudopetiole 6—10 X 1— 

their lead. If maintained as a separate family, the 2 mm, the leaf bases connate across stem node. 

Valerianaceae comprise from 9 (Gunn et al., 1992) Inflorescences in terminal panicles, the staminate 

to 13 (Cronquist, 1981) genera. Valeriana is the ones 40-50 X ca. 30 cm, the pistillate ones 20- 

largest genus in the family, with about 300 species 30 X 10-18 cm, with 3 orders of branching to the 

(Cronquist, 1981). 

ultimate dichasial units; bracts on the lower two 

Valeriana L. in South America attains its highest nodes of the inflorescence 4—7 X 1.5—2.0 cm, sim- 
diversity in the Andes; the Brazilian species are ilar to the leaves but occasionally with a pair of 
disjunct from this Andean slocrk and restricted evident basal lobes, the other bracts nmch smaller, 
chiefly to montane habitats in southern and eastern up to 20 mm long and 5 mm wide, acropetally di- 
regions of the country, from Minas Gerais to Rio minishing in size. Bracleolcs lanceolate, up to 0.4 

ssile, pentam- 

Grande do Sul, showing a marked southward in- X 0.2 mm. Flowers of bt>th 

crease in number of species. The last thorough tax- erous; calyx obsolete, generally reduced to a warty 

Gnomic revision of Valeriana in Brazil listed 15 intumescence with no evident teeth at the base of 

species (Borsini, 1962). One more species was re- the flowers, in some flowers hardly visible. Stami- 

cently described (Sobral, 1999), and, during a nate flowers white, campanulate, 0.8-0.9 X 0.7- 

study of the genus in Rio Grande do Sul, the south- 1.0 mm, the lobes acute, 0.4—0.5 X 0.4-0.5 mm; 

ernmost state in Brazil, another unnoticed shrubby stamens 3, 1.0-1.2 mm long, the anthers globose, 
species was detected; it is herein described as new. 0.3 X 0.2-0.3 mm, bitliecal. Pistillate flowers 

NovoN 10: 149-152. 2000. 


No von 


"* -.^'i 

- ■. ; . v^v ,.5- : J"^ 

Figun' 1. Valcrinna eupatoria Solual. 

A. Flowering htaru^h fi 

rom slaniinatc |>lanl 
from nu'inlod portion in A. (Duplicate al ICN i)( Sobntl tS: Mird 8600.) Stale bars: A 

H. Detail of adaxial surface 
SO mm; H = 10 mm. 

Volume 10, Number 2 


Valeriana eupatoria from Brazil 


Figure 2. Wderiana eupalorUi. Flowers and fruil. - — A. Slarninate flower. — B. Pisli 
view. — D. Fruil, adaxial view. — E. Fruil, Iransversc view. (A, Sobral & Mird 8604; 
Sobral et al. 87L'i.) Scale bars: A, B = 0.5 mm; C, D = 1 mm; E — 0.5 mm. 

ate flower. — C. Fruil. abaxial 
B, Sobral & Mird 8600; C-E, 



whltt', canipaiiulatf, 0.3-0.1 X 0.2-0.3 mm, the angustifulia forest:^ and occasionally edges of 

lobes acute and occasionally somewhat luuHjual, up marshes and fields at 500—900 m a])ove sea level. 

to 0.2 X 0.1-0.2 nun; slaminodes 3, up to 0.1 mm 

Etymology, The species is named ior the re- 

long, laminar and apically rounded; style 0.3 nun semblance of its leaves to southern Brazilian spe- 
long, stigmas 3, j>apillosc, 0.1 mm long; ovar)' 0.5 ties of the asleraceous genus Eupntonuni. When 
mm long, S-ridged, unilocular, unlovulate. Fruits sterile, V. eupatoria is easily confusetl with that ge- 
elliptical, somewhat transversely tri(juetrous, 5-cos- 
tate, slightly hairy, 0.7-1.0 X 0.4-0.5 nun. 


Valeridrui eupniotia is close to V. chanuicdryjolia 

Chamisso & Schlechtenilal. Both species are known 
oidv from the state of Rio Grande tlo Suh althouiili 

Panttypcs. BKA/IL. Kio (iraiwie do Sul: Ka/enda 
Polreiriiilu). Htun Jesus. Dec. 1977 (stain, fl). Cdmnr^o 
555-3 (II \S. I(^\); Ilairuljc/Iiihu, Caiiibara do Sul. 20 Fei>. 
1<)53 (stain, fl), Rambo 51070 (PACA), b"3 Nov. 1933 

(stani. (I), Rdruho 5IIHH (l'\(] A): l.irilia (^)iiin/('. (iraniado, 

29°20'S, oO^^.rw: Au<t. IW7 istain. fl). Sobral ,K: Diesd 

their gtM)graphieal iHslributions, as far as known, ^^ni^j (|cn)^ o^.,. looy (.,i,„„. n). Sohml & Mim 8600 

do not overlap. Valeriana eupatoria grows in the 
upland nordu'ast<'rn [)arl of the state, in vegetati(ni- 

(KSAb, FbOH. IC\, MI5M, N\), Oct. 1997 (stam. (I). So 

hral & Mini H60I (ICiN, MbMj. Sohra! c?' Mini Hh02 (ICN, 

southwestern Rio Grande do Sul, wluTe vegt^tation 
consists mainlv of rockv fields and drier forests de- 

\ , • J . . 1 I 1 11 V . r MI^M. SP). 0( I. 1997 (nisi, n), Sohml & Mini 860.3 (ICN, 

al lormations donnnatetl liy (tnibroplulous lorests oi *ii>m en i c\ r^ ior»o / • . n\ c i / . t cij 

■' *■ MBM. SP. LS). Dec. 1998 (pist. fl). Sobnil rt (d. 8^13 

Arauntria angustijolia (B*'rtoloni) Kuntze; V cha- (icN, Mint), Sobral ct al 8714 (ICN, MHM, iMO); Clia- 
maedryjolia thrives in rocky fields in central and f)a(la. Sao Kiancisco dc Paula. IH Nov. PW4 (stam. fl) 

Batista & Pilz s.n. (ICN 1 1 7:W7). 

Achnouledgmcnts. I thank U. Braun (HAL), 
void ot Araucarla. Besides this ecological distinc- who kindly sent me a fine xerox copy of the isotype 
lion, they can he set ajiail morphologically hy the of Valeriana chamaedryfolia, and Domia M. E. 

Ware, Victoria Hollowell, Vinfcius Souza, and an 

following charaelers: 

In. Leaves up to 7 ctn lori^ X 2 cm \\i(l(\ glalnous 

or with scattcri'd liairs alon^ tlir ri(M\(*s; some 
malui(* l(*a\es with at Irast our ])air of loltcs at 
pheudo[u'liol<' hasL's; iudorcsccuccs up to IH tm 
lonp: hhules ahoul 6 llnics Ion^<M" than the pst-u- 
il(tpelioles, tlirsr 1*518 ami long; leaf tcclli up 
to 10, 1—7 mm long, (nidcnl in relation to hiade 

width \nleriana <-h<nttar(lr\/oli(i 

III. l,**a\es cxeeediug 7 <rn. up to \'A em long, e'x- 
('ceding 2 cm in width (to 3.7 cm), puhcsccnl on 
hotli faces, more dcnsciv bcncalli; mature leaves 
nc\cr with a lohcil base (altliou^li llic brai-ts nia\ 
occasionallv be lobed); inlloreseences Ui-5() cm 
long; blades 12—20 times longer than the |>seu- 
dopetioles, these f)— 10 nmi long: leal teeth l(>— 
2S, 4— () mm lon^!;. nol abva\s marked in relation 
U> blade widdi Valeriana cupaloria 

Plienology, Flowers Irom August to December, 
fruits in DecemhtT. 

anonymous reviewer lor their patient suggestions 
ior improving this paper, as well as the various col- 
lectors of V. eujtatnria — especially Suzete Diesel, 
who first introduced me to the inten^sting Linha 
Quinze site. 

l.iteialure Cltctl 

\l*(i (The Atigiosperm Ph\ lo;4eny (Iroup). 1008. An or- 
dinal classification (or the (amilies of flouerin^ planls. 

Ann. Missouri Bt)l. Traid. U5: 531— .S.^f). 

Hackhmd, A. & N. INck. 1098. Diinillaceae and 
naeaceae, Iwo new families of eaprilolioids. Taxon 1-7: 
657-f >0 1 . 

IJorsiui. O. E. 1962. Re\'>n de las \alerlanaeeas de 

Brasil. I.illoa 31: 119-170. 

(!ron(iuist. A. 108L An liite^ratfMl Ssslemol (dassificalion 
oi Fl<)\v(Min<^ F^lants. Columbia Lniv. Press, \)'v\ \ork. 

(iium. C. K.. J. II. W icrscma. C. A. Hitchic tX J. II. Klrk- 
britle, Jr. 1002. H'amilies and j^enera of spcrmato[)h\ tes 
recogni/(Ml by the Agricultural R(^sear(di Ser\ ice. 
U.S.I). A. Techn. Hull. 170(,: 1-dOO. 

Distrilmtion. Valeriana eupator in i^Vxu^^sn{nnu •'"'';'' W- S..IL^ W. ^Sanders & ,\1. j, l)<M,o^hue. 1991. 
four nnmicipalities of upland northeastern Rio 

Grande do Sul ("planalto" or "Serra CeraL'), a mon- 
tane region with altitudes up to 1200 m. dominated 

by Araiicaria forests and cloud forests intermixed 

with liekls. 

Ecology, Shrub from forest edges in Araucaria 

Angiosjxnni fannly pairs: Preliminar) ph\ h>g<'neti(, 

anabses. Ibirvard Pap. Bot. 5: l-.)!. 
Pyck, N.. P. Roels c*i L. Snx'ts. 1900. Tribal relationships 

iu Capriloliaceae: l'\idence from a cladislic anaKsis 

usin^ ndliV sequences. Syslemalies and (/eo<!;raj)hv of 

PlarUs 69: 145-150. 
Sobral, \1. 1000. I'ulcriana tajurrnsis (Valerianaceae), a 

new species from southern Brazil. No\on 0: 111 I 17. 

Rinorea helalongii (Violaceae), a New Species from Borneo 

P, K Stevens 

Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A., and 
University of Missouri at St. Louis, Department of Biology, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, 

St. Louis, Missouri 63121, U.S.A. 

Abstract. Rinorea belalongii, from diptcrocarp stipules (3-)3-7. 5 X 1-1.3 mm, striate, deciduous; 
forests in Brunei and probably also Sabah, is de- petiole 1.5^.5(-8) X 1.5-2 mm; lamina subovate- 
scribed and illustrated. It is distinct in its very long oblong, 15.2-ca. 38 X 4-9.8 cm, apex gradually 
and sharply acuminate leaf blades, cauliflorous and and sharply acuminate, acumen to 4.5 cm long, 
ramiflorous inflorescences, stamens lacking ventral base rounded to subcordate, ± asymmetrical, mar- 
appendages, and gynoecium with densely short-pu- gin serrulate, 5 to 9 serrations/5 cm, texture char- 
berulent ovaries and glabrous, expanded styles that taceous, surface drying greenish to yellowish 
are constricted just above the hair)^ bases. brown, with sparse adpressed brown hairs on mid- 
rib below, very few on abaxial surftice, or glabrous, 
Rinorea (Violaceae) is represented in Malesia by venation eucamptodromous to brochidodromous, 
14 species of mostly rather small trees. In the the latter on smaller leaves and t(»ward the apex, 
course of disentangling the complex variation pat- midrib and secondaries slightly raised above, 
tern oi Rinorea longiracemosa (Kurz) Craib, a spe- strongly raised below, secondaries 10 to 15 (per- 
cies that appeared to range fnmi Burma and Viet- haps to 18)/side, 8-30 mm apart, finer venation re- 
nam to Borneo (Jarvie & Stevens, 1998), a group ticulate, obscure to slightly raised above, raised be- 
of specimens from Brunei that probably represent- low, domatia absent. Inflorescences cauliflorous and 
ed an undescribed species was noted. Initially ramiflorous, several together or branched from the 
identified as /?. longiracemosa (Kurz) Craib (For- base, axis 6-10 mm long, with 3 to 6 flowers, mi- 
man & Ahmad, 1996), flowering material of this nutely puberulent; bracts and bracteoles with con- 
taxon has since been collected, and it is described spicuous brownish adpressed hairs, bracts 2.5-2.7 
as R. belalongii. Whether or not R. belalongii, as mm long, pedicels 4-6 mm long, puberulent, artic- 
well as the other taxa previously included in R. ulated at or somewhat above the middle, bracteoles 

longiracemosa, are in fact particularly close to the 1.8-2.2 mm long, ca. Va up. Sepals green-white, 

latter remains to be seen. Since the flowers of R. ovate, 4.8-5.5 X ca. 4 mm, with adpressed brown- 

helalongii are perhaps the most distinctive of those ish hairs abaxially; petals white, ovate, ca. 9 X 3.5 

of any Malcsian species, this suggests that it is not mm, apex sharply cuneate, margins with a few mi- 



v re 


nute hairs; stamens 10, subglabrous, filaments ca. 

2.7 mm long, connate for the basal ca. 0.7 mm, 

Rinorea belalongii P. F. Stevens, sp. nov. TYPE: anther thecae 2-2.2 mm long, with a tew hairs at 

Brunei Darussalam. Tembunmg District, Kua- the base, the abmedial lateral walls ca. 1.7 mm 

la Belalong Field Studies Centre, 85 m, 1 Mar. long, connective appendage ca. 2 X 1.8 mm, trl- 

1999, Hemingway & Malcomher 130 (holo- angular; ovary ca. 3 mm long, densely puberident, 

type, MO; isotypes, K, SAR). Figure 1. 

3 ovules/placenta, style continuous, ca. 4 mm long. 

A 1 I ■ n 1 . 1 puberulent at the base, contracted, then expanded, 

A specieliiis aliis tiuiorcde in kiininis m siccitale vinde- ^ r ' 

v(^l navidu-brunneis et acumiiiilnis lougis us(iuc ad 4.5 stigma indistinct. Capsule subellipsoid, ca. 2 X 1.5 

cm Imigis pracditis, iaflorescetitiis hrexlhiis pauriflorihiis, cm, sepals at the base usually :!: spreading, surface 

antheris suhglahris appendiculis venlralihus nullis, stylis drying yellowish, smooth to furfuraceous, pericarp 
base pills deiisis hrevilms praedihs tuni conslrictis turn 

deinuni inflalis. et ovariis fruclihusvr pilis densis hreviltus 

praeditis, differl. 

splitting into two layers; seeds straw-colored, ca. 7 
X 6 mm, basally with an annulus ca. 3 mm across, 
umbo ca. 0.8 mm across. 

Shrub or small tree 1-3 m tall, DBH to 2 cm. Bark 
pale brown with lenticels. Twigs 1.3-1.8 mm across. Distribution and ecology. Rainforest at 50—85 
glal)rous or with sparse hairs; intemodes (2-)3-7.5 cm m altitude. Flowering In February and March, fruit- 
long. Leaves distichous, minutely puberulent and ing in June and August. 

with sparse adpressed brown hairs, or glabrous; 

The only specimen from Sabah, SAN 85186, that 

Novo^ 10: 153-155. 2000. 






J- >■ 

- ,-■- ^ 


— 1j. Flower. — c. Tiidiviclual slanicn, adaxial view. 

<). CfViiorciurii, lioiil and side \iews. — <\ Details of llie \enation. — f. Apex o( luig showing terminal hud eiulosed 

Figure 1. Riiiorca bclnlongii H K St(^\eiis. — a. Moweriii^ shoot. 


by sti[>nl(*s. (r'ntni llcrningivdv S: Malcotnher I'M}, MO.) 

Volume 10, Number 2 


Rinorea belalongii from Borneo 


may be assignable to this species has rather small 
sepals ca. 4.8 mm long (when dry) that are more or 
less adpressed to the capsule. 

The inflorescence of Rinorea belalongii seems to 
be a reduced panicle or thyrse. The gynoecium is 
distinctive and quite unhke both that of any other 
species I have examined and also the descriptions 
in Jacobs and Moore (1971). The style is constrict- 
ed just above the basal, hairy portion, and then 
considerably expands toward the apex; it later ab- 
scises at this constriction. Viewed from the side 

with persislrnl basal perulae or their scars, 

0.5—13 t-ni long. 

9*. InHorescetu-es from defoliate axils, axis 
0.6—1 cm long: anthers lacking ventral 
appendage, ovary^ densely sliui1-pubem- 
lent R, belalongii 

9*. Inflorescences terminal or terminating 
short shoots, axis 3—13 em long; anthers 
with (lisliiiet ventral appendage, ovary 
glabrous or witli sparse hairs — see Jarvie 
and Stevens (1998) for the continual iun 
of this pari of the key. 

Paratypes, HHUNKI. Temburong District, Sungei 

(Fig. ID), the gynoecium appears to be nionosym- Tembnrong at Ki>ala Relalong, Dransfwld 6632 (A, K); S. 

^•11 .t a L 1 • r ' n Belalong. K. M. Wong WKM 1165 (Kl; Kuala Fielalonc; 

metrical; however, the flower as a whole is basically j^^. 1 1 c. r r- . m a . \ i mo- /t'\ c k 

^ rield Studies Centre, 50 m. Argent et al 913d (K). SA- 

polysymmetrical. Observations on living material BAH. Lahad Datu: llu Sg. Danum, near Kuala Segama. 

are needed to confirm this. Although very different SAN 85186 (K). 

from the styles of other Malesian species, there is 

Acknowledgments. I am very grateful to Bar- 

considerable variation in stylar morphology in Vio- b^^a Alongi for the fine illustration, to Harvey Bal- 
laceae, including Vio/a itself, and in Rinorea else- l^nl for comments, and to the directors of the her- 
where in its distributional range. 

Rinorea belalongii may be inserted into the keys 
provided by Jacobs and Moore (1971) and Jarvie 
and Stevens (1998) as follows: 

8. hiflurescences more or less elongate, or flowers 

few on a short (> 5 mm long) raehis; fruit 1.25- 
4 em in diameter. 

9. Stipules 1—3.5 mm long; infloreseences axil- 
lary, lacking basal perulae, 0.5-2.5 em [mm 
in Jarvie & Stevens, 1998] long 

/?. jiuanica (Blume) Kiuitze 

9. Stipules (2— )4— 21 mm long: inflorescences 
axillar)', terminal, or terminating short shoots, 

baria cited for permission to examine their material. 

Literature Cited 

Forman. L. L. & J. \. Ahmad. 1996. Violaceae. P. 334 in 

M. J. E. Coode. J. Dranfield, L. L. Forman. D. W. Kirk- 
up & I. M. Said (editors), A Checklist of the Flowering 
Plants and Gymnosperms of Brunei Darussalani. Min- 
istry of Industry and Primary Resources, Brunei Darus- 

Jacobs, M. & D. M. Moore. 1971. Violaceae. Pp. 179-212 
in C. G. G. J. van Steenis (editor). Flora Malesiana, ser. 
1, vol. 7. Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen. 

Jarvie, J. K. & P. ¥. Stevens. 1998. Ne\\ speeies and notes 
on Violaceae and Flaeourtiaeeae from Indo-Malesia. 
Harvard Pap. Bot. 3: 253-262. 

A New Combination in Heteropolygonatum 

(Convallariaceae, Polygonateae) 

Minoru N, Tamura 

Botanical Gardens, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 2000 Kisaichi, 

Katano-shi, Osaka 576-0004, Japan 

Shingchi Chen (Xinqi Chen) 

Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincum, Xiangshan, 

Beijing 100093, Peoples Republic of China 

Nicholas J. Turland 

Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

AusiRAcr. During preparation of accounts for the hicina [sic]." Liu (1991: 236—237) considered it a 


member of Polygonatum. The species has also 

na, Vohune 24, it was decided that Polygonatum been collected in southwestern Hubei (Liehuan, 


1300 m, 19 Apr. 1973, H. G. Li 11030, MO). 

Recently, the genus Heteropolygonatum M. N. 

should he transferred to Heteropolygonatum,, as H. Tamura & Ogisu has been described (Tamura et al., 

1997). It is similar to Polygonatum, but differs in 
possessing h(ith terminal and axillary inflorescenc- 

ginfushanicum (F. T. Wang & Tang) M. N. Tamura, 

S. C. Chen & Turland. 

es (sometimes only a terminal inflorescence) and 

Smilacina ginfushanica F. T Wang & Tang was ™l>"^'^^e Sepals. Originally, dimorphic stamen 

described in 1978 (Wang & Tang, 1978: 249), ^^^^^^'^ ^''^^ ^^^'^ considered characterisUc of Het- 

bascd on specimens coHected from the mountain eropolygonatum^ but this later turned out to be of 

Jinfo Shan hi Nanchuan County, Chongqing Prov- "^ diagnostic value (Bao et ah, 1998). However, the 

ince, China (T //. Hsiung & T. L Chou 90841, P^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ still recognize Heteropolygonatum, 

PE). Later, after examining additional specimens ^'''^ ^ molecular phylogcny of the tribe Polygona- 

from Jinfo Shan {T. H. Hsiung & T. L Chou 91094, 

teae confirms this recognition (Yamashita et ah, in 

PE; Phytogeographical Research Team 239, PE) press). 

and also from Jiangkou in northeastern Guizhou 

As Wang and Tang (in Wang et al., 1983) ob- 

Province (Z. S. Zhang et al. 400642, PE), Wang served, Polygonatum ginfushanicum (Smilacina 

and Tang (in Wang et ah, 1983: 261) transferred ginfushanica) has both terminal and axillary inflo- 

the species into Polygonatum, as P. ginfushani- resccnces (sometimes only a terminal inflorescence) 

cum (F. T. Wang & Tang) F. T. Wang & Tang. They and also imbricate tepals. These characters clearly 

considered that the existence of a terminal inflo- indicate that the species belongs to Heteropolygon- 

rescence in this species allied it with the genus atum, so the combination in that genus is made 

Smilacina. However, they also observed an axil- here. Now Heteropolygonatum includes four spe- 

lary inflorescence in addition to the terminal one cies: H. roseolum M. N. Tamura & Ogisu (the type 

(except in some specimens), tepals connate to a species), H. pendulum (Z. G. Liu & X. H. Hu) M. 

high degree, pa})illae present on the abaxial side N. Tamura & Ogisu, //. xui W. K. Bao & M. N. 

of the tepal apex, and ovaries with four ovules per Tamura, and H. ginfushanicum (R T. Wang & Tang) 

locule, all of whieh they considered as character- M. N. Tamura, S. C. Chen & Turland, all of which 

istics of Polygonatum. Hara (1987: 158) treated are endemic to China (Chongqing, Guizhou, Hubei, 

the species under Smilacina, and cited the com- and Sichuan Provinces and Guangxi Zhuang Au- 

bination in Polygonatum as a synonym, but noted tonomous Regi<m). Tlie generic description, key to 

'This species is till now doubtful to belong to 5m/- the species, and specific descriptions will be pro- 

Novo\ 10: 156-157. 2000. 

Volume 10. Number 2 

Tamura et al. 

New Combination in Heteropolygonatum 


vided in the forthcoming Flora of China, Volume fore, the present authors adopt ''^ginfushanicurn'' 

24 (Chen & Tamura, in press). 

Heteropolygonatum gmfushanicum (F. T. Wang 

and reject ''ginfoshanicurn''; see Article 61.3 of the 
Tokyo Code (Greuter et al, 1994). 

& Tang) M. N. Tamura, S. C. Chen & Turland, Literature Cited 

comb. nov. Basionym: Smilacina ginfmhanica g^^ ^^ ^ y. F. Yuan, C. L. Liu & M. N. Tamura. 1998. 

F. T. Wang & Tang, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 
15: 249, pi. 14, figs. 3-5. 1978. Polygonatum 
ginfushanicum (F. T. Wang & Tang) F. T. Wang 

& Tang, in F. T. Wang, Tang & S. Yun Liang, 

Acta Bot. Yunnan. 5: 261, t. 1. 1983 [as ""gin- 

foshanicunCY TYPE: China. Chongqing: Nan- 

A new species of Ileteropolygonaiiim (Convallariaceae— 
Polygonateae) from Sichuan, China. Acta Phytotax. 
Geohot. 49: 143-146. 
Chen, S. C. & M. N. Tamura. In press. Heteropolygonatum 
M. N. Tamura & Ogisu. In: Z. Y. Wu & P H. Raven 

(editors). Flora of China, 24. Science Press, Beijing & 
Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Si. Louis. 

chuan County, "Gin-fu-shan" [Jinfo Shan], Greuter, W, F R. Barrie, H. M. Burdet, W G. Chaloner, 

1730-1800 m, T H. Hsiung & T. L Chou 
90841 (holotype, PE). 

V. Demoulin, D. L. Hawksworth, P. M. j0rgensen, J. 
McNeill, D. H. Nicolson, P C. Silva & P Trehane (ed- 
itors). 1994. International Code of B jlanical Nomencla- 
ture (Tokyo Code). Regnum Veg. 131. 
Hara, H. 1987. Notes towards a revision of the Asiatic 
species of the genus Smilacina. J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, 

Sect. 3, Bot. 14: 137-159. 

1978: 249). However, in the accompanying key to Liu, D. M. 1991. Polygonatum Mill. Pp. 221-251 in J. 
species of Smilacina (p. 29), the Chinese descrip- ^ ^" H^^or), Flora Sichuanica, 7. Sichuan National- 

tion (p. 38), and the illustration caption (p. 43), the j^I^^'.^^m^^^ m. Ogisu & J. M. Xu. 1997. Heteropoly- 
spelling *'^ginfoshanica^^ was used. Hara (1987) 

used the latter spelling. When the species was 

The specific epithet was spelled ^'ginfushanica'*^ 
in the part of the protologue accompanying the Lat- 
in description and type designation (Wang & Tang, 

gonatum, a new genus of liie tribe Polygonateae (Con- 
vallariaceae) from West China. Kew Bull. 52: 949-956. 

transferred to Polygonatum by Wang and Tang (in Wang, F T & T Tang. 1978. Smilacina Desf. Pp. 26-40, 

249 in F. T. Wang & T. Tang (editors), Flora Reipuhlicae 
Popularis Sinicae, 15. Institute of Botany, Academia 
Sinira, Beijing. 
, & S. Y. Liang. 1983. Notes on Chinese 

Wang et al., 1983), the epithet was spelled ''gin- 
foshanicum,'' and likewise by Liu (1991). The type 
locality in the protologue was cited as "Gin-fu- - 
shan," which uses the Wade-Giles system of trans- 
literation from Chinese. The alternative, pinyin Yamashita^J., F D. PuJ. M^.^^^^ 

transliteration is "Jinfo Shan.^' One might argue 

Liliaceae XL Acta Bol. Yunnan. 5: 261-263. 

that eith 

''''ginfushanicum'''' or ''^jinfoshanicum 


would be correct, but not '''ginfoshanicum.'' There- 

M. N. Tamura. In press. Moleculai" phylogeny of the 
tribe Polygonateae (Convallariaceae) based on DNA se- 
quences of the chloroplasl genes tniK and rbcL. Amer. 
J. Bot. 

New Combinations in Campylandra 
(Convallariaceae, Convallarieae) 

Minoru N. Tamura 

Botanical Gardens, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 2000 Kis 

Katano-shi, Osaka 576-0004, Japan 


Liang Songyun {Liang Song-jun) 

Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincum, Xiangshan, 

Beijing 100093, People's Republic of China 

Nicholas J, Turland 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

Abstract. Campylandra Baker was published in Campylandra from Tupistra Ker Gawler on the ba- 

1875. Subsequently, various authors have either sis of its sessile leaves, presence of stamina] fila- 

united it with Tupistra Ker Gawler (sometimes rec- ments, and a smaller stigma. On the oilier hand, 

ognizing it as a subgenus or section of Tupistra) or Bentham and Hooker (1883) regarded Campylan- 

maintained it as a separate genus. The present au- dra as no more than a variant oi Tupistra with some- 

thors regard Campylandra as a separate gemis on what more developed filaments and a more slender 

account of its having filaments only proximally (vs. style, and reduced Campylandra to synonymy un- 

almost wholly in Tupistra) adnate to the perianth der Tupistra. Later, Engler (1887, 1897), Clarke 

tube, anthers as high as or higher (vs. lower) than (1890), Krause (1930), Dandy (1933), Chun (193 1), 

the stigma, a shorter style, and a 3-lobed (vs. pel- Hutchinson (1934), Handel-Mazzetti (1936), Hara 

tate to nuishroom-shaped) stigma; this separation is et al. (1978), and Conran and Tamura (1998) all 

confirmed by molecular phylogenies. In preparation recognized Campylandra as an independent genus, 

for the accounts of genera in the C<mvallariaceae They evaluated it with var)ing eircumseriptions, 

for Flora of China, Volume 24, it is therefore nee- but as having, for example, sessile leaves, bracts 

essary to transfer into Campylandra 12 species longer than the flowers, tepals frilled at the margin, 

hitherto treated under 7}//JZ.s/ra, namely: T: annu/a^a anthers positioned higher than or as high as the 

H. Li & J. L. Huang, T chinensis Baker, T delavayi stigma, presence of filaments and/or a small, tri- 

Franchet, T emeiensis Z. Y. Zhu, T ensifolia F. T. ^^^^^ stigma. However, Hooker (1892), Baillon 

Wang & Tang, T. Jimhriata Handel-Mazzetti, T jin- 
shanensis Z. L. Yang c^- X. G. Luo, T liangshanensis 
Z. Y. Zhu, T. lichuanrnsis Y. K. Yang, J. K. Wu & 

(1893), Franehet (1896), Wang and Liang (1976, 
1978), and Huang and Li (1990) all followed Ben- 
tham and Hooker (1883) in regarding Campylandra 

D. T. Peng. T longipedunculata F. T Wang & S. ^^ congenerie with Tupistra. Among them, Franehet 

Yun Liang, T verruculosa Q. H. Chen, 

d T 


(1896) and Huang and Li (1990) recognized Cam- 

nancmis F. T Wang & S. Yun Liang. It is also nee- PY^^^dra at the ranks of section and subgenus, re- 

essary to transfer two species originally described 
under a related genus, Rohdea Roth, but later 


In the fortheoming Flora of China, Volimie 24, 

transferred to Tupistra: T tui (F. T Wang & Tang) ^iang and Tamura (in press) will treat Campylandra 
F. T Wang & S. Yun Liang {R. tui R T Wang & ^^'\Tupistra<x^ separate genera and stress the mor- 

Tang) and T urotepala (Handel-Mazzetti) F. T. Wang 
& Tang (R. urotepala Handel-Mazzetti). In addition 

phologieal differenees as follows: 

Campylandra: filaments proximally adnate to 

, .1 . r ^ J J r J- • 1 . perianth tube; antliers positioned as hi^h as or 

to these transiers, Lampylandra ensifolia is lecto- ,., . ,^ nrvi 



higher than stigma; style usually 0-1 mm, rarely to 
3.5 mm (C, fimbriata); stigma small, 3-lobed. 
Tupistra: filaments almost wholly adnate to peri- 
le genus Campylandra was originally de- anth tube; anthers positioned lower than stigma; 

scribed by Baker (1875: 582) with the single spe- style 4-12 mm, cylindric; stigma pehate to mush- 
cics C. aurantiaca Baker. Baker distinguished room-shaped, 2-7 mm in diameter, fleshy. 

NovoN 10: 158-160, 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Tamura et al. 

New Combinations in Campylandra 


According to Huang and Li (1990) and Huang Campylandra emeiensis (Z. Y. Zhu) M. N. Tamura, 

and Hong (1997), Campylandra has unimodal kar- 
yotypes, and ellipsoid or subspherical, monosulcate 
pollen grains with reticulate or perforate exine, 
whereas Tupistra has bimodal karyotypes (except in 
T nutans Wallich ex Lindley: unimodal), and 
spherical, inaperturate pollen grains with rugulose, 
verrucose, or gemmate exine. Thus the separation Campylandra ensifolia (F. T Wang & Tang) M. 

S. Yun Liang & Turland, comb. nov. Basionym: 
Tupistra emeiensis Z. Y. Zhu, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 
4: 271. 1982. TYPE: China. Sichuan: Emei 
Shan, 1800-2500 m, 1 June 1976, Z). Q. Li & 
Z. K Zhu 29 (holotype, EMA). 

of Campylandra and Tupistra is more or less sup- 
ported by karyological and pollen morphological 
data, although comprehensive karyological and pol- 
len morphological studies are needed to confirm 
this. The separation of the two genera has also been 
supported by molecular phylogenies based on both 
frnK (including maiK) and rbch genes (Yamashita 
& Tamura, in press). At the present stage, we con- 
sider that separation is better than inclusion of 
Campylandra within Tupistra. However, the de- 

N. Tamura, S, Yun Liang & Turland, comb, 
nov. Basionym: Tupistra ensifolia F. T. Wang & 
Tang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 7: 86. 1936. 
TYPE: China. Yunnan: "Plant of 6^18 inches. 
Flowers brown and green, strongly fragrant. 
Moist shady situations amongst rocks in side 
valleys on hills to east of Tengyueh, Lat. 25^N., 
alt. 6^7000 ft.," June 1912 (fl), G. Forrest 
8455 (lectotype here designated, K). 

Wang and Tang cited two syntypes: the flowering 

tailed relationship of species and consequent ge- specimen cited above (as "type") and the following 

neric circumscription of Campylandra, Gonioscy- specimen (as "fruit type"): China. Yunnan: "Shang- 

pha Baker, Rohdea, Tricalistra Ridley, and Tupistra p^;' 2OOO m, 21 Oct. 1934 (fr), H. T Tsai 58892 

should be reexamined in the future. In the present (pE). The latter specimen was preserved in the her- 

paper, we propose the following 14 new combina- barium of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, 

tions in Campylandra for the treatment in Flora of p^ipj^^g (Beijing), which has since been transferred 

China, Volume 24. These species were hitherto ^^ kUN, NAS, and PE. The specimen at Kew has 

treated under Tupistra, but agree with Campylandra two inflorescences and is here chosen as the lec- 

as defined here. Two of them were originally de- ^^^yp^ because flowering material is more useful 

scribed under a related genus, Rohdea Roth, but diagnostically than fruiting material, 
were transferred to Tupistra in Wang and Liang 

(1978). The key to genera, generic descriptions, Campylandra fimbriata (Handel-Mazzetti) M. N. 

key to species, and specific descriptions of both 
Campylandra and Tupistra will be provided in the 


Campylandra annulata (H. Li & J. L. Huang) M. 
N. Tamura, S. Yun Liang & Turland, comb, 
nov. Basionym: Tupistra annulata H. Li & J. 
L. Huang, Acta Bot. Yunnan., Suppl. 3: 51. 
1990. TYPE: China. Yunnan: "Cultus in Horto 

Tamura, S. Yun Liang & Turland, comb. nov. 
Basionym: Tupistra fimbriata Handel-Mazzetti, 
Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 
59: 253. 1922. TYPE: China. Yunnan: "In plu- 

viisilva frondosa calide temperata juxta vicum 
Bahan in convalle fluvii Salween, 27^58'[N]," 
ca. 2600 m, 20 June 1916, Handel-Mazzetti 
8804 (holotype, W). 

Botanico Kunming. Locus exactus sine cogni- Campylandra jinshanensis (Z. L. Yang & X. G 

tus," D. Y. Xia 49 (holotype, KUN). 

Campylandra chinensis (Baker) M. N. Tamura, S. 
Yun Liang & Turland, comb. nov. Basionym: 
Tupistra chinensis Baker, Hooker's Icon. PI. 19: 

t. 1867. 1889. TYPE: China. Hubei: "Patung 
[Badong] district," Henry 5023 (holotype, K). 

Luo) M. N. Tamura, S. Yun Liang & Turland, 
comb. nov. Basionym: Tupistra jinshanensis Z. 
L. Yang & X. G. Luo, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 6: 
389. 1984. TYPE: China. Sichuan: cultivated 
in garden of Sichuan School of Chinese Ma- 
teria Medica, 450 m, 12 Apr. 1983, X. G. Luo 

& Z. L Yang 483053 (holotype, EMA). 

Campylandra delavayi (Franchet) M. N. Tamura, Campylandra liangshanensis (Z. Y. Zhu) M. N. 

S. Yun Liang & Turland, comb. nov. Basionym: 
Tupistra delavayi Franchet, Bull. Soc. Bot. 
France 43: 40. 1896. TYPE: China. Yunnan: 
"dans le bois k Outchay, pres de Ta kouen," 
Delavay s.n. (syntype, P). Hubei: [without lo- 
cality], Henry 5231A (syntype, P). 

Tamura, S. Yun Liang & Turland, comb. nov. 
Basionym: Tupistra liangshanensis 7j. Y. Zhu, 
in Z. Y. Zhu & J. L. Zhang, Acta Phytotax. 

Sin. 19: 521. 1981. TYPE: China. Sichuan: 
Puge, 2500 m, 12 Nov. 1978, D. Q. Li & Z. 
K Zhu 837 (holotype, EMA). 



Campylandra lichuanensis (Y. K. Yang, J. K. Wu 
& D. T. Peng) M. N. Tainura, S. Yun Liang & 
Turland, comb. nov. Basionym: Tupistra lichu- 
anensis Y. K. Yang, J. K. Wu & D. T. Peng, J. 
Wuhan Bot. Res. 9: 40. 1991. TYPE: China. 
Hubei: Lichuan County, "Che-Le, San-jlao, Yi- 
Zu," 1100 m, 10 Apr. 1987, D. T Peng 0631 
(holotype, CPU; isotype, LCDH). 

Fl. Reipuhl. Popularis Sin. 15: 249. 1978. 
TYPE: China. Yunnan: "Chao-lung," H. T Tsui 
50880 (hoh)type, PE). 

Acknoicledgment. We thank Anthony R. Brach 
(MO c/o Harvard) for help in hu-ating literature. 

Literature Cited 

tiailloii, M. H. t893. Lcs planles alliees aux Tupistra 
(suite). Rull. Mens. Sue. l.iun. IWis 2: 1113-1117. 
Campylandra longipeduiiculata (F. T. Wang & [kker, J. G. 1875. Kevision of the genera and speeies of 

S. Yun Liang) M. N. Tamura, S. Yun Liang & 

Turland, comb. nov. Basionym: Tupistra lon- 
gipedunculata F, T. Wang & S. Yun Liang, in 
F. T Wang & Tang, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 

Asparagaeeae. J. I.imi. Soe., Bot. 14: fiOH— ()32. 
lienthani, G. & J. D. Hooker. 188.3. Genera Plantaruni. 3. 

L. Hceve, Williams & Norgate. London. 
Cluin, W. Y 1934. Contributions to the flora orKwanglung 

and Soulli-Eastern China (1). Sunyatsenia 1: 209-3 1(). 

15: 249. 1978. TYPE: China. Yunnan: "Tsin- Clarke, C. B. 1890. On the plants of Kohima and Muney- 

hung," C. W. Wang 75985 (holotype, PE). 

Campylandra tui (F. T, Wang & Tang) M. N. Ta- 
mura, S. Yun Liang & Turland, comb. nov. 
Basionym: Rohdea tui F. T Wang & Tang, Bull. 
Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 7: 284. 1937. Tupistra tui 
(F. T Wang & Tang) F. T Wang & S. Yun 

Liang, in F. T. Wimg & Tang, Fl. Reipubl. Po- 
pularis Sin. 15: 14. 1978. TYPE: China. Si- 
chuan: "Pao-hsing Hsien [Baoxing Xian], 

Teng-chih-kou," 2460 m, 22 June 1933, T II 
Tu 4256 (holotype, PE). 

The holotype specimen was preserved in the her- 
barium of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, 
Peiping (Beijing), which has since been transferred 

to KUN, NAS, and PE. 

Campylandra urolepala (Handel-Mazzetti) M. N. 

Tamura, S. Yun Liang & Turland, comb. nov. 

Basionym: Rohdea urotepala Handel-Mazzetti, 
Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 

57: 272. 1920. Tupistra urotepala (Handel- 
Mazzetti) F. T Wang & Tang, Fl. Reipubl. Po- 

pore. J. Linn. Soe., B(tt. 25: 1-1 S5. 
Conran, J. G. & M. N. Tanuira. 1998. Convallariaeeae. 

Pp. 186-198 in: K. Kuhil/ki (editor). The Families and 
Genera of Vast'ular Plant.s, \\. Sprin*j;er-\'crla^, Berliti. 

Dandy, J. F. 1933. A new liliaceous plant from Kwang- 
tung. Sunyats(Miia 1: 127. 

l-.ngler, A. 1887. Liliaeeae— Asparagoideae— Convallarieae. 
Pp. 81-83 in: A. Fngler & K. Prantl (echtors). Die na- 
liirliehen Pflanzenfaniilien, 2(5). Verlag von \^ illiehn 
Engelniann, Lei[>zig. 

. 1897. Liliaceae. Pp. 71-77 in: A. Engler & K. 

Prantl (editors), Die natiirliehen Pflanzenfaniili<*n, 
Naehtriige 1. Verhig von W illiehn iMigelniann. Leij)zig. 

Franehel, M, A. 189(). Note sur Quel<|ues Liliaeees de la 
Chin** Oeciilentale. Bull. Soe. Bot. Franee 43: 37—48. 

Handel-Mazzetti, 11. 1936. Symbolae Sinieae, 7. Verlag 
von Julius Springer, \\ ien. 

Mara, H., W. T Sleam & L. H. J. Williams. 1978. An 
Fnnrneration of the Flowering Plants of N<'|>aK 1. Trust- 
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Hooker, J. D. 1802, Flora of British India. 6. L. Reeve, 


Huang, J. L. & D. Y. Hong. 1997. Pollen morphology in 
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tax. Sin. 35: 117-124, pi. 1-5. 

& H. Li. 1990. Study on the taxonomie system of 

the g(Mius Tupistra. Aeta Bot. Yunnan., Suppl. 3: 49- 

pularis Sin. 15: 14. 1978. TYPE: China. Si- Hutehinson, J 1934. The Families of Flowering Plants, 2. 

, if 1 r 1 • c T 1 19 Maenullan. London. 

chuan: in saltu prolundo teraji boso-liant>;ase, i^ i^ inn^ r r n 007 -ior -... \ r»„i .^ ^. 

' & & ' Krause, K. 1931). Liliaeeat;. Ip. zz/— 3o6 in: A. LnguT cv 

K. PraiUl (editors). Die naturlii-hen Pflanzenfaniilien, 

1733 (holotype, W). 

ca. 2700 m, 25 Apr. 1914, Handel-Mazzetti 

Campylandra verruculosa (Q. H. Chen) M. N. Ta- 
mura, S. Yun Liang & Turland, comb. nov. Bas- 

ed. 2, 15a. Verlag von Wilhelm Fngelniaun, Leipzig. 
Liang, S. Y. & M. N. Tamura. In press. Campylandra Bak- 
er and Tupistra Ker Ga\vl(T. In Z. Y. \^u <X I'. 11. Haven 
(editors). Flora of Cliina, 24. Seienee Press, Beijitig tK 
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ionym: Tupistra verruculosa Q. H. Chen, Acta Wang, F T & S. Y. Liang. 1976, Tupistra, V\). 193-197, 

Phytotax. Sin. 25: 69. 1987. TYPE: China. 

Guizhou: Pingtang, Bairu, 700 m, 13 May 1982, 
Q. //. Clien iSc J. D. Liu 1328 (holotype, HGAS). 

927-928 in: lieijing Institute of Botany, Aeademia Sin- 
iea (editor), leonographia Cormophytomni Sinieonim 5. 
Seienee Press, Beijing. 

Campylandra yunnanensis (F. T. Wang & S. Yun 
Liang) M. N. Tamura, S. Yun Liang & Turland, 

comb. nov. Basionym: Tupistra yunnanensis F. 
T Wang & S. Yun Liang, in F. T Wang & Tang, 

. 1978. Tupistra Ker-Gawl. Pp. 6-16 in 

F. T. Wang *& T. Tang (editors), Flora Reipuhlieae Po- 
pularis Sinieae, 15. Seienee Press, Beijing. 
Yamashila, J. & M. N. Tamura. In [iress. Mctleeular phy- 
logeny of the Convallaria<*eae (As[)aragales). ///.■ K. \\ il- 
son & D. Morrison (editors), Proet^edings of the Mono- 
cols 11 and Grasses III Conferenee. CSIRO, Sydney. 

A New Species of Palicourea (Rubiaceae, Psychotrieae) from 

Southern Brazil 

Charlotte M, Taylor 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

Abstract. The new species Palicourea australis usually present between pairs of secondary veins, 
C. M. Taylor is described and illustrated. This new adaxially costa prominulous and remaining vena- 
species is distinguished from R marcgravii A. St.- tion plane to a little thickened, abaxially costa 
Hilaire by its shorter corollas with dense external prominulous to prominent, secondary veins promi- 
pubescence that is confined to the tube and corolla nulous, and reticulated minor venation sparse, 
lobes with appendages or pronounced thickenings. plane to thickened; margins thinly to distinctly car- 
tilaginous, minutely ciliolsiie; petioles 3—7 mm long, 
During study of Brazilian Palicourea Aublet for glabrous to puberulous; stipules puberulous to gla- 
the "Phanerogamic Flora of Sao Paulo State" pro- brescent, persistent at least with the leaves, united 
ject, the following well-marked species was discov- around the stem into a continuous truncate sheath 
ered to be undescribed, due largely to confusion in 0.2-1 mm long, lobes narrowly triangular to some- 
the identities of previously described species. As what lanceolate, 3-7 mm long, acute to acuminate 
circumscribed by Taylor (1997), Palicourea is dis- or bidentate. Inflorescences terminal, erect, with pe- 
tinguished within the Rubiaceae by its persistent duncles 3.5-11.5 cm long; panicles shortly pyra- 
stipules that are united around the stems into a midal to somewhat corymbiform, 2.5-8.5 X 3-6 cm 
continuous sheath and bilobed in the interpetiolar excluding corollas, with 4 to 6 pairs of developed 
portion; generally colored inflorescences with the secondary axes, these often subopposite to alter- 
flowers usually pedicellate; corollas that are usually nate, with flowers pedicellate in cymules of 3 to 7; 
brighdy colored, usually five-lobed, and have well- bracts entire to ciliolate, those subtending second- 
developed tubes that are somewhat swollen at the ^ry axes triangular, 0.5^ mm long, acute, those 

base and glabrous internally except for a dense ring subtending pedicels dehoid to narrowly triangular, 
of pubescence situated just above this basal swell- o.3-l mm long, acute; pedicels l--i mm long; pe- 

ing; and drupaceous fruits with usually two py- ^uncle, axes, bracts, and pedicels puberulous to 
renes. This Neotropical genus includes about 200 glabrescent, leA; flowers distylous, with hypanthium 
species found from sea level to high montane re- cylindrical to turbinate, ca. 1 mm long, glabrous to 
gions. The species are^ typically distylous and ap- puberulous; calyx limb puberulous to usually gla- 
brous, divided nearly to base, lobes ovate to deltoid 
or shortly trilobed, 0.8-1.1 mm long, acute to cus- 

parently pollinated by hummingbirds. 

Palicourea australis C. M. Taylor, sp. nov. TYPE: • i . »• » i ' - ♦ // * u i n 

. ! pidate, entire to lacmiate; corolla tubular, yellow 

Brazil. Paran^: Mpio. Maneueirinha, Cachoei- . i j ■ i * i i u r**i n 

5^ rr 1 J 1 o • 1 "^ ^^^^ ^"" P^"*^ *^ purple on lobes, a little swollen 

ra, 6 Dec. 1989, C Hatschbach & V Nicolack 

at base, generally straight at base and in tube, ex- 

53679 (holotype, MBM; isotype, MO- . n i i i ^ ^ , -^u * * * • 

\ T-- -I temaUy densely pubescent on tube with stout tri- 

4224516). Figure 1. 

chomes 0.3-1 mm long, glabrous on lobes, inter- 

Haec species a Palicourea marcgravii eorollae tubo ex- nally glabrous except for a sparsely pilosulous ring 

lus velutino-pubest'cnle et lobulis irurassationes projec- ca. 1 mm wide at ca. 2 mm above base, tube 8-11 

turasve abaxiales eerentihus distineuitur. v o c /i ^^ i u * ' i i c o i 

^ ^ X ca. Z.5— 4 mm, lobes triangular, 1.5—2 mm long. 
Flowering 0.7 m tall, to 2 m tall; stems terete, acute, thickened and shortly involute adaxially at 
glabrous to puberulous. Leaves paired; blades ellip- apex, abaxially with a thickened and rounded ap- 
tic to narrowly so, 6-17 X 2-6.5 cm, at apex acute pendage to 0.5 mm long; anthers in short-styled 
to somewhat acuminate, at base acute to cuneate, form ca. 4 mm long and partially exserted, in long- 
papyraceous, adaxially and abaxially glabrous to styled form ca. 3 mm long and positioned ca. % of 
minutely puberulous, often more densely so along length of corolla tube above base; stigmas in short- 
costa; secondary veins 6 to 10 pairs, extending to styled form ca. 2 mm long and positioned ca. % of 
near margins but not uniting with them, with l(to length of corolla tube above base, in long-styled 
3) weak to well-developed intersecondary veins form ca. 1 mm long and exserted; disk ca. 1-1.2 

NovoN 10: 161-163. 2000. 



Kigiirc I. Pdlironrra ansfrdlis C M. Taylor, basrd on Lindeman &: de Haas 3796 (NY). — A. Branch with infloresconce. 
— B. Flower hii(i hi'foif^ nnthesis. — C. I' lower at anthesis. B, (' to same scale. 

mm high, bipartite. Infruclescences similar to iiiflo- surfaces, petioles S-30 mm long, ealyx lobes obtuse 

resceiK't*s or with axes often more spreading, color and entire to shortly ciliolate, and corolla tubes 11— 

not observed; /ru/Y ovoid, ca. 4.5 X 5 mm, some- 14 mm long. Palicourea australis and R nitidella 

what flattened laterally, glabrous or glabrescent, are completely allopatric in their distributions. This 

red; pyrenes with 3 to 5 low rounded longitudinal new species is also similar to Palicourea marcgra- 

ridges and the surfaces verruculose. [Subg. Pali- vii, which is found from southern Venezuela to Sao 

courea, sect. Crocothyrsae Crisebach, series Cro- Paulo and Minas Cerais States in Brazil and thus 

ccae (Muller Argoviensis) K. Schum., subser. Sub- also allopatric. Palicourea marcgravii can be ilis- 

cymosae (Muller Argoviensis) C. M. Taylor] 

Distribution., phenology., and habitat. In moisi 

tinguished from P. australis by its stipule lobes 1 

3 mm long; corollas that 

moderately to densely 

Araucaria, pine, galler>wnd lakeside forests at pubendous to short-pilosulous on the exterior with 

700-1000 m. Collected m flower in December, Jan- ^^''^ pubescence snndar on the tube atid lobes; eo- 

uary, and Februar), in fruit in Jarmary. 

rolla tubes 12—18 mm long; corolla lobes 2.5—3 mm 


This species is distinguished by its calyx lobes, ^o^^g ^'^at are not thickened or appendaged abaxi- 

laciniate or shortly trilobcd, corol- ^^^Y'^ ^'^^ ^^^its 5.5-7 X 5.5-8 mm. Palicourea aus- 


are oncn 


las that arc externally densely pubescent with stout ^^''^'' ^^^^ incorrectly been treated previously under 
trichomes on the tube but, in contrast, glabrous on the name 'Talicourea platypodina Muell. Arg." 
the lobes, corolla lobes with pronounced thicken- (e.g., Smith & Downs, 1956), but that name is a 

ings or knobs on the abaxial portion, and clearly 

synonym of P marcgravii [Glaziou 8739, isotype of 

bipartite disk. Its infrageneric classification is P- platypodina, K, photo of destroyed isotype in B 

based on the system of Taylor (1997). This new (F Rockefeller neg. #623) MO]. Thus the geograph- 

species is similar in corolla characters to Palicou- ic distribution given by Smith and Downs appli 

rea nitidella (Muller Argoviensis) Standley of the to the combined ranges of these two species, at 


Amazon basin; R nitidella can be distinguished is therefore inaccurate. Palicourea australis is one 
from P. australis by its secondary leaf veins that are ol the southernmost species oi this genus, and the 
arranged in 8 to 17 pairs and plane on tht^r adaxial specific epithet refers to this southern range. 

Volume 10, Number 2 


Palicourea australis from Brazil 


Few fruiting collections have been seen; these 874 {\\\\(A]): R]o (hSanio, Schwacke 1379 {RB); Sao Jose 

may have been confused with those of Palicourea '''''' Pinhais, vicinity of Cnritiha. along Rte. BR-376, Tsu- 

. 7 TT -K L- V • .1 8^^ ^^ ^l' ri-2359 (MO, W). Santa Catarina: without 

croceoides Hamilton which is apparently sympatric ^^^y^^^^ j^.^n^^^ ^ ,, (RB-40I62); Rio do Bugre, Ca^ador, 

with R australLS. Palicourea croceoides is easily dis- Klein 3419 (NY); Campo Novo, Mafra, Klein 3823 (NY); 
tinguished by its externally glabrous corollas. 

In addition to the specimens listed below, two 
collections {Brito 105, R; Anonymous s,n., RB- 

183169) that may be from Rio de Janeiro have also haiopoii^ Rdi^A Kl^^^^ TNY);\TTpiI'"Lajesr'^^^ 

been seen, but neither of them has a more precise Iween Palriiriras and I.ajcs, Smith & Klein 8071 (NY, R); 
collecting locality indicated. The lack of collections 
of Palicourea australis with a clearly indicated col- 

ao Lestp romo ao Oeste fla Seira Geral, Midler 72 (R); ao 
Lcslc da Serra Geral (Rio Mampuhas['^ 'I'^g-D^ Midler 173 
(R); ERF km 145, Ilaiopolis, Reitz & Klein 11474 (NY); 
Mamnibub, Cainpo Novo. Reitz & Klein 14245 (NY); Itaio. 

mpio. Papanduva, N of the Serra Geral on Estrada de 
Rodagem Federal Km 178 ERF, Smith & Klein 8404 (K, 
NY); ni|)io. Campo Ere, 6 km W of Campo Ere, 26°22'S, 


lectmg locality in this state, together with the ap- 530^^,,^, 5,,^.^,^ ^ j.;^,.^^ ^^^^^ (^^. J^.^ CatanJuvas! 
parent absence of this new species from Sao Paulo 17-19 km W of Joat^aha, ca. 27°03'S, 54°45'W, Smith & 
state, makes its occurrence in Rio de Janeiro State Klein 13942 (MO, U IS); mjiio. I'oiite Serrado, near Ponte 

Serrado, 94 km W of Joa^aha. 26°52'S, 52°05'W, Smith 
& Klein 1 1006 (NY); mpio. Agua Doee, 18 km S of Fiio 

Paratypes. BRAZIL. Parana: Palmeira, Ceccatto & ^Y"' ^"c'' " -"^^^1^. ' hS^'^tS ^^J^^^''^^" i^^'w "'^ T 

Horta Barbosa 28 (RB); Pon.a Grossa (Lagoa Dourada), '""'^ ^7'^, ?Jlf%uri u^r^ ' ^ ^^'^ ^' ^"''" 

^ ^ ^' mann et at. 1725 (tiULH, UEC). 

Acknowledgments, I thank R. E. Gereau for 
preparation of the Latin diagnosis; the curators of 

Dombrouski & Ncto 7838 (NY); t^iita Grossa in valle flu- 
minensis, Onsen 2516 ([{); Serrinha. Onsen 7305 (K), Pi- 
raquara. Onsen 7793 (l^M, NY); Desvio Ribas, Onsen 
10879 (MO); Ponla Grossa opp.. Onsen 15984 (MO): mpio. 

Bocaiuva do Sul, Passa Viiite, Hatschhach 1081 7 (UEC)! ^^^' ^^' ^\ ^^' ^^^ ^'^'^ ^^ ^"'^ ^' ^^PP^ ^^ ^ ^^^ 
mpio. Palmeira, Fazenda Santa Amelia, Hatschhach & loan of specimens; the "Phanerogamic Flora of Sao 

Fontella 17685 (RB); Sao Joao do Triunfo, Hatschhach Paulo State" project and the FAPESP (Funda^ao 

17711 (NY); mpio. Sao Mateus do Sul, Vargem Grande, J^ Amparo h Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo) for 
Hatschhach 23254 (RB); mi)Io. Ipiranea, Rio Capivari. i • .- i i i i , r i t^ -i t 

N.,fc.^hh.^i, '?^Qii t\]y/\ • r . 1 CI logistical help and support tor travel to Brazil; J. 

tiatschbacn Jooll (NYj; mpio. Lontenda, Sernnha. . . , 

Hatschhach 30644 (NY); Ponla Grossa, Hoehne s.n. (SP- H. Kirkbride, Jr., G. Hatschhach, and D. Zappi for 
23300); mpio. Sao Mateus do Sul, BR-476, Km 152, Kra- advice and information; and in particular S. L. 

povickas & Cristohal 39664 (K); mpio. Sao Jose dos Pin- 
haes, Kummrow 763 (MO); mpio. Contenda, near 
Conlenda, 25°40'S, 49°35'W, iMndrum 2446 (NY); SE of 
Campo Novo, ca. 50 km W of Laranjeiras do Sul, IJnde- 
man & de Haas 2905 (K, WIS); ca. 12 km N of Curitiba, 
Undeman & de Haas 3796 (NY); r*an|ue Santa Maria near 
Tamandare, 15 km N of Curitiba. Lindeman & de Haas 
3981 (NY); Catanduvas-Camargopolis. Pereira & Hatsch- 

Jung-Menda^olli for encouragement and invaluable 
help in the study oi Palicourea in southeastern Bra- 

Literature Cited 

Smith, L. B. & \{. J. Downs. 1956. Resumo prellminar das 
Rubiaeeae de Santa Catarina. Sellowia 7: 1-86. 

bach 7771 (RB); Ponto Grossa, Vila Velha, Lagoa Duura- Taylor, C. M. 1997. Conspectus of the genus Paliconrea 

da, Pereira & Hatschhach /?//7 (RB); mpio. Irali, Horesla (Rubiaeeae: PsyLhulrieae) with the description of some 

Nacional de Irati, 25^30'S, 50M0'W. Rauscher 386 (W); new species from Ecuador and Colombia. Ann. Missouri 

mpio. Ponta Grossa. Buraco do Padre, Ribas & Cordeiro Bot. Gard. 84: 224-262. 

Galvezia leucantha subsp. porphyrantha (Scrophulariaceae), a New 

Shrub Snapdragon Endemic to Santiago Island, 

Galapagos, Ecuador 

Alan Tye and Heinke Jdger 

Department of Plant and Invertebrate Sciences, Charles Darwin Research Station, 
Isla Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador. Mailing address: CDRS, Casilla 17-01-3891, 

Quito, Ecuador. atye@fcdan\^ and 

AfiSTM VCT. We describe a distinctive subspecies cantha of the western Galapagos islands Isabela 

of Galvezia leucantha from the island of Santiago and Fernandina, and Galvezia leucantha 

(San Salvador), Galapagos, Ecuador. The new sub- bescens Wiggins (1968) on Rabida Island. Galvezia 

species, Galvezia leucantha subsp. porphyrantha leucantha subsp. leucantha lias white flowers and 

Tye & H. Jager, is distinguished principally by its largely glabrous stems, leaves, pedicels, and caly- 

purple flowers and lack of pubescence. All three ces, while Galvezia leucantha suhi>p, pubescens was 

subspecies, and the species as a whole, have small differentiated by the pink interior of the corolla and 

and in some cases declining populations restricted densely glandular-puberulent young twigs, leaves, 

to eroded scoria cliffs, and are considered Critically pedicels, and calyces (Wiggins, 1968; see also Wig- 

Endangered (CR) by lUCN criteria. 

gins & Porter, 1971). Galvezia leucantha subsp. pu- 
bescens was also reported to have shorter pedicels. 


Resimen. Describimos una subespecie distintiva ^^^j ^^ j^^ dimoq.hic in flower color (Elisens, 1989), 
de Galvezia leucantha de la Isla Santiago (San Sal- ^^^fi^^^i^g ^^e statement in Wiggins and Porter 
vador), GaUpagos, Ecuador. La nueva subespecie, ^^gj^^ ^^^^ ^^^ j^^^^.^.^^, ^^f ^j^^ ^^^^jj^ -^ 
Galvezia leucantha subsp. porphyrantha Tye & H. 
Jager, se distingue principalmente por sus flores 
purj^ureas y su falta de pubcscencia. Las tres su- 

tiines" reddish or pink. 

In addition to the two named subspecies, Elisens 

(1989) recognized a third, unnamed form from San- 
bespecies, y la especie en sf, tienen pohlaciones ^j^^^^ ^g^^^ Salvador) Island. Two populations from 
pequeftas, en ciertos casos en dechnacion, restrin- g^^tj^g^^ ^^ ^jj ,^j i^m, j^ recent black lava flows, 
gidas a acantilados de escoria erosionados, y se ^^^ ^^^j^^j ^^^ ^y^^^^^^ ^^^gy), ^ne at James Bay 

En Pehgro Crftic^o de Exlmcion (CR) ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ .^^^ ^j^^ ^^^^^ j^^^^^^, p^^j^^^ Ladilla 

(southwest coast). Elisens compared several char- 
acters between the populations on Santiago (two). 



segiln los criterios de la UICN. 

The genus Galvezia Doinbey (Scrophulariaceae: Rabida, Isabela (two), and Fernandina. He also ex- 

Antirrhineae) comprises five species of the arid amined isozyme variation at 26 loci, of which 24 

coastal zone of Peru, continental Ecuador, and the were invariant among all six populations, and the 

Galapagos Islands (Elisens, 1989, 1992). The sin- other two had only two alleles each, with variation 

gle Galapagos species, the Galapagos Shrub Snap- present in only one population (Rabida and James 

dragon, G. leucantha Wiggins (1968), is endemic to Bay) for each of these two loci. Further, the two 

the islands, occurring in restricted cliff habitats. It populations with polymorphic loci contained few 

has a distinct floral morphology and pollination bi- heterozygoles. This lack of gt^netic variability has 

ology when compared with its red-flowered, hum- been found in other Galapagos end<Mnic plants 

mingbird-pollinaled mainland relatives. Elisens (Rick & Fobes, 1975; D. Anderson, pers. comm. 

(1989) drew attention to the paler flowers and short- 1999), as in other radiative groups on oceanic is- 

cies was pollinated by nocturnal moths or 

er corolla tube of G. leucantha. Wiggins (1968) sug- lands (e.g., Lowrey & Crawford, 1985; Crawford et 
gested that the white flower of the Galapagos spe- al., 1987; T. Lowrey, pers. comm. 1999). 

Compared with the lack of intrapopulation vari- 
butterflies, although Elisens (1989) reported polli- ation in genetic and morphological characters, in- 
nation by the endemic carpenter bee Xylocopa dar- terpopulation morphological variation is marked 

and consistent (Elisens, 1989), which probably re- 
Two subspecies of G, leucantha have so far been fleets founder effects and genetic drift in the very 
formally recognized: Galvezia leucantha subsp. leu- small populations (mostly fewer than 50 plants). 

NovoN 10: 164-168. 2000. 


Volume 10, Number 2 

Tye & Jager 

New Shrub Snapdragon from Galapagos 


Recent fieldwork on Santiago Island has enabled 

Etymology. We choose the name porphyrantha 

the re-examination of the populations previously to correspond with the descriptive names of the oth- 

studied by Elisens (1989), as well as another pop- er taxa, and based on the most obvious difference 

ulation in the east-central part of the island. The from them. The full name of the subspecies is thus 

new material confirms the distinctiveness of the tt 
Santiago populations, which we name: 



Galvezia leucantha subsp. porphyrantha Tye & 

Holotype, This specimen bears the original 

H. Jager, subsp. nov. TYPE: Ecuador. Gala- specimen number CDRS 9338B assigned by the 
pagos, Santiago Island: red hill in Bahia Lad- Herbarium of the Charles Darwin Research Station 

ilia, 0^18'5"S, 90°49'40"W, 13 Nov. 1998, H. 

(CDS), before being deposited at the California 

Jager & A. Tye, CDRS 9338 (holotype, CAS; Academy of Sciences (CAS). It is a fertile specimen 

bearing flowers and fruit, but it does not show the 

isotypes, CAS, CDS). 

Haec subspecies a subsp. leucantha corolla extus ma- beine small 

full range of variation in leaf size, with most leaves 

gentea, intus striis roseis albisque ornata atquc corollae 
lahii superioris lohulis apice albis differt. 

hotypes. 1. Original CDS number CDRS 
9338C, deposited at CAS. This specimen is from 

Shrub, much branched at base, with branches the same plant as the holotype, and is a branch 
suberect, horizontal to (on cliffs) pendent, to 1.5 m with copious foliage but no flowers. Collection de- 
long. Leaves opposite, blades up to 5 X 5.2 cm, tails are as for the holotype. 2. CDRS 9338A, de- 
elliptic-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, broadly cu- posited at CDS. This is a fertile branch bearing 
neate to rounded at base, acute at apex, entire, f^uit, from the same plant as the holotype. Collec- 
bright green, glabrous, occasionally sparsely pu- tion details are as for the holotype. 

berulent; petioles 5-7 mm long. Flowers axillary. 

Paratypes. All paratype specimens are deposited at 

Pedicels slender, 10-17 mm but lengthemng to 25 cDS. ECUADOR. Galapagos, Santiago Island: Bahfa 

mm in fruit, glabrous, spreading-ascending, bent Ladilla, 28 June 1999, /I. 7>e CZ)ff.S 9-/64; James Bay, II 

abruptly at apex; calyx with cup of fused basal part Nov. 1998, H. Jager & A. Tye CDRS 9337A, 9337R; James 

of sepals delineated from sepal lobes by groove, ^"'l^^r.^^l' }^^^:^ 
lobes acute to obtuse, 1.5—2.5 mm long, glabrous, 
but slightly puberulent along margins; corolla 6. 


Characteristics of the three subspecies are com- 
12.5 mm long, outside puberulent, reddish purple, pared in Table 1. The foliage, young twigs, pedi- 
inside irregularly striated pink and white, tips of eels, and calyces of all populations of Galvezia leu- 
superior petal lobes white, corolla tube 4.5-6.5 X cantha subsp. porphyrantha are glabrous or only 
1.5 mm, slightly ampliate, the limb bilabiate, su- sparsely pubescent, as in Galvezia leucantha subsp. 
perior lip 2—5.5 mm, bilobed about halfway to base, leucantha, and unlike Galvezia leucantha subsp. 
lobes cucuUate to spreading-ascending, puberulent, puhescens. The flowers in all Santiago populations 
lower lip trilobate, 1.5-4 mm long, base of lower of the new subspecies are externally magenta, with 
lip folded, glandular-puberulent, sinuses between white seen only on the superior lobes, and inter- 
lobes ca. 2 mm deep, central lobe cucuUate; pos- nally striated pink and white, as seen in the pho- 
terior pair of stamens ca. 5 mm long, filaments gla- tograph presented by Elisens (1989: fig. 1). 

brous; anterior stamen pair longer, ca. 7 mm, fila- 

Some other apparent difference's between sub- 

ments glabrous distally, glandular-papillate basally; species have been suggested, based on the few col- 
anthers ca. 1 mm long; fifth stamen sterile, inserted lections then available, which do not appear to be 
ca. 1.5 mm above base of tube, ca. 2 mm long; supported by the current larger collections includ- 
capsules subglobose, 3-5 mm long; seeds 0.5—0.7 ing the new material. Leaf size does not reliably 
mm long, subtruncate, with 4 to 7 cristate-echinate permit discrimination between subspecies: al- 
longitudinal ridges, black. A photograph of the though the leaves of Galvezia leucantha subsp. por- 
flower of the new subspecies appears in Elisens phyrantha are larger in some specimens than the 

(1989: fig. 1). 

largest mentioned by Wiggins and Porter (1971) for 

Galvezia leucantha subsp. leucantha, leaves as 

We assign this form the rank of subspecies, since large as this were found in material from Isabela 

it is a morphologically recognizable and well-de- (Wiggins, 1968). Pedicels of all subspecies appear 

fined form, and occurs in a geographical area al- quite variable in length (Table 1], obscuring th 

lopatric with the other forms. 

differences that were suggested by Elisens (1989) 


No von 

Table 1. ('luiraclfTislics of ihree siihsperies of Calrezia Icurantha. Data are from \^'iggins (1908) (W), Wiggins & 
Porter (1071) (WT: only for characters lliat HilTcr from VV), Klisens (1989) (E), and the curreni study (T). For flower 
tncasLirctncnts listed luulrr "T" (made hy AT), sample sizes are: G. Icucantha subsp. leucantha n = 6 (4 from Isabela, 
2 from Fcrnandina); G. Icucantha suhsp. porphyrantha n = 4; G. leucantha su\)sp. puhescens n = 4. 

subsf). Icucantha, 
Isal)cla and Fernandina 


Pedicel l(Migtli 
(mm, u\ fl(nver) 

Sepal h-nglb (mm) 

Corolla length (mm) 

Corolla tube length (nnn) 

Superior corolla lip lengtl 


Inferior corolla li[> length 

[\one to sparse (W, F, T) 
V\ bile (W, L, T) 

8-12 (W) 
13-24 (F) 

1-4-2;^ (Isabela) (T) 
8-14 (Fernandina) (T) 
4-6 (\^') 
2-3 (T) 
10-12 (WP*) 
7.5-9 (T) 
5.5-6.S (F) 
8-10 (W) 
4.5-S (V) 



3-3.5 (WP*) 
2-4 (T) 
2 (W ) 

3.5-4 (WP*) 
1.5-2,5 fT) 

subsp. porphyrantha^ 


subsp. pnhcsccns, 

None to sparse (F. T) 

Dense, glandular (W, E, T) 

W bite, with violet on "up- AX bile, inside sometimes 

per two fused petals" (p 

reddish or pink (AX P). 

102) or "lube" (p. 103, Dimorphic: most white. 

photo [>. 99) (F) 
Extemall) magenta (all 
|>etals), with tips of su- 
perior lobes while (T) 
12.5-14 (F) 
10-17 (T) 

VC17 rarely violet-tinged 


10-12.5 (E) 
10-17 (T) 

1.5-2.5 en 

2-2.5 (T) 

0.5-12.5 (T) 

8-9 (T) 

5.5.-^.5 (E) 
4.5-C>.5 (T) 

5-5.5 (F) 

4-5 (T) 

2-5.5 (T) 


1.5-4 (T) 

2.5-3 (T) 

* Characters given b} WP for G Icucantha sul)sp. Icucantha may include specimens of subspecies /)r>r/>/?vrnf(//?a. 

In addition to the Santiago material (juoted above, data for the other subspecies under "T" in this table are from 

specimens in CDS. 

to exist between populatiou.s. The sepals oidilvezia 
Icucantha subsp. leucantha appear to be shorter 
than recorded by Wiggins (1968) and Wiggins and 
Porter (1971). They are not as different from the 
presumed ancestral G. fruticosa Gmelin as sug- 
gested by Wiggins (1968), and there is no signifi- 
cant difference between Galapagos populations. 
The major point arising from the flower measure- 
ments in Table 1 is that, despite earlier suggestions 

of differences, the populations from all islands 

seem more or less similar with respect to the si 

Kkv to ihk Thukk Si iisi-kciks ok G\f.\f-:/i\ t.rj cwtha 

la. Dense, glandular pubescence on young branch- 
es, pedicels, and calyces 

. . . G. Icucantha subsp. puhcscens (tiabida Island) 
lb. Pubescence none or sparse. 

2a. Flowers white 

G. Icucantha subsp. Icucantha (Isabela, Fer- 
2b. Flowers rcildish pnrple 

C. Icucantha sul)sp. porphyrantha (Santiago) 


of both leaves and flowers. All flower measurements Most Gahezia have long, tubular, red flowers 

are based on small samph^s, and the differenc:es adapted for hummingbird pollination (Elisens & 


between subspecies and populations are not statis- Fre^eman, 1988). Elisens (1989) suggested that, de- 
tically significant. The corolla of the Santiago sub- spite the greater age of Rabida island, the Santiago 
specit\s, when fully open, may average longer than populations, being morphologically closest to main- 
tbat of most other popidations, but further data land relatives, may be older, with the whiter-flow- 
would be required to confirm this. If so, then the ered populations on the western Galapagos islands 
new subspecies would most closely resemble main- and Rabida being derived. The color of the fl 
land Galvezia^ with their long, tubular, red corollas, of the three subspecies of C leucantha suggests an 
in both flower color and form. evolutionary and geographic progression irom a sin- 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Tye & Jager 

New Shrub Snapdragon from Galapagos 


gle colonization event, which perhaps initially es- species is also at risk from volcanic eruption, and 

tablished a now-extinct population on an eastern it is likely that suitable habitat, at least on Santiago 

island (in support of Elisens, 1992). Divergence and possibly also on Fernandina and Isabela, may 

may have occurred from the original founder pop- have been reduced by new lava flows in the last 

ulation, in two different directions on Santiago and 200 years. 

Rabida, since the pubescence of the Rabida pop- The Santiago populations are all small. In April 

ulation is more similar to the state in mainland G. 1999 there were about 50 plants at Bahfa Ladilla 

fruticosa, whereas the Santiago subspecies is most and one plant at the unnamed crater in "Zona D." 

similar to mainland species in flower color and pos- The site at James Bay consists of two old red cinder 

sibly floral structure. Both of these subspecies thus hills surrounded by a more recent black lava flow 

retain primitive but different characteristics. Pop- !„ December 1999, the James Bay population com- 

ulations furthest from the mandand (on the youn- prf^ed about 80 plants (including seedlings): the 

gest islands) have diverged the most from the pu- i^^ger hill supported about 70. with the remaining 

bescent, red-flowered, mainland taxa, having both jq on the smaller. The larger hill is also the site of 

glabrous foliage and the palest white flowers. ^wo plants of the Critically Endangered Santiago 

Galvezia leucantha has floral nectar characteris- ^r^A^r^^ir. <:^^7^.;^ ^/^ # / -j a *. * * 

-, .1.1 . n endemic bcalesia atractyloides Arnott var. atracty- 

tic ol hummingbird-pollinated flowers, accordine; to /,,■ 7^, (\ f^^^ ^ r u- u »u- . u .1 

T.,. . J^ ^ /-.^^^^ m, . , loides (Asteraceae), tor which this appears to be the 

hlisens and rreeman (1988). This may not indicate 1 • • •* i? n • .1 j- r 

. , - . . - , ^ only remaining site. Following the discovery of 

a particularly recent origin for the species. Most .v . i ^ * r .u i mi • i i- ' 1 

1 , ,,. , , . r ^ r - , 1 these two plants, most of the hill, including the 

other bee-pollinated relatives of Ga/?;ezia also have ^^cc u- 1 .1 r^ 1 • 1 o 1 • 

, . . ^ , . 1 . , 1.. , c^itts on which the Galvezia and Scalesia taxa are 

nectar characteristic ol huinminc;bird-pollinated r 1 i 1 1 r r . 

a /T71. p T- inoof 1 ■ 1 . found, was surrounded by a goat-proof fence, in 

flowers (Llisens & rreeman, 1988) rather implyins; t^ u inno rpi . . . ^ , 

^ r 7 & December 1998. This may permit expansion of the 

Galvezia population and should al least reduce its 

risk of disappearance. The site at Bahia Ladilla is 

similar, and formerly carried a small population of 

Scalesia atractyloides. The latter is now extinct 

that nectar sugar composition is relatively invariant 
in the South American Antirrhininae. Eli 


(1989) further showed that G. leucantha was self- 
compatible, although cross-pollination within and 
between populations gave higher levels of seed set 

AUi.^.,^u ^ u ™ *ui-* • • • 1 1 there, although plants from that population are in 

Although selt-compatibility is common in island 1 • ■ i ^ 

floras, it is, in the case of Qdvezia, probably a ^^^Itivation at the Copenhagen Botanical Garden (0. 
primitive condition of the genus, as its mainland "^"'""" * "; ^d^ersen, pers. comm. 1999). The 
relatives are also self-compatible (Elisens, 1989). Ga/.ezm population is at present unprotected ex- 

cept by its ability to grow on vertical cliffs out of 

the reach of goats. The third population, at Zona 
D, is in a small crater, of old red scoria layered 



Given its restricted habitat, which comprises ^^^^ ^^^^\U where the only two known remaining 

eroding, scoria cliffs that are the weathered rem- P^^^^^ ""^ ^^^ ^*^^'' ^^"^^y ^^ Scalesia atractyloides, 

nants of comparatively old formations, and its pres- ^^^' ' 

ence on only four islands, the species is and always ^his site was fenced in 1997, which may enabl 

will be naturally rare. However, since the discovery ^^^ populations of these two species there to in- 

of Galapagos almost 500 years ago, the plant has C'^'^^se. 

come under threat from introduced species, pri- ^^^ critically small size of all populations of G. 

marily large mammalian herbivores. Fernandina leucantha, and the recent reduction of the popu- 

and Rabida islands are currently free of such ani- lations on Isabela and Santiago (Elisens, 1989, 
mals. Fernandina has never had them, and the few P^^^- f>bs.), result in the species as a whole meriting 
goats that were present on Rabida in the 1970s ^^^ lUCN (1994) classification Critically Endan- 
were finally eradicated in 1977. Even though Gal- gered (= CR), by criterion C2a. Gixlvezia leucantha 
vezia leucantha has probably always been restricted subsp. pubescens of Rabida is under no current 
to scoria cliffs, it may have been more common and grazing threat but qualifies as CR (D) by virtue of 
widely distributed on Santiago and Isabela in the its tiny population (ca. 36 plants in December 
past. Both of these islands now have large popu- 
lations of goats and donkeys, and Galvezia is now leucantha qualifies as CR (Bl, B2c, B2e) as it is 
found virtually exclusively on those parts of the under severe threat from goats and donkeys on Is- 
cliffs that are out of the reach of such animals. On 

these islands it is absent from gentler scoria slopes tha qualifies as CR (Bl, B2c, B2e, C2a) given it 

similar to those on which it occurs on Rabida. The recent declines. 





Achwwledgmerits. Ana Mireya Guerrero con- l'^*^ ^" K. M. Uibanska (editor). nifferc..tialiun rallerns 

. ,, . 1 ■ 1 1 r 1 I 1 c .• TYT in Hit^hcr Plants. Academic Press, New lurk. 

genially assisted with the fieldwork on Santiago. We j.,.^^^^^^ ^, j ^^^3,^ ^^^^^,;^. ^^^^.^^.^^^ ^^^^^ ^^.^i,,,;,,,, ,,f ,j^^ 

Galapagos shrub snapdragon. Nat. Ccogr. Res. S: 98— 


— \ 1992. Genetic divergence In Gulvezia (Scrophu- 

lariaceae): Evolutionary and bioge()gra[)liic relation- 
ships among South AnnTican and Galapagos species. 

Anu^r. J. Bol. 79: 198-206. 
& C. E. Freeman. 1988. Floral nectar sugar com- 
position and pollinator type among new world giniera in 
tribe Antirrhineae (Scrophnlariaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 7S: 

97 1 -978. 

thank Wayne Elisens and Conley McMullen for en- 
couraging us to publish this note, and Kerry Ber- 
ringer, Victoria Hollowell, Conley McMullen, and 
another reviewer for comments on a dnift. Wayne 
Elisens kindly provided literature and comments, 
Karl Campbell gave us information on goats on Ra- 
bida, and Ivdn Aldaz provided information on the 
status of the Galvezia population at Zona D. Field- 
work was financed by the Frankfurt Zoological So- lUCN. 1994. lUCN Red List Categories. lUCN, (dand. 

ciety and the British Governments Darwin Initia- Lowrey, T. K. & I). J. Crawford. 1985. AUozyme diver- 
gence and evolution in Trlnunolopttini (Compositae— As- 

tereae) on the Hawaiian islands. Sysl. Bol. 10: 64-72. 
Rick, C. M. & J. F. Fobes. 1975. Allo/.ymes of Caldpagos 

tomatoes: Polymoqihism, geographic dislrihution. and 

affinities. Evohition 29: 443^57. 
Wiggins, I. L. 1968. A new species and subspecies of 

Galrezia from tlie Galapagos islands, Occas. Pap. Calif. 

Acad. Sci. 65: 1-7. 

& D. M. Porter. 1971. Flora of th<^ Galapagos Is- 

tive for Biodiversity Conservation. This paper is 
contribution immber 563 of the Charles Darwin Re- 
search Station. 

Literature Cited 

Crawford. D. J., R. Wlutkus & T. F. Stuessy. 19H7. Plant 
evolution and speciation on oceanic islands. Pp. 183- 

lands. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford. 

Raphionacme sylvicola (Apocynaceae, Periplocoideae), a New 

Species from Zambia 

Hendrik / T Venter"^ and Rudolf L Verhoeven 

Department of Botany and Genetics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, 
Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa.; 

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. 

Abstract. Raphionacme sylvicola is recognized 

by its chmbing habit, long-petioled leaves that are habitant of woods. 

large, soft, and thin-textured, and flowers with tri- 

of Raphionacme. The epithet ''sylvicola'' meanis "in- 



ment is strap-shaped and bifid, with the lateral seg- 
ments subulate and fused to the filament bases. 
Raphionacme sylvicola resembles /?. monteiroae 
(Oliver) N. E. Brown and R, fianaganii Schlechter 
in the climbing habit and flowers. Raphionacme is 
the largest genus in the Periplocoideae and consists 
of geophytic herbs with a few climbers that inhabit 
savanna, grassland, and semi-desert scrub. The oc- 
currence of this new climbing species in meso- 
phytic forest is thus unc^ommon and noteworthy. 

Material and Methods 

An Olympus Stereo Microscope was used to 
study the external morphology of the new species. 
As no fresh, or spirit, material was available, one 
flower from each of the two Merello et al. 962 (K, 
MO) specimens was rehydrated and examined. For 
light microscopy (LM), pollen from these flowers 
was acetolyzed according to Erdtmans (1960) 
method, mounted in glycerine jelly, and sealed with 
paraffin wax. Samples were examined using a Zeiss 
photomicroscope. All measurements were made 

with the light microscope. For scanning electron 

During a recent visit to the Kew Herbarium (K), microscopy (SEM), pollen was acetolyzed, air-dried 

the first author found a specimen that resembled on stubs, coated with gold, and examined under a 

Raphionacme Harvey in floral structure, but it Jeol Winsem 6400 microscope at 10 kV. For trans- 

could not be identified as belonging to one of the 

mission electron microscopy (TEM), the rehydrated 

known species. This specimen was collected by a pollen was fixed in 1% osmium tetroxide, stained 
MO team in northern Zambia. What makes the with 0.5% uranyl acetate, dehydrated in ethyl al- 
specimen unique is its uncommon habit and habi- cohol, and embedded in Spurr's low-viscosity resin. 

Sections were cut with a glass knife, stained with 



Raphionacme is a large genus, and the majority uranyl acetate followed by lead citrate, and exam- 

of its species are herbaceous geophytes from drier ined with a Philips CM 100 microscope at 60 kV. 
habitats such as semi-desert scrub, savanna, and 

grassland. Only a few species are climbers, but RESULTS 
none exhibit the soft, thin-textured leaves of the 
new species, R. sylvicola, which was collected in a 
forest, probably wet, near a waterfall. Although it The most common tetrad arrangement is rhom- 

shows relationship to the other climbers by its hah- boidal (Fig. lA, B), but tetragonal and decussate 

it, it remains a unique Raphionacme species, par- arrangements also occur. The rhomboidal tetrads 

ticularly by its leaves and the structure of the co- vary from 70 to 85 (length) X 56-73 (width) ^m 

rona in the flower. with an average of 77 X 63 /im. Individual tetrad 

Raphionacme, with 37 species, is the largest ge- grains have 8-14 pores 

nus in the Periplocoideae; it is widespread over Af- 

The pollen wall is typical of that of the other 

rica and has one species in Arabia. As can be ex- Raphionacme species (Verhoeven & Venter, 1988). 

pected, such a large genus is rather polymorphic The exine is smooth and consists of an outer distal 

and is adapted to a variety of environmental con- stratum (tectum) subtended by a granular stratum 

ditions in savanna, grassland, and dry scrubland. consisting of granules of unequal size (Fig. IC). The 

This new species represents a new niche, namely inner walls separating the Individual grains of the 

the mesophytic forest, for the genus and contributes tetrad have the same structure as the exterior wall, 

to our knowledge concerning the survival strategies Wall bridges (Fig. ID, arrowhead) consisting of in- 

NovoN 10: 169-174. 2000. 


No von 





Figure I. Raphionacmc sylrirola VenXrv & \{. L. Vcrhoeven. — A. Rliomboidal letrad (SEM). 

— B. Rlu)nilK>i(lal tetrad 

(LM). — C. Section of jxilleii wall showing the te<liirn (l). granular stratum (g). and inline (i), — D. IruKT wall, with wall 
hridges (arro\Nliea<r). consisting of granular stratum and intiuc. Scale hars: lA = 10 ^ni. IH — 50 /xni, IC = 1 /xin. 
10-5 ^m. All Iroin Mrrello el uL 9()2 (MO). 

tine and granular stratum occur between adjacent TAXONOMY 

grains. The intiue is well developed. 


The leaves are dorsivenlral and hypostomatic 

with radiating striae around sloniala (Fig. 2A). The 
cuticle on the adaxial epidermis is randomly ori- 
ented with striae ruiiiiiiig across anticlinal walls 

(Fig. 2B). Trichotnes (Fig. 2C, D) are multicellular Horali R. rnonlnntar et R. Jldnnganii similis, sed ah eis 

Raphionaeine sylvicola Venter & R, L. Verhoev- 
en, sp. nov. TYPE: Zambia. Kaputa Region, 
Nsumbu (Sumbu) National Forest, Nkamba 
Bay Valley Area (08^'i6'S, 30°29'E), Mary 
Merello, D. K Harder, C. N. Nkhoma & M. 
Mulimo 962 (holotype, MO; isotype, K). 

Haec species liabitu scandeiUe el ali(iuanto structura 

and appear on both leal surfaces. 

foliis mesophvticis niollibus atque coronae lobuloruni tri- 

Although thin, the leaves did not rehydrate wtdl, ^<;|^-"<'"tatorum s<.gmento cciitrali loriformi profuiide bifido 

resulting in sections of poor quality. However, it is 
clear from these sections that the leaves are dor- 


A climber. Roots unknown. Stems woody, twin- 
tral witli a single palisade layer, comparable ing; bark pale brown, pubescent. Leaves petiolate; 


petiole 2-3 cm long, slender, pubescent, with a 

chter, /?. galpinii Schlechler, R. monteiroae (Oliver) few reddish dentate colleters on adaxial side, with 

N. E. Brown, and R. procumbens Schlechter from interpetiolar ridges and reddish, dentate axillary 

moistcr savanna and grasslands. Isobilateral leaves colleters; lamina ovate to elliptic, (9-)ll-13 X 

occur in species such as R. lanceolata Schinz, R. 4.5-6.5 cm. apex acuminate, base cuneate, green 

relutina Schlechter, and R. zeyheri Han^ey from above, somewhat paler green below, herbaceous 

more arid habitats. and thin-textured, midrib conspicuous, lateral 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Venter & Verhoeven 
Raphionacme sylvicola from Zambia 


Figure 2. Raphionacme sylvicola,— -A. Abaxial epidermis showing radiating sliiae around the stoinata. — B. Adaxial 
epidermis with randomly oriented eutiele striae. — C. MultieeUular Iriehome on adaxial epidermis. — L>. Pubeseent 
abaxial epidermis. Scale bars: 2A-C = 10 ^ni, D = 100 fxm. All from Mercllo el al, 962 (MO). 

veins looping toward apex, 7 to 10 per side. Inflo- Nectaries interstaniinal, from apex of lower corolla 
rescences axillary and subterminal, 5- to 8-flow- tube, shelf-like, greenish. Ovaries 2, free, semi- 
ered, pubescent; peduncles slender, 1.5-3.5 cm inferior, many-ovuled; styles basally free, fused to- 
long; pedicels 8—12 mm long, slender; bracts nar- ward stigmatic head, ca. 2 mm long; sligmatic 
rowly ovate, 2X1 mm, apex acuminate, membra- head pentangular ovoid; pollen translators arising 
nous, margins fimbriate. Buds with tube funnel- from upper surface of stigmatic head, alternating 
shaped, upper part ovoid, lobes contorted to the with anthers, spathulate with receptacle broadly 
left. Flowers with gynostegium exserted from the ovate, stipe terete, viscidium sub-discoid. Follicles 
corolla mouth. Sepals free, ovate to triangular, 1.5 and seed unknown. Figures 3 and 4. 

X 1 mm, apex acuminate, membranous, pubes- 
cent. Corolla with lower annular tube around ova- 
ry; upper tube distinct, funnel-shaped, 3 mm long, 
glabrous; lobes oblong-ovate, 4-5 X 1.5-2 mm, 
apex obtuse, outside sparsely pubescent, inside 
glabrous. Corona arising from upper corolla tube 
mouth, antisepalous, trisegmented; central seg- 
ment strap-shaped with apex deeply bifid, 8 mm 
long, glabrous; lateral segments inside central seg- 
ment, fused laterally to filament bases, subulate, 
1 mm long. Stamens free, glabrous; filaments fili- 
form, 1 mm long, fused to inner base of corona 

Distribution and ecology. Raphionacme sylvi- 
cola was found climbing in forest vegetation around 
a steep, rocky waterfall at an altitude of ca. 915 m. 
The Nsumbu (or Sumbu) National Park falls within 
the Itigi deciduous thicket, which is a smaller unit 
of the wetter Zambezian miombo woodland (White, 
1983). The collectors regarded /?. sylvicola, which 
was collected in December, as "uncommon." 


Raphionacme sylvicola is similar to R. montei- 

lobes; anthers basally fused with stigmatic head, roae and /?. flanaganii in the climbing habit, and 
free from one another, ovate with apiculate apices to a certain extent in floral structure. However, the 
connivent over stigmatic head; pollen in tetrads. new species differs in having soft mesophytic 



Figure 3. Raphionacme sylrirola, — A. Stem with leaves and flowers. — B. External view of the flower. — C. Flower 
opened showing jiislil, stamens, and corona lobes. All from Merello et al. 962 (K). 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Venter & Verhoeven 

Raphionacme sylvicola from Zambia 


Figure 4. Strm-ture of corona lobes oi R. sylriiola (A). R. flanagdnil (R). and /?. monfciroae (C) (a: petal stubs, b: 
central segment, and c: lateral segnu^its of one corona lobe). (A: MervUo el al. 962 (K), B: Nichols 190 (BLFU), C: 
Venter lMS-6839 (UNIX).) 

leaves and in the form of the corona lobes. Ra- 

Thn*c groups are discerniWe in the Periplocoi- 

phionacme sylvicola can be discerned by its climb- deae with regard to floral structure. Two of these 
ing habit, its large, thin, pubescent leaves, and its groups have a very distinct upper corolla tube, 
trisegmented corona lobes of which the central seg- comparable to that found in the Apocynaceae sensu 

nient is strap-shaped and deeply bifid. 

slriclo. In the first group the upper corolla tube is 

Raphionacme sylvicola belongs to the group of well developed and the g)^nostegium included near 

about 10 Raphionacme species that exhibit triseg- the base of the corolla (tribe Cryptoh^pideae Ven- 

mented corona lobes. However, these trisegmented ter). The second group also has a distinct upper 

corona lobes vary quite extensively. The most com- corolla tube, but the stamens arise at the corolla 

mon segmentation is the R. glohosa type, in which mouth and the gynostegium is thus exserted from 

the central segment is long and filiform and the the corolla mouth (tribe Gymnanthen^ae Venter). 

lateral segments short and subulate and fused lat- The third group of genera is characterized by the 

erally to the central segment. The less common R. absence of an upper corolla tube, and the stamens 

flanaganii type (Fig. 4B) has a long filiform central are thus completely exposed (tnl)e Periploceae 

segment with the two lateral segments curved cor- Venter). The authors regard the Cj^ptolepideae as 

niculate and outside the central segment. In the least advanced (plesiomorphic) in the Periplocoi- 

rare R. monteiroae type (Fig. 4C) the central seg- deae, and the last two tribes as advanced (apo- 

ment is shorter and the lateral segments fused with morphic). Raphionacme belongs to the Gymnanth- 

the corolla lobes' bases forming sinus pockets. Ra- ereae, and R. sylvicola is thus regarded as an 

phionacme sylvicola (Fig. 4A) is unique in having advanced species with respect to its floral structure, 

the central segment strap-shaped and bifid, with l^^t as less advanced in the genus because it is a 

the two lateral segments inside the central segment climber. 

and these fused to the filament bases instead of 

directly to the central segment. Of the six clim})ing Acknowledgments. We thank the University of 
species, including R. sylvicola, all except one be- the Free State, Bloemfontein, and the National Re- 
long to the group having trisegmented corona lobes. search Foundation, Pretoria, for their financial sup- 



. W. 

Literature Cited 

purl toward the revision of tlie Periplocoid 

also extend thanks to K and MO for kindly lending Enllman, G. 1960. The acctolysis method. A revised de- 

ihe two speeinutns on which this new species is seription. Svensk But. Tidskr. 54: 561-564. 

based, to L. F. van Ryneveld for translating the di- ^erhoeven, R. 1 .^ H. J. T Venter. 198H. Pollen mor- 

. . - . , - „, ,, „ . [)lioIo^y ol Hdpfuonacme (reriplocaeeae). h, African J. 

agnosis Hito Lalni, and Joan Walker lor correetnig p^j 54. 123-1:^2 

the manuscript grammatically. 'Wliite, K 1983. Vegetation nia[> of Africa. UNKSCO, Paris. 

Nuevas Especies y Combinaciones en Leguminosas de 


Nelson Zamora 
Institute Nacional de Biodiversidad, Apdo. 22-3100, Santo Domingo, Heredia, Costa Rica 

Resumen. Durante la preparacion del tratamiento 'i^'^ '^9, elliptica, (2.3-)3.5-7.2 X (1.5-)2-3.7 cm, apice 

de las Leguminosas para el el proyecto Manual de ^^"^"- ^•'*^'''! ^^' ^;?'S^^ 5^^""**' l'^'* ^^''^'^"^^ T^''' ^'^^'^*- 

I T^, 1 i^ n* . , . , ta, sublus niiiiule ferrugineo-sencea. Panicula 10-14 cm 

las rlantas de Losta Kica nuevas especies nan sido i i i • ii r . * ■ • t?i i 

^ longa, rhachidibus sparse lerrugineo-stngosis. Floras sub- 

descubiertas en los generos Dalbergia y Pterocar- sessiles, 5-7{^) mm longi; calyx campaiiulatus, 3-3.5 

pus, y se proponen nuevas combinaciones en los mm longus, extus ferrugineo-sericeus; petala alha, vexillo 

generos Desmodium y Dioclea. 

5—6 mm longo, obovato, apice emarginato. Stamina 9, Leg- 
umina oblanceolata, valde compressa, coriacca, apice ob- 

Abstract. During the preparation of the treat- lusa, basi altenuata, 5.5-7.5 X 1.5-1.7 cm, monosperma, 
ment of the Legumes for the Manual de las Plantas stipite 6-11 mm longo. 

de Costa Rica project, new species in the genera 
Dalbergia and Pterocarpus were discovered; pro- 

Arbol 5-^10 m, ramitas esencialmente glabras. 

1 r u- *• • *u n los brotes denso ferruerineo sericeos; estfpulas de- 

posals tor new combinations in the genera Uesmo- ^. , . . i 

dium and Dioclea were also deemed necessary. 

cfduas, 7X2 mm. Hojas impariplnnadas; peciolo 
2^.3 cm de largo, glabro; raquis de 5.5—10 cm de 

Dalbergia tilarana se distingue por su inflores- ^^^S^; S^^^^^^^ f^l^^^^^ alternos o subopuestos, 5-9, 

cencia amplia, ramificada y con muchas floras; esta elipticos o a veces los basales ovados, (2.3-)3.5- 

relacionada con Z). stevemonii Standley, pero esta '^•^ cm de largo, (1.5-)2-3.7 cm de ancho, apice 

tiene flores y frutos mis pequefios y la inflorescen- ^g^^«' «t^*^^*^ « '^^^ ^etuso, base oblusa, nervio 

cia mas corta y laxa. Pterocarpus michelianus se central inmerso en el haz y prominente en el enves, 

distingue por ser una especie completamente cad- nervios secundarios y reticulacion levemente im- 

ucifolia de habitats secos y calientes, donde su re- P^^^^' glabros en el haz y diminuto-estrigoso-fer- 

lacidn ecologica y taxon6mica se da con P, amphj' rugfneos en el enves; pecicSlulos 3-6 mm de largo, 

menium DC; se distingue de esta ultima en sus glabros. Inflorescencias paniculas muy abiertas, 

hojas y frutos glabros e inflorescencias con una pu- ramificadas y con numerosas flores, axilares o ter- 

bescencia ferrugfnea muy corta contrario a una pu- minales, 10-14 cm de largo, pediinculo 3-6 cm de 

bescencia blanquecina en hojas, frutos e inflores- largo, glabro o esparcido-serxceo, ejes esparcido- 

cencias en P. amphy menium, Se transfiere a ferrugineo-serfceo, bracteolas 0.5-1 mm de largo, 

Desmodium strobilaceum Schlechtendal, al rango ovadas y deciduas. Flores 5-7(-8) mm de largo, 

de variedad hajo la especie Desmodium sericophyl- caliz verde-p^lido y petalos blancos; pedicelos 0.5- 

lum Schlechtendal, dado que ambas especies solo 1 mm de largo, claramente articulados en el apice 

difieren en la pubescencia y la forma de los foliolos. y la base. Caliz campanulado, 3-3.5 mm de largo, 

Se transfiere ademas la especie Cymbosema roseum ferrugineo-sericeo externamente y glabro interna- 

Bentham, al genero Dioclea (Z). rosea (Bentham) N. mente; lobulos adaxiles 1.1 mm de largo, ovados, 

Zamora, comb, nov.), ya que la caracteristica del con el apice redondeado u obtuso, lobulo abaxial 

estambre vexilar libre esta presente tainbien en al- hasta 1.7 mm de largo y atenuado. Petalos de la 
gunas especies del genero Dioclea. 

quilla y alas de 3.5—4 mm de largo, auriculados y 
muy estrechos en la base; estandarte 5—6 mm de 

Dalbergia tilarana N. Zamora, sp. nov. TIPO: largo, recto o reflexo, obovado, apice emarginado, 

Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Canton de Tilaran, El atenuado en la l)ase. Estambres 9. Pistilo 3-4.5 mm 

Dos de Tilaran, 2 km NE of El Dos on ridge de largo, largo-estipitado, estipite ferrugfneo-estri- 

top, 10 zo N, 84 DO W, lizO m, 11 Mar. 1992 goso; ovario ferrugineo-sericeo en ambos margenes 

(fl, fr), W. Haber, Zuchowski & Bello 11050 y glabro en el centro; estigma glabro. Frutos 5.5- 

(holotipo, INB; isotipos, CR, F, MEXU, MO, 7,5 x 1.5-1.7 

US). Figura 1. 

, oblanceolados, apice obtuso y 

base atenuada, glabros, estipete 6-1 1 mm de largo; 

Arbor 5-10 m, ramulis glabratis; petioli 2-1.3 cm longi; semilla 1, el area seminal conspicuamente nervado- 

rhnrhide 5.5-10 cm longa, petiolulis 3-6 mm longis; fo- reticulada. 

NovoN 10: 17.^i-180. 2000. 






F-'iji^iini 1. Ihilbergitf fildnuHi \. /aiiioni. — n. Ram;i con (lores. — I). Klor. — r. IVIjIos. — H. Flor sin ciiliz y |)rIalos. 
. I'VnIos. — f. Pnltcsct-ncia solnc el enves dc la lamina. (Basado tMi <'I inalerial tic W, Ihihrr rl dl. 110,^0. WW). 

Volume 10, Number 2 


Leguminosas de Mesoamerica 


Esta especie podria ser confundida con Z). stev- tales de 7.2-12.5 X 4.4—7.8 cm, ovados, obovados 

ensonii, por el niimero y forma de los folfolos, pero o elfpticos; foliolos basales de 4.2-7.5 X 2.3—4.7 

D. tilarana tiene una inflorescencia mds grande y cm, ovados; ^pice apiculado, base redondeada y 

abierta, con las bracteolas ovadas decfduas, flores obtusa, glabros y reticulados en ambas caras; ra- 

de mayor tamano (5-8 mm) y numerosas, y frutos quis de 4-7.5 cm de largo, pecfolulos de 4-9 mm 

oblanceolados; mientras en Z). stevensonii la inflo- de largo; pecfolo de 2.5-6 cm de largo. Inflores- 

rescencia es mds corta, laxa, con las bracteolas li- cencia racemosa, 3.5-17.5 cm de largo, pediinculo 

neares persistentes, flores mds pequenas (4 mm), y de 1.5-1.7 cm de largo; brdcteas de 1.5-3 mm de 

frutos oblongos. 

largo, lineares; bracteolas de 1-15 mm de largo, 

Distribucidn. Nicaragua (Jinotega y Matagalpa), lineares. Flores de 16-17 mm de largo, anaranjadas 

Costa Rica (Guanacaste) y Panamd (Code). Ele- o color oro, pedicelos de 3-11 mm de largo; c^liz 

vacion 1100-1450 m. incurvado, tubo de (4-)5-7 X 4.5 mm, denso fer- 

Fenologfa. Flores observadas en marzo y oc- rugineo-pilosos lobulos 1-2 mm de largo, triangu- 

tubre; frutos en marzo, junio y noviembre. 

A veces los frutos llegan a ser atacados por in- 

lares, pubescentes en ambas caras; alas de 15—16 
X 6.5—7 mm, oblongas y auriculadas en la base, 

alcanzan su tamano normal. 

sectos (fide Haber & Bello 7333) por lo que no ^^^ ^asta 5 mm de largo; quilla de 14 X 5-6 mm, 

oblonga, auriculada en la base, una de 5 mm de 
HabitaL Climas muy hiimedos con bosques i^^^^. estandarte de 16 X 17 mm, orbicular y emar- 

ginado, una de 3^ mm de largo; estambres de 10- 
14 mm de largo, tubo estaminal de 8 mm de largo; 


Pardtipos, NICARAGUA. Jinotega: Santa Lastenia, 
between Matagalpa and Jinotega, ca. 13°02'N, 85°57'W, pistilo de 15 mm de largo; ovario de 5 mm de largo, 

1450 m, 5 June 1982 (fr). Stevens 21537 (MO). Matagal- j^nso ferrugfneo-piloso; estilo de 10 mm de largo, 
pa: Cerro EI Picacho, lower montane forest, 13°00'N, 
85°55'W, 1440 m, 6 Jan. 1984, Gentry et al 44080 (MO); 
Cerro El Picacho, lower montane forest, 13°00'N, 

SS^'SS'W, 1420 m, Gentry et al 44053 (MO). COSTA dondeados u orbiculares, amarillentos o color paja, 

RICA. Guanacaste: Tilaran, Cerro Frio, Cerro La Chiri- membrandceos y elabros; semilla L 
pa, 3 km NE de El Dos de Tilaran, 10"25'N, 84"53'W, 
1200 m, 10 Nov. 1986 (fr), Haber & Bcllo 6357 (INB, 

MO); Cerro Frfo, Tilaran, Zona Monteverde, vertiente pa- 

sigmoide, piloso en la base; ovulos 6—7. Frutos leg- 

umbres samaroides, de 4.5—6.1 X 3.8—5.5 cm, re- 

Oct. 1979 (fl), Antonio 2120 (MO). 

La primera colecci6n de esta especie fue hecha 

cffica, 10°25'n/84°53'w! 1 100 m, 30 June 1987 (fr), //a- pov E. Langlasse {Langlass^ 157) en 1898 en el 
ber & Bello 7333 (INB, MO). PANAMA. Code: El Cope estado de Guerrero, Mexico. Esta coleccidn form6 
"" ^^fl^'i ^'j}"^ y'^ ^.*^"^.^w."!.[^?'^ sawmill, 2400 ft., 16 p^^^^ j^ j^ descripci6n de la especie R aphyllus 

Micheli, descrita por Micheli en 1903. Micheli 
tomo como base para la descripci6n de P. aphyllus 
las colecciones Langlassi 123 con frutos (US) y 
Langlass^ 157 con flores (US), sin designar una de 
ellas como tipo. Mds tarde Rojo (1972) design6 
como tipo la coleccidn Langlass^ 123 con frutos y 
al mismo tiempo sinonimiz6 R aphyllus bajo R am- 
phymeniura DC. 

Al estudiar con cuidado ambas colecciones des- 

Pterocarpus michelianus N. Zamora, sp. nov. 
TIPO: Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Parque Na- 
cional Palo Verde Area de Conservaci6n 
Tempisque, Sector Refugio Palo Verde, camino 
principal, 10^21'N, 85°2rW, 20 m, 15 Feb. 
1992 (fl), U, ChavarHa 553 {hol6tipo, INB; is- 

otipos, MEXU, MO). Figura 2. 

Arbor 7-15 m, ramulls glabralis vel femigineo-pilosis; cubrf que se trata de dos especies diferentes y en 

petioli 2 5-6 cm longi; rhachidibus 4-7.5 cm longis, pe- ^^^^^^ ,^ coleccion con frutos {Langlassd 123) cor- 

liolulis 4—9 mm longis; ioliola (,i-)5-8, ovata obovata vel i r* ? • t ^ ■ ^ 

elliptica,distalia 7.2-12.5 X 4.4^7.8 cm, basalia 4.2-7.5 responde a R amphymenium. La colecci6n con 

X 2.3-4.7 cm. apice apiculata, basi rotundata vel obtusa, flores es una especie distinta y no descrita, para la 

glabrata. Raceml 3.5-17.5 cm longi, rhachidibus dense ^ual propongo el nombre Pterocarpus michelianus. 

velutino-tomentosis. Flores pedicellati, 16—17 mm longi; 
calyx campanulatus, (5— )6— 9 mm longus, extus dense ve- 

Pterocarpus michelianus difiere de P, amphymen- 
ru7ino-sericeus7p^ vexillo"T6 X 'l7 mm'rorbi- ^"^ ^^ la pubescencia parda-corta de la inflores- 

culato, apice emarglnato. Stamina monadelpha. Legumina cencia y cdliz, asf como folfolos y frutos glabros; 

rotundata vel orbiculata, 4.5-6.1 X 3.8-5.5 cm, mem- contrario a una pubescencia densa blanquecina o 

branacea, glabrata; monosperma. grisdcea de la inflorescencia y cdliz, frutos denso- 

Arbol 7-15 m, ramitas jovenes pardo-pdlidas, sedoso blanquecino pubescentes y folfolos denso- 

glabras o ferrugfneo-pilosas; estfpulas lineares de pilosos en el enves en R amphymenium, Geogrdf- 

5-8 X 1 mm, decfduas. Hojas imparipinnadas, al- icamente R amphymenium estd restringida al 

temas, con (3-)5-8 folfolos, altemos, folfolos dis- extremo suroeste de Mexico, mientras P, micheli- 




PliTocarjuis niifhcliafius N. Zaniora. — a. Hoja. — b. Inflnresceruias. 
f. ImuIos, — g. [{cticulacion dr la lamina. (Florcs y h*jja hasados vn 

. Flor. 

1. Fetalos. 


. Flor sin 
I niatfTial dc 11. Chavarria & A. 

Fernandez 1681 (IMi). fruh.s <le R. Ocampo IHH9 {CM)). 

anus ocurre desde Mexico (Guerrero) Iiasta Co.sla 

La mayoria del matt^ial do R micheliarms ha (kianacaste hasta el valle del Rio Tareoles, San 
sido iiial ideiiliiicado conio R rohrii Valil, la eiial Jose. Elevacidn 0-900 in. 

Dislribucidn. Mexico (Guerrero) hasta Costa 
Rica. En Costa Rica en la costa pacifica, desde 

es una especie de hal)itats mds hum(*dos, con frutos 

Fenologfa, Flores han sido observadas de ene- 

de mayor tamafio y flores color amarillo-verdosas. ro a mayo. Frutos de febrero a mayo. Su maxima 

Volume 10, Number 2 


Leguminosas de Mesoamerica 


floracion se da cuando el ^rbol esta sin hojas y las S of Bagaces, 27 Jan. 1969 (fl). Gentry 326 (MO); Carre- 

flores cubren completamente la copa. El color If^^i"^^^"^,:'' ^^r'' '!^,^:!''; J^!f.!|Vi^ 

amarillo-oro de las flores lo haceii distintivo a la 
distancia y ademas sugiere que seria una buena 

m, 18 Nov. 1984, Khan, Tebbs & Vickery 1167 (BM); En- 
virons de Nicoya, Apr. 1900 (fr), Tondiz 13972 (K). San 
Jose: Turrubares, Valle del Tarculcs, San Pablo, cerca del 

especie para el embellecimiento de areas verdes en puente sobre el Uio Tarcoles, camino hacia Atenas, 
climas secos. 9°54'45"N, 84°28'50'W, 100-200 m, 23 Feb, 1994 (fl). 

HabitaL Climas secos con vegetaci6n caduci- 

Ramirez el al 263 (INB, CR). 


Pardtipos. MEXICO. Guerrero: La Orilla, 30 m, 11 
May 1898 (fl), Lcinglasse 157 (US); between Santa Maria 
Guenagali and Guieliixu, Tehnantepee, Oaxaca, 100 ni, 7 

Mar. 1985 (fl), McCarler & Styles 352 (K). GUATEMALA. 
Zaoapa: between Mayuelas and Arenal close to the main 
road toward Puerto Barrios about 163 km E of Guatemala 
City in a small side valley of the Rfo Motagua, 15°8'N, 
89''22'W, 130 m, 23 Mar. 1988 (fl), Hughes 1121 (K). 

Desmodiuin serieophylluin Schlecbtendal var. 
strobilaceum (Schlecbtendal) N. Zamora, 
comb. nov. Basionimo: Desmodiuni strobila- 
ceum Schlechtendalj Linneae 12: 316. 1838. 

TIPO: Mexico. Jalapa: Jalapa. 28 Agosto (ano 
penbdo), Schiede s.n.^ destino desconocido. 

Hierba erecta o postrada, hasta 1 m?; ramitas 

Chiquiniula: close to the road from Sabana Grande to anguladas y surcadas, con pubescencia densa blan- 

San Jose la Arada about 3 km E of San Jose, about 6 km quecino-sericea-adpresa, esparcida o glabrescente; 

S of the departmental town of Chi(iuimula, 14''44'N, estipulas 8-12 mm de largo, triangular-acumina- 

"itl^i^;. tf "' ^^ ^^t ^"^^ m^J'"ShesJ'0'> i^\ das, decu'cluas. Hojas trifolioladas, foliolos (3-)4.i 

HONDURAS. Between Tapaire and Guavabulas around ^ r, ,, /i .t r- *-. r/ o o\ i i i i 

15 km NE of Choluteca, 170 m, 13 Feb. 1984 (fl), Hughes 9.7 X (l-)1.5-2.5(-3.8) cm, oblongos a oblongo- 

131 (K). NICARAGUA. Between Empalme San Benito elipticos, apice obtuso, denso-blanquecmo-sericeos 

and Las Maderas on Panameriran Highway ra. 40 km NE en el enves. Flores y frutos iguales a van serico- 

of Managua, 75 m., 20 Apr. 1986 (fr), Hughes 813 (K); phylluni. 
Boaco on the road from Managua to Boaco, 50 km from 

Managua, before the turnoff to Boaco, 12''23'N, 85°53'W, Propongo la anterior combinacion ya que Des- 

200 m 17 Mar^l991 (fl), Styles 131 (K); 20 km N of ^^j,^^, strobilaceum solo difiere de D. sericophyl- 

lum en el tipo de pubescencia y la forma de los 
foliolos. Las variedades se distinguen asl: 

la. Ramitas con una pubescencia velut ina-densa; fo- 
h'olos ovado-eh'pticos, oblongos, orbiculares o su- 
borbirulares, lanoso-pubescentes en el env^s . . 

D. sericophyllum var. serieopliyllum 

lb. Ramilas eon una pubescencia serfcea-adpresa; 
foliolos oblongos a oblongo-eliptieos, sericeo-pu- 
bescentes, serieeo-adpresa, esparcida o glabres- 
cente en el enves 

D, sericophyllum var. strobilaceum 

Estelf close to Panamerican Highway. Esteli, 9(K) m, 3 
Apr, 1984 (n), Hughes 450 (K). COSTA RICA. Guana- 
caste: Liberia, P.N. Santa Rosa, Rio Calera, Santa Rosa, 

10°50'00"N, 85"37'00"W, 300 m, 22 Mar. 1996 (fl), Cha^ 
tarrfa & Fernandez 1681 (MO); P N, Palo Verde Area de 
Consen^acion Tempisque. Seetor Refugio Palo Verde, cam- 
ino principal 10°21'N, 85°21'W, 20 m. 15 Feb. 1992 (fl), 
Chavarria 553 (MO, INB); tree ca. 25 m tall, dry forest, 
near Finca Escameka, ca. 12 km S of Las Cafias, 10 Mar. 
1965 (fl), Godfrey 66953 (MO); Canas, Hacienda La Cat- 
alina, 100 m, 19 Mar. 1978 (fr), Ocawpo 1889 (CR). Ba- 
gaces: P.N. Palo Verde, Valle de Tetn])is([ue, Seetor Cat- 

alina, 10°2r00"N, 85^2 LOCW, 10 m, 4 Apr. 1995 (fr), 
Ghavarrfa 1245 (MO, INB); Palo Verde E of river valley 
forest, 100 m, 14 Apr. 1969 (fr), Frankie 91a (MO); on 
the banks of the Rio Calera or lowlands of Santa Rosa N. 
P, 8 May 1976 (fl), Janzen 10360 (MO), 8 May 1976 (fr), 
Janzen 10359 (MO); Finea La Paeifica, 5 km NW of Can- 
as, 80 m, 22 Feb. 1969 (fl), Davidse 1465 (MO); Orillos 

del Rio Poza Solado, P N. Santa Rosa. 21 Feb. 1986 (fl), 

Zamora 1192 (MO, CR); Finea Escamlx^ka, Taboga. Can- Dioclea purpurea Poepp., Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 59. 1845. 

as, 8 km al SO de Canas. 200-300 m, 10 Mar. 1965 (fl), , , , 

Jimenez 3096 (MO); Montenegro S of Bagaees, 27 Jan. ^^ estudiar las caracterfsticas taxonomicas ge- 

1969 (fl), Gi^ntry 326 (MO); Comelco, dry deciduous trop- nericas distintivas entre Cymhosewu y Dioclea he 

ical forest, 50-100 m, 27 Jan. 1970 (fl), Bann 125 (MO); encontrado que no bay una caracteristica signifi- 

bank of Rio^Te^mpisguito. 20 ni^E^of Panamerican High- ^.^^j^^ p^j-a manlener a Cymbosema, genero mono- 

tipico, separado de Dioclea. Bentham (1840) en su 
publicacion original senala que el genero es aliado 
a Dioclea y que difiere de este por tener el estambre 
vexilar completamente libre, flores oblongas y fru- 

Dioelea rosea (Bentham) N. Zamora, comb. nov. 
Basionimo: Cymbosema roseum Bentham, J. 
Bot. (Hooker) 2: 60. 1840. TIPO: Brazil. "Rio 
Branco", R. //. Schomlmrkg 850 (holotipo, K). 

way, 4 mi. S of park entrance, 5 Feb. 1977 (fl), Boucher 
708 (MO); Santa Rosa National Park, ea. 10^50'N, 
85°37'W, 0-320 m, 14 May 1978, Janzen 10916 (MO); 
OTS research area A, Steward property, 28 km N of Cafias, 
elev. 100 m, 2 Oct. 1969, Frankie' 293a (MO); beside 

Panamerican highway, 1 km N of Las Canas, 40 ft., 10 j^^ falrados' Mas tarde Maxwell (1970) detalla clar- 
in., 14 Apr. 1943 (fr), Barbour 1005 (MO); 5 km W o{ ^ ^ 

Bagaces on road to Palo Verde N. P. on flat ground be- 
tween Rio Tempesque and volcanoes to E, Uf26'N, Dioclea y concluye lo mismo que Bentham; ademds 

86°15'W, 6 Feb. 1993 (fl), Hughes 1738 (MO); Montenegro agrega que especies como D. Jimbriata Huber, D. 

amente la situacion al relacionarlo tambien con 



macrantha Huber comparten caracterfsticas flora- anciada por la Asistencia Holandesa para el De- 

les de forma y tamaflo con Cymbosrma. Tambi^n sarrollo (NEDA) a travds del proyecto ''Desarrollo 
podemos cilar a Z). burhartii Maxwell con flores del conocimiento de la Biodiversidad y Use Sos- 

similares en forma y tamano. 

lenible en Costa Rica" conducido por el Institulo 

El estambre vexilar libre no es una carclerfstica Nacional de Biodiversidad de Costa Rica (INBio). 
valida para conservar el genero, ya que los estam- Ademis esta investigacidn fue posible debido al 
bras en Dioclea van desde pseudomonadelfos hasta convenio de cooperaci6n entre el Ministerio del 
diadelfos. Por ejemplo, especies como D. reflexa Ambiente y Energia (MINAE) y INBio para llevar 
tienen el estambre vexilar completamente libre. acabo el Inventario Nacional de Biodiversidad. 
Tambi^n otras especies como Z). apiculata Maxwell 
ined, y D. mollicoma Ducke, a veces tienen el es- 
tambre vexilar completamente libre (fide Maxwell, 
1969). Los frutos en Dioclea son muy variables y 
no se pueden tomar como una caracterfstica para 
delimitar el genero. 

En 1977, James A. Lackey despues de completar 

Lileratura Citada 

Bentham, G. 1840. Contributions towards a Flora of South 
America. Fnumeration of plants collected by Mr 
Schonibur^k in British Guiana. J. Bot. (Hooker) 2: 60. 

lackey, J. A. 1977. A Synopsis of Phaseoleae (Legumi- 
nosae: Papilionoideae). Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Iowa 
State University. 

SU tesis sobre la clasificaci6n de Phascolae atina- Maxwell, R. M. 1969. The Genus Dioclea (Fabaceae) in 

the New World. Unpublished Ph.D. Tfiesis, Southern 
Illinois University at Carbondale. 

. 1970. The genus Cymhosema (Leguniinosae): 

damente concluye que el mantener a Cymbosema 
como un genero distinto de Dioclea puede ser du- _ 

doso. Estoy de acuerdo y por las razones antes ex- Notes and distributFon. Ann. Missouri hot^ Gard. 57: 

puestas propongo la combinaci6n arriba indicada. 252-257. 

Micheli, M. 1903. Ucguminosae Langlaseanae. M^m. Soe. 

Agradecimientos. Deseo agradecer a Henk van ^^^y*- ^isl. Nat, Geneve 34: 266, I. 16. 

der Werff por su ayuda en la preparaci6n de la '^"J^" { J' .^^^,^, ''T'[7T^ (Leguminosae-Papiliona- 

'^ ^ ceaej Kevised ior the World. Pnanerogamaruni Mono- 

graf>hiae Tomus V. Verlag Von J. Cramer, Lehre, Ger- 

diagnosis en latin y a Claudia Arag6n por sus ex- 
celentes ilustraciones. Esta investigaci6n fue fin- 

Two New Combinations in Central Asian and Chinese 

Allium (AUiaceae) 


Guanghua Zhu and Nicholas J, Turland 
Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A. 

Abstract. In preparing the account oi Allium L. two are treated as conspecific, A. atrosanguineum 

for the Flora of China, Volume 24, two new com- is the correct name. 

binations are made in order to recognize entities at 

varietal rank within the complex of /I. atrosangui- Allium atrosanguineum var. feclschenkoanum 

neum Schrenk: A, atrosanguineum var. fedschen- 
hoanum (Kegel) G. Zhu & Turland and .4. atrosan- 
guineum var. tiheticum (Kegel) G. Zhu & Turland. 
Lectotypes are herein designated for both names. 
The priority of A. atrosanguineum over .4. mona- 
delphum Turczaninow ex Karelin & Kirilov (pub- 
lished in the same year) is explained. 

Allium atrosanguineum is a Central Asian and 

Chinese species sometimes treated as A. monadel- 

phum, e.g., by Vvedensky (1935: 146-147). It is 

characterized as follows: roots thin; bulbs cylindric; 

leaves terete, fistulose; scape terete; filaments 

shorter than tepals, connate into a tube for 1/3-3/4 

their length, entire; ovary with ovules 2 to several 

per locule. While preparing the account oi Allium .. „ i /Ji »-i i a • c Z} 

^ I o r- V ^^^de Kegel (In monlibus ad tiuvmm i^arawschansk, 

for the Flora of China, Volume 24 (Xu & Kamelin, ^^^q, ^j^ j^^kestaniae, legit O. Fedschenko"). 
in press), the present authors together with J. M. ^j^^,^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^.^^ described; the 
Xu and R. V. Kamehn considered it appropriate to ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ explicitly cited. Kegel later (1887: 

(Kegel) G. Zhu & Turland, comb. nov. Basio- 
nym: Allium fedschenhoanum. Kegel, Trudy 
Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 3(2): 82. 1875. 
Allium fedschenkoanum var. elatum Kegel, 
Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 3(2): 82. 
1875. Allium monadelphum Turczaninow ex 
Karelin & Kirilov var. fedschenkoanum (Kegel) 
Kegel, Trudy Imp. S.-Pelerburgsk. Bot. Sada 
10: 308. 1887. TYPE: "In valle Sarawschansk 
Turkestaniae," s.d., 0, Fedchenko s.n. (lecto- 
type, here designated, LE). 

In the protologue oi Allium fedschenkoanum, Ke- 
gel (1875: 82—83) cited two specimens, both col- 
lected by 0. Fedchenko: one under variety [a] ela- 
turn ("In valle Sarawschansk Turkestaniae legit 0. 
Fedschenko") and the other under variety [(3] hu- 

recognize three entities within the complex of A. 

308, 311) recombined both A, fedschenkoanum and 

atrosanguineum at varietal rank, necessitating two j^^ ^^^-^^^ ^^,,^ .^^ (without explicit mention of var. 

combinations: A. atrosanguineum var. fed- ^^^^^^^ ^^ varieties of A. monadelphum. The two 


schenkoanum (Kegel) G. Zhu & Turland (based on gpedmens originally cited under xhv varieties of ^. 

A. fedschenkoanum Kegel) and A. atrosanguineum fedschenkoanum were cited again under A. mona- 

var. tibcticum (Kegel) G. Zhu & Turland (based on delphum var. {pi\ fedschenkoanum ("in valle fluvii 

A. monadelphum var. tiheticum Kegel). Sarawschan 3 7000' alt.") and variety [^ humile 

The name Allium monadelphum Turczaninow ex ^"jj^ ^.^\i^ fj^^- Sarawschan 8-9000' alt."). It 

Karelin & Kirilov (1842: 508) is synonymous with, gg^^g reasonable to assume that "in valle" and "in 

and has been regarded as senior to, A. atrosangui- j„ontibus ad fluvium" in 1875 ecjuate with "3- 

neum Schrenk (1842: 355), e.g., by Kegel (1887), 700O' alt." and "8-9000' alt." in 1887, respective- 

who combined A. atrosanguineum at varietal rank \y Indeed, Kegel cited no other specimens collect- 

(p. 309) under A. monadelphum, which he errone- gd by 0. Fedchenko under A. monadelphum s.l. in 

ously cited (p. 307) as having been published by 1887. It is therefore inferred that Kegel considered 

Turczaninow (1838: 102), where it was in fact in- variety elatum to represent the typical element 

valid as a nomen nudum. Allium monadelphum was 


first validly published in late 1842 (see Stafleu & talnly in 1887. Accordingly, the specimen cited in 
Cowan, 1979: 497, no. 3515), whereas A. atrosan- 1875 under variety elatum is here designated as 

guineum was published slightly earlier, on 18 July 
1842 (the date printed on the end page of the rel- 



evant issue of the journal, p. 367). Therefore, if the characterized by having tepals whitish yellow to 

NovoN 10: 181-182. 2000. 


No von 

pink with a yellowish base (subsequently becoming oblong-obovate, oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, 7-9 

yellowish white), oblong-lanceolate, 10-15 mm mm long, and the apex subacute (but never atten- 

long, the margin sometimes minutely denticulate, uate). It is more broadly distributed in Afghanistan, 

and the apex attenuate. The variety is distributed China (Qinghai, Sichuan, and Xinjiang provinces), 

in Afghanistan, China (Xinjiang and Xizang prov- Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, and Ta- 

inccs), Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, India, Pakistan, Ta- jikistan. 

J ' '^ ' ^ ' • Acknowledgments. We thank Rudolf V. Kamelin 

(LE) for outlining the taxonomic situation oi Allium 

Allium atroHanguiiieum var. tibetieum (Regel) atrosanguineum and alerting us to the need for 

G. Zhu & Turland, comb. nov. Basionym: Al- these new combinations. We also thank Anthony R. 

Hum monadelphum var. tibetieum Regel, Trudy Brach (MO c/o Harvard) for help in examining orig- 

Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 10: 311. 1887. inal literature. 

TYPE: China. Qinghai: "In Tibeti borealis de- 

clivil>us jiigonim inter Hoangho et Yang-tse in Literature Cited 

glareosis limosis," s.d., A^. M. Przewalski s.n. Karehn, G. S. & 1. F. Kiiilov. 1842. F Jiutneialio planlarum 

(lectotype, here designated, LE). 

In the protologue of Allium monadelphum var. 
tibetieum, Regel cited two specimens: "In Tibeti bo- 
realis declivibus jugorum inter Hoangho et Yang- 
tse in glareosis limosis, — nee non in Chinae occi- 

dentalis regione Tangut provinciae Kansu 13,000' 

alt., prope altem Dshachar-Dsargyn (N. M. Prze- 

in desertis Songoriae orientalis et in jugo suinniamm 
alpiuni Alataii anno 1841 collectariim. HuIL Soc. Trnj). 
Naturalistes Moscou 15: 129-180, 321-153, 503-542. 

He^el, E. von. 1875. Allionini adliiic eo^niloruni nion(»- 

graphia. Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. But. Sada 3(2): 1- 

. 1887. .4/// species Asiae centralis in Asia media 

a Turconiania desertiscjue aralensihus et Caspiris usque 
ad Mongoliarn erescentes. Trndy Imp. S.-Peterbnrgsk. 
I , .V „ -p.. , , I , T •! 1 I Bot. Sada 10: 279—362. 

walskij. hither specnnen would be eheible as the c^i... ..a a r . » hho n i i 

^ , bchicnk, A. U. von. lolz. l\ovae planlarum species nu- 

lectotype of variety tibetieum, and it seems appro- perrime a D. Al. Sehrenk in Songaria leciae. (Contin- 

priate for a taxon so named to be represented by a uatio.) (bu le 29 avril 1842.) Bull. Sci. Acad. Imj). Sci. 

type from the Tibetan Plateau (Xizang and Qinghai Saim-Pctershourg 10: 352-356. 

^^ . • , r\ • \ +u T ** • • L Stafleu, F. A. & R. S. Cowan. 1979. Taxonomic Lileralnre. 

provnices, Ltnna), so the latter specnnen is here * c t .• r- •^ u • i o i i- i ^ i 

^ A Selective Uuidc lu Butanical Publications and Col- 

lections with Dates, Commentaries and Types. Volume 
II: H-Pe, 2nd cd. Bohn, Sclicltcma & Holkcma, Utrecht 
and dr. W. Junk b.v.. Publishers. The Hague. 

designated as the lectotype. 

Allium atrosanguineum var. tibetieum is charac- 
terized by having tepals brass yellow to copper red 

and lustrous with a pinkish apex and base (subse- Turczanmow, N. S. 1838. Catalogus t)lantanim in rcgionis 
^1 t ' 1 11 \ 1 1 1 l)aicah'ri[silhus et in Dahuria sponte crcsccntium. Bull, 

quently becomnig pale yellow), oblong-obovate, See. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 1 1: B5-1 07. 

10-16 mm long, and the apex rounded. The variety Vvrdcnsky, A. I. 1935. Allium L Pp. 1 12-280 in: V. P. 

Is entlcmic to China (Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, Xi- 
zang, and Yunnan provinces). 

Komarov (editor), Flora SSSK, 4. Izdatclslvo Akailemii 
Nauk SSSR, Leningrad. 

r,.r ^..^^r.^: « ' » * ■ V ^ ^^f J- ^- ^ 'i- ^- Kamehn. In press. Allium Linnaeus, 

ror comparison, variety atrosanguineum has te- / ., ,— it eon n / i- a ii r . i ■ 

, . J 1 • 1 I 1 i 1 '^'■' ■^- «■ >^ii A P. H. Kav(m (editors), Mora ot Chnia, 

pals puq^le-red and mmutely black dotted (subse- 24. Science Press, Reijing & Missouri Botanical Gardem 

quently becoming yellowish white to grayish pink). Press, Si. Louis. 

Paspalum volcanensis, a New Species of Subgenus Anachyris of 

Paspalum (Poaceae: Paniceae) 

Fernando 0, Zuloaga, Osvaldo Morrone, and Silvia Denham 

Institute de Botanica Darwinion, Casilla de Correo 22, San Isidro (1642), Argentina. ar 

Abstract. A new species of Poaceae, Paspalum aphylls. Floriferous culms 45-60 cm tall, 2.4-3 

volcanensis, from southern Bolivia and northwestern mm diam.; nodes 2-3, brownish, glabrous or 

Argentina, is described and illustrated. Its concavo- sparsely pilose; internodes 2.5-15 cm long, gla- 

convex spikelets and upper lemma with conspicu- brous, striate, stramineous. Sheaths longer or short- 

ous nerves are characters it shares with other spe- er than the internodes, 9.5-22 cm long, striate, 

cies of subgenus Anachyris of Paspalum. A key to slightly compressed and keeled toward the distal 

the species of the subgenus and comments on the portion, glabrous, one margin hirsute, the other gla- 

delimitation of the new species are provided here. brous or hirsute toward the distal portion. Ligules 

membranous, 2-3.5 mm long, pale ]3rown, glabrous; 

In preparation of a treatment of the genus Pas- pseudohgule a ring of whitish hairs up to 6 mm 

palum L. for Flora Neotropica, examination of re- long. Blades lanceolate, 12-22 cm long, 0.7-1.3 

cent collections from Bolivia and Argentina has re- cm wide, flat, ascendent, slightly divergent from the 

vealed a new species within subgenus Anachyris culm, rounded at the base, the apex acuminate, gla- 

(Nees) Chase. 

brous on both surfaces or the abaxial surface pa- 

Paspalum volcanensis belongs to subgenus Ana- pillose-pilose, the margins papillos(^-pilose. Pedun- 

chyris (Nees) Chase, due to the presence of con- cles 9-25 cm long, terete, glabrous. Inflorescences 

cavo-convex spikelets, and upper lemmas with con- terminal, exserted, 9-17 cm long, 4-9 cm wide; 

spicuous nerves on the abaxial surface. Within this main axes 6-10 cm long, glabrous, ending in a na- 

subgenus, this new species is related to P usterii ked point; racemes 4-19, ending in a spikelet, al- 

Hackel: spikelets are pilose in both species, and temate to subopposite, divergent from the main 

the upper glume is always present. It differs from axes, the lower ones 4-9 cm long; pulvini covered 

P usterii by height, and inflorescence and spikelet by whitish hairs, up to 0.5 mm long; rachises 1- 

size; the latter species grows in southern Brazil, 1.6 mm wide, glabrous, brownish or purplish, the 

eastern Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina, be- margins papillose-pilose; spikelets imbricate, dis- 

tween and 1200 m elevation, while P volcanensis tributed in 4 series; pedicels subterete, paired, gla- 

is present in southern Bolivia and northwestern Ar- brous, unequal, the upper ones 0.5-1.3 mm long, 

gentina, between 1000 and 2300 m elevation. the lower ones half as long as tlie upper ones. 

Spikelets ellipsoid, 2.5-3 mm long, 1.1-1.2 mm 

Paspalum volcanensis Zuloaga, Morrone & Den- wide, concavo-convex, pilose, pale and tinged with 

ham, sp. nov. TYPE. Argentina. Jujuy: Dpto. purple. Lower glumes absent. Upper glumes % to 

Tumbaya, Volcan, cantera al SE del pueblo, equal the spikelet length, acuminate, membranous, 

2100-2200 m s.m., 13 Feb. 1985, R. Kiesling, dorsal surface sparsely pilose, with adpressed hairs 

5. Botta, C Ezcurra, M. Sanchez & E. Ulibarri more densely disposed toward the base, margins 

5170 (holotype, SI; isotypes, MO, US). Figures papillose-pilose, 3-nerved, the nerves conspicuous. 

lA-C, 2. 

Culmi erecti, 45-60 cm alti. Laminae foliares lanceo- 

one central and two submarginal. Lower lemmas 
equal to the upper anthoecium or slightly longer. 

latae. 12-22 cm longae, 0.7-1.3 cm latae. Racemi 4-19, "^^mbranous, glabrous, hyaline, 3-nerved, the 

adscendentes vel patentes, infimi 4-9 cm longi; spiculis nerves conspicuous, depressed at base. Lower pa- 

ellipsoldeis, 2.5-3 mm longis, 1.1-1.2 mm latis; gluma leas absent. Upper anthoecia concavo-convex, as 

superiore 3-nen'i; lemmate inferiore 3-nervi, palea infer- long as the spikelets, indurated, glabrous, finely pa- 
iore absente; anthoecio superiore ellipsoideo; lemmate fer- -ii tt i ^ i ^i •? • ^ 

,1- , , „ . ^ ' ' pillose. Upper lemmas 7-nervea, the midvem and 

till valde 7-nervi. ^ / ^ ^ ' 

lateral veins conspicuous. Upper paJeas indurated, 

Caespitose perennials, with extravaginal inno- 2-nerved; lodicules 2, ca. 0.3 mm long, condupli- 

vations and short rhizomes covered by glabrous cat- cate, hyaline; stamens 3, the anthers 1.6-2.2 mm 

NovoN 10: 183-186. 2000. 


No von 

Ki<j;iire 1. 

Scanning eltH'troii mirrographs of thr ii|)per anthoeciuni n( Paspalum sperit^s. A-C. Paspalnni lolcaneii^is. 

A. Uppor florsal portion of llu' upjuM- lennna. — H. Mtnliuiu dorsal portion of the u|>|>rr palea. — C. Detail of llie surface 
of the up[)er [)alca with simple |»apillae regularly ilistribuled and l)icel]ular microhairs (Kieslin^ ct al. 5171). — D. 
Pasftalum ustcri. Upi)er dorsal portion of the upper lemma [Monk's 1932). F, F. Puspalum malacophyllum. — E. flppt^r 
dorsal portion of the upp(M- h-mnia. — F. Detail of the dorsal surface o( the np[>(*r lemma. \Mtli simple, regularly 
di^ti'ihuted papillae anil hieellular microhairs (Pircs iK: Black 2293). 

Volume 10, Number 2 

Zuloaga et al. 
Paspalum volcanensis 


Figure 2. Hololype of Paspalum volcanensis Zuloaga, Morrone & Denham. — A. Habit. — B. Detail of ligulo. — C. 
Portion of the inflorescence: rachis and paired pedicels. — D. Spikelet, dorsal view showing upper glume. — E. Spikelel, 
ventral view showing lower lemma. — F. Upper anthoecium, dorsal view. — G, Upper anthoecium, ventral view. — H. 
Upper palea with stamens and lodicules. — I. Car>'opsis, embrjo side. — J. Car}opsis, hilum side. 



long, purplish; styles 2, the stigmas purjilish. Cary- 
opses ellipsoid, 2 nun loii^, 0.8 mm wide; hilums 
elliptical; embryos V3 the length of the caryopses. 

Distribution and ecology. This speries occurs 
in department olTarija, Bolivia, and in the provi 
of Jujuy, northwestern Argentina, between 1000 
and 2300 m elevation, on humid grasslands and the 
margins of rivers. According to Cabrera (1976), 
Paspalum rolcanensis has been reported from tlie 
Yungas province and transitional areas between the 
Yungas and the Pn^punena provinces, in immature, 
permeable, rocky and sandy soils. 

Chromosome number: n = 20 (Hunziker et al., 
1998, under Paspalum aff. malacophyllum). 

Panitypes. AI{GENT1NA. Jujuy: Dpto. Tuniba\a, 
Vulcan, camino a la <aiitera al SE de \olcan, 1010 m, 
2ii°56'S, 65°27'W, en suelo arenoso, horde i\r rfo, 15 Pel). 
]<)07, Ziiloaga. Morrorw A- Pensicro '^871 (MO, SI): \(.l- 
ean. caiitcra al SK drl |niel)l(>. 2100-2()()() in .s.m.. 13 I'Vh. 
1985, Kiesling. BoUa. Ezcurra. Sanchrz &• Vlilnuri 5171 
(MO, SI). HOIJ\ lA. Tarija: Pmv. Mendcz, 10. 1 km SW 
of Toniatn>i, 5 km N of Tarija, F^incon de la Victoria, 2200- 

2;J(K) ni s.m., 2r32'S. 6r5{)'W. 10 Mayo 1983, Solomon 
10630 [WO). 

SubgtMUis Anachyris (Nees) Chase of Paspalum 
can be distin*i;uished by its concavo-convex spike- 
lets, the upper lemma having conspicuous nerves 
on the abaxial surface (Fig. 1). The new species 
agrees with these characters and dierefore is in- 
cluded within this subgenus. Within subgenus .4n- 
achyris, P, volcanensis is related to P, usterii, the 
only other species of this subgenus with pilose 
spikelets with a developed upper glume, which is 
absent in the remaining species of the subgenus. 
Paspalum usterii differs by its long and robust rhi- 
zomes, inllorescences 12-35 cm long with 12—60 

branches, and spikelets 1 .8-2.4 mm long, 

with the upper glume l-B-nei-ved, reaching Vi to % 
the length of the spikclct and the nerves not man- 
ifest; this species grows in southern Brazil, eastern 
Paraguay, and Argentina, in the province of Mi- 

in the lemma and palea off! usleri (Fig. ID). Pas- 
palum malacophyllum Trinius, P. simplex Morong, 
and P. procurrens Quarin are, on the contrary, dis- 
tinguished by the presence of simple papillae as 
long as the epidermal cells, which cover the tan- 
g<^nlial external wall of the long cells (Fig. IE, F). 
The following key differentiates the currently 
recognized species of Paspalum subg. Anachyris: 

1. Spikelets pilose; upper glume piesenl; upper 
lemma and piilea willi inronspicuous ucrves 

and a small [)af)illa oil each epidermal cell . . 2 
r. Spikelets glabrous; upper glume absent; upper 
lemma and palea with conspicuous n<Tves and 

a large papilla on each epidermal cell 3 

2(1). Plants 1-2 m tall; rhizomes long and rohusL; 

culms lignlfied: innorescences 12—35 em lung, 
8-15 cm wide, with 12-60 racemose hranclu^s, 
the lower ones 6-12 em long; spikelets 1 .[^2.5 
mm lotig: u[)p(T glume Vz—Va as long as the 
spikelet, 1-3-nervpd. the nerves not manifest; 
northeastern Argentina and southern IJra/il . . 

R usirni 

2'. Plants 45-()(* em tall; rhizomes short; eulms 
herbaceous: inflorescences 0-17 em long. 4—9 
cm wide, with 4—19 racemose l)ranches. the 
lower ones 4—9 cm long: spikelets 2.5—3 mm 
long; upper glume % to equal the length of the 
sjiikelet, 3-ner\('d, the nerves conspicuous; 
northwestern Argentina and snutliern Bolivia 

P. vohanensis 

3(1). Plants sluloniferous P procurrens 

3'. Plants caespilose 4 

4(3). Blades linear: axis of the branches of the inflo- 
rescence glahrous P. simplex 

4'. Blades linear-lanceolate to huiceolate; axis of 
the branches of the infloresceiice usually pilose 
P malacophyllum 

Acknoulcdgmrnls. Fieldwork was carried out 
with grants from the National Geographic Society, 
#5657-96 and #6024-97. Laboratory work was 
done with a grant from Consejo Nacional de Inves- 
tigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET, 
#4440/96. We thank Vladimiro Dudas for preparing 

the excellent line drawing. 

Literature Cited 

Paspalum rolcanensis has on the abaxial epider- Cabrera. A. L. 1976. Territorios filogeografieos de la Re- 

niis of the palea and lemma biccllular microhairs 
of the "panicoid" type, together with simple, small 

papillae, regularly distributed in longitudinal rows; 
each papilla is associated with a long cell of the 
epidermis (Fig. lA-C); a similar pattern w^as found 

[)uhliea Argentina. In L. R. Parodi (editor), Knciclope- 
<lia Argentina de Agricullura y Jardinerfa. ed. 2: 1-85, 
f. 1—31. Va\. Acme. Finenos Aires, 
llunziker, J. H.. F. 0. Zuloaga, 0. Morrune & A. Escobar. 
1998. Estudios cromos6micos en Panireac sudameri- 
canas (Poaceae: Panicoideae). Danviniana 35: 29-36. 

Volume 10, Number 2, pp. 95-186 of NOVON was published on 30 June 2000. 





A New Species of Aureliana (Solanaceae) from 

Minas Gerais, Brazil 

Rita de Cdssia Almeida- Lafetd 

Programa de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de 
Ciencias da Saude, Bloeo K, Sala K2-019, 2^ andar, Cidade Universit^ria, CEP: 21941-590, 

Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. 

Abstract. The new species Aureliana angusti- 

folia (Solanaceae) from a secondar)' forest of Juiz 

de Fora, in southeastern Brazil, is described. It is 

gis, anlhcris ca. 1 mm longis. Fructus suhglohosiis. peri- 
caq)io tenui; seminihus reniforinibiis. 

Shrub 2-3 m high, branches dichotomous, pu- 

andromonoecious species 

distinguished by its narrowly lanceolate leaves, by berulent, with simple, eglandular trichomes on the 
the brief and triangular calyx lobes, and by the i^^^^^ ^^^ ^\^^ st^^ Sympodial units difoliate, with 
subglobose fruits with a thin pericarp. The style unequal size. Leaves chartaceous, narrowly lance- 
length dimorphism with the lack of the stigmatic ^i^^^^ ^^^ j^j-g^j. difoliate one 13-28 X 1.5-2 cm, 
papillae on the short style suggests that it is an ^^xe smaller 4^ X ca. 1 cm wide, blade slightly 

asymmetric, apex acute to acuminate, base acute; 
adaxial blade glabrate, abaxially puberulent, with 

Seven taxa were recognized in the revision of the simple trichomes; petiole 3-5 mm long. Inflores- 

genus Aureliana Sendtner by Hunziker and Bar- cence 5- to 8-fasciculate, axillary. Pedicel ca. 7 mm 

boza (1991). All are found in central-western, fong. apically inflated. Calyx campanulate, with tri- 

southeastem, and southern Brazil. Carvalho and angular lobes less than 1 mm long, hirsute exter- 

Bovini (1995) added one additional species col- nally, with simple eglandular trichomes. Corolla 

lected in Paraty, Rio de Janeiro. During a recent white, with green maculae, 10-12 mm diam., rotate 

survey of Solanaceae, carried out in a Conservation stellate, the lobes 4^5 mm long, lanceolate, with 

Unit in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Ger- simple, eglandular trichomes abaxially and glan- 

ais, in southeastern Brazil, another distinctive new dular trichomes adaxially, margins ciliate. Anthers 

species oi Aureliana was discovered. ca. 1 mm long, basifixed, filaments ca. 1.5 mm long. 

Ovary ca. 1 mm long; styles with two sizes, in long- 

Aureliana angu8tifolia Aim. -Lafetd, sp. nov. styled flowers ca. 3 mm long and in short-styled 

TYPE: Brazil. Minas Gerais: Juiz de Fora, Re- flowers ca. 1 mm long. Fruit subglobose, ca. 7 mm 

serva Biologica Santa Candida, 29 May 1996 wide and ca. 6 mm high, thin pericarp, fruiting 

(fl, fr), K C. Almeida-Lafetd & F. A. P. L Costa pedicels apically inflated and erect. Seeds ca. 10 

95 (holotype, CESJ; isotypes, MO, R, RB). Fig- per fruit, reniform, 3-4 mm long, with reticulate 

ure 1 


Fmtex 2-3 m altus: ramis dicholomis. Folia geminata 

The style length dimorphism, evident on all 

inaequalia, lanceolata, arigu;,ta. chartacea, adaxaliler gla- specimens o{ Aureliana angustifolia examined, also 
brala, abaxaliler pubescentia trichomatihus simpliribus - ^i ^u a J- ; rXJ„^^;t«*. jPr 

. \ , . ^ n - inr-i ri occurs m the othcr Aureliana species (nunziker & 

eglandulalis. InHorescenlae ^- ad o-laseiculalae. rJos ca- ^r^r^^^ -r^i • i • • i 

lycecampamdatojaciiiiistriangularibusbrevibus; corolla Barboza, 1991). This character is common in the 

alba, macidis viridibus omala; filamenlis ca. 1.5 mm Ion- related genus Athenaea (Barboza & Hunziker, 

NovoN 10: 187-189. 2000. 




Figure 1. Aurrli<ina angustifolia Alrn.-I^fetd (liolotypc). —A. Branch witli flowers arul fruits. — B. Bud. — C. Flower, 
adaxial view. — D. Flower, ahaxial view. — E. Calyx and pedicel. — F. Eglatidular trichoaie from llie aLaxial face of 
ihe corolla. — G. Trie-home from the margin of the corolla. — H. Section of the corolla with two stamens. —1. Glandul 
trichoma from the adaxial face of the corolla. — ^J. Short-styled pistil. — L. Long-styled pistil. M, Fniit. 

Volume 10, Number 3 


Aureliana angustifolia from Brazil 


1989) and several Solanum species. The lack of May 1999 (fl, fr), /?. C. /l/meiJ^-La/e^a 526 (BHCB, CESJ, 

stigmatic papillae on the short style suggests that '' 

Aureliana angustifolia is an andromonoecious spe- Acknowledgments. I thank Lucia d'A. Freire de 

cies. In the Solanaceae family, andromonoecy is Carvalho of the Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro 
widespread most notably in Solanum (Whalen, 


(JBRJ) and Joao Renato Stehmann of the Univer- 
sidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) for their 

The type specimen was collected in fragmented advice and encouragement. I thank Leopoldo Krie- 
secondary forest at 950 m, in light shade, from a ger of the Centro de Ensino Superior de Juiz de 
population of scattered individuals. Aureliana an- Fora (CES) for the Latin description, the curators 


at BHCB, CESJ, R, RB, RFA, SP, and VIC for ac- 

has been collected only at two localities in Minas cess to specimens, and Daniel Stockdell for revis- 

Gerais. The sympatric idxon A. fasciculata (Vellozo) 
Sendtner van fasciculata is disseminated through- 
out southeastern Brazil. 

Aureliana angustifolia is distinguished by its 
narrowly lanceolate leaves to 28 cm long, its brief, 
triangular calyx lobes, and subglobose fruits having 

ing the English text. 

Literature Cited 

Barboza, G. E. & A. T. Hunziker. 1989. Estudios sobre 
Solanaceae XXIX. Sinopsis taxonomica de Athenaea. 
Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 26(1-2): 91-105. 

a thin pericarp. The specific epithet refers to the Carvalho, L. d'A. E & M. G. Bovini. 1995. Aureliana 

1 r » darcyi, a new species of Solanaceae from Brazil. Novon 

leal shape. ^ 257-258. 

Paratypes. BRAZIL. Minas Gerais: Vi^osa, 1934 (fl), Hunziker, A. T. & G. E. Barboza. 1991. Estudios sobre 

yo^f'r/e Ca5/roA-.n. (VIC 1753); Juiz de Fora, Reserva Biol- Solanaceae XXX. Revision de Aureliana. Darwiniana 

ogica Santa Candida, 2 Nov. 1998 (fl), R. C. Almeida- 


iMfetd 512 (CESJ, R); Reserva Biologica Santa Candida, Whalen, M. D. 1984. Conspectus of species groups in 

Leptoslemonum. Gentes Herb. 12: 

20 May 1999 (fl, fr), R. C. Almeida- Lifetd 525 (BHCB, 
CESJ, RFA, VIC); Reserva Biol6gica Santa Candida, 23 

Solanum subgenus 

Two New Subspecies of Hibiscus trilobus (Malvaceae) from Central 


d s 


th A 


Orland J, Blanchard, Jr. 

Department of Biology, Long Island University, C. W. Post Campus, Brookville, 

New York 11548, U.S.A. 

Paul A. Fryxell 

Plant Resources Center, Section of Integrative Biology, School of Biology, University of 

Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, U.S.A. 


Hibiscus trilobus subsp. hirsutus from simple hairs 1 to 3 mm long, these denser on prin- 
Belize and Guatemala is described as new, based cipal veins; petioles 5 to 12 cm long, hirsute, with 

on differences in pubescence, leaf form, 
togeography. The new combination //. trilob 


occasional prickles, and with the adaxial side 
densely pubcrulent; stipules subulate, 4 to 5 mm 
suhsp. mgratus is also made, based on //. ingratus long, hirsute. Peduncles solitary in the leaf axils, 

'""^^^g^^^h the three shorter than to longer than subtending petiole, 

lacking prickles, densely hirsute, these patent hairs 

recognized subspecies. 

3 to 4 mm long; involucellar bracts ca. 14, 14 to 
In preparing a treatment of the Malvaceae for 16 mm long in flower, to 25 mm long in fruit, linear, 

„^. ^.T^^^^^^^^ ^.^^ '^':''"'^ T^'"'" ^V^^ ^^^^"*^' ^^ly^ 2 cm long in flower to 5 cm long in 

cylindric, prominently 20-ribbed, accres- 

nflated) in fmit. densely hirsute (hairs 2 to 4 

that one taxon that pertains to the area, here- fj^j^ 
in treated as a subspecies of Hibiscus trilobus Au- „^„t 

blet, did not as yet have a name. Ahhou^h the plant i j j- \ .i_ i n i i 

■ I V .. t ni I 1 /ir^^^N ^^ ^^"g ^"^ spreading), the shallow lobes acumi- 

was recognized as distinct by Blanchard (1976), . * i r . ^ i • i / ,i ■ , . 

u * • J u . ■; L • • 1 1 "^^^' petals 5 to 11 cm long, pink (yellowish in 

who treated H trilobus as comprising three subspe- . ^ • i i i i i , 

cies from Surinam, the Caribbean (Jamaica, His- ^'""1 ""l i ^ \ "'^ '''""' '^^ ^^^^ 

paniola. and Puerto Rico), and Central America ^^"r,/ P^l^^"' ^^^ T^""'', P^^^^.^^' ^^^^f^ 5' ^ 
(Belize and Guatemala), the 

for these sub- ^^^ti^^'y glabrous, with capitate stigmas. Capsules 

species have not previously been effectively pub- 


lished. The present paper intends to rectify that P^"*' ^^^^^ ^^^""^ ^ "^^ ^^"6' ^^^^^ 3.5 to 4 mm, 

short-pubescent, the hairs rusty-red. 

omission and make the names available. 

Hibiscus trilobus subsp. hirsutus 0. J. Blanchard 

Two of the collections cited for Hibiscus trilobus 

& Fryxell, subsp. nov. TYPE: Guatemala. Pe- ^""^^P' ^'''^^^ (Aguilar 486 and Proctor 30054) 
i6n: La Libertad and vicinity, 10 May 1935, "^^^^ originally distributed as Hibiscus diversifolius 
M. Aguilar 486 (holotype, NY; isotypes, F, F Ja^^q^^"' »« additional duplicates of these coUec- 

photo 56202, LL). Figure L 

Ab Hibisco Iriloho sLibs[). iriloho et subsp. ingrato foliis 
minus profunde 3-5(raro 7)-k)bis, Jndumenlo piluruin er- 
ecloruiii tenuium simnlirium 2-4 mm lorifronim distin- 

tions might be found in other herbaria filed under 
the latter name. 

The distribution of the three subspecies, as in- 
dicated in the following key, is mapped by Blan- 

guetidut,, [>uLcsceiUia densissima liirsuta ppiiolis pedicel- chard (1976: 280, fig. 10), and a photograph of the 

lis bracteis involucralibus et calyci dimidio inferiore. 

holotype of ^. trilobus subsp. hirsutus is reproduced 


)s or 

bshrubs 2 to 5 m tall, the stems whh (blanchard, 1976: 346, fig. 43). 

Stout, often bulbous-based prickles, simple hairs 3 

to 4 mm long, and also longitudinal lines of smaller, Paratypes, BKLIZE. Toledo, s.l., 25 Jan. 1929, Ste- 

ives cordate. cren^\^.^^rr^i^ nr. tn ^"^'^" ^^ ^^)'^ ^ayo, Chiquibul Forest Reserve, vicinity of 


14 cm long, 15 to 17 cm wide, broadly and shal- 

500 to 1700 

ft., 24 Apr. 1969, Proctor 30054 (IJ, LL, MOJ. GUATE- 

lowly 3- to 5-angled or -lobulate (rarely 7-lobulate), MALA. Peten: San Antonio, 13 km camino Libertad, Flo- 

. . , above 

NovoN 10: 190-192. 2000. 

res, 14 Feb. 1970, Tiln Ort{z 7]3 (MICH, US). 

Volume 10, Number 3 

Blanchard & Fryxell 
Subspecies of Hibiscus triiobus 


5 cm 

Figure 1. Hibiscus triiobus subsp. hirsutus 0. J. Blanchard & Fryxell. Left: maximally developed leaf (pubescence 
omitted); ri^lit: calyx at antliesis (above) and in fruit (below), showing the nature of the pubescence and the degree of 
accrescence. [Drawings based on Agullar 486 (LL) and Proctor 30054 (LL). Drawn by P. A. Fryxell.] 

Hibiscus triiobus subsp. ingratus (Miquel) 0. J. from the "West Indies, Guiana" in Hibiscus triiobus, 

Blanchard & Fryxell, stat. et comb. nov. Bas- evidently in reference to what is here treated as 

ionym: Hibiscus ingratus Miquel, Linnaea 19: subspecies triiobus and subspecies ingratus, re- 

143. 1847. TYPE: Surinam ("prope Paramar- spectively. However, Kearney (1957) also distin- 

ibo juxta rivulum"), Foche s.n. (lectotype, here guished H ingratus from H. triiobus and cited the 

designated, K). 

former as from "Guiana and perhaps in Brazil, 


The three taxa treated in the key (below) are geo- leaving the matter in some confusion. Blanchard 

graphically disjunct and morphologically distinct, (1988) published Hibiscus sect. Striati 0. J. Blan- 

but they are sufficiently similar that they are best chard to include this species and H. striatus. Each 

grouped as subspecies of a single species. As pre- of these two species comprises three subspecies. 

cedent, Kearney (1955, 1957) included material Specimens may be reliably keyed to H. triiobus us- 


No von 

ing the key in Kearney (1955) and to the subspe- 
cies of H, trilobus using the following key, which is 
slightly modified from Blanchard (1976: 199 in un- 
published dissertation). Blanchard distinguished 

number, 18 to 30 mm long in flower; leaves 
mostly 3-lobed; Surinam 

H. trilobus subsp. ingratus 

Acknowledgments. The curators of the herbaria 
the three subspecies of H, trilobus on characters of cited (F, IJ, LL, MICH, MO, NY, US) are thanked 
pubescence, leaf shape, and size and number of for lending specimens in their care or for facilitat- 

involucellar bracts, as is indicated below. 




Pubcscenee on the calyx, pedicel, and young 
stem spreading-liirhule, the liairs 2 to 4 mm long; 
loaves 3 to 5 (to rarely 7)-angulate or -lobulale; 
Guatemala and Belize 

H. trilohius subsp. hirsutus 

Pubescence on the calyx appressed to erect but 
never hirsute, the hairs of the young stem and 
pedicel short; leaves 3- to 5-lobcd, the lobes 
acute to acuminate. 

2a. Involucellar l)racts 12 to 16 in number, 14 
to 17(rarely 18) mm long in flower; leaves 3- 
or 5-lobed; Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto 

Rico //. trilobus subsp. trilobus 

2b. Involucellar bracts 8 to ll(rarely 12) in 

ing visits to their herbaria. 

Literature Cited 

Blanchard, O. J., Jr. 1976. A Revision of Species Segre- 
gated from Hibiscus sect. Trionum (Medieus) De Can- 
dolle sensu lalo (Malvaceae). Unpublished Ph.D. Dis- 
sertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 
(Available from University Microfilms, 77-5723.) 

. 1988. New sections in HibLsciLs. Appendix 2, pp. 

470-471 in: P. A. Fryxell, Malvaceae of Mexico. Syst. 
Bot. Monogr. 25: 1-522. 

Kearney, T. H. 1955. A tentative key to the North Amer- 
ican species of Hibiscus. Leafl. W. Rot. 7: 274-284. 

. 1957. A tentative key to the South American spe- 
cies oUIibiscus L. Leafl. W. Bot. 8: 161-168. 

Mesoamerican Orchid Novelties 3 

Robert L. Dressier 

Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A.; 
Florida Museum of Natural History; Marie Selby Botanical Gardens; Mailing address 

21305 NW 86th Ave., Micanopy, Florida 32667, U.S.A. 

ABSTf{ACT. Five new Mesoamerican species are Arpophyllum giganteum subsp. medium (Rei- 

described in the ort:hi(l genera Chysis, Scaphyglot- 
tis, and Sobralia. Chysis addita Dressier (Chiapas) 
and C orichalcea Dressier (El Salvador), described 

allies of Chysis laevis Lindley with shorter 
and wider segments; C. addita has laminar keels 
and winglike extensions on the column foot; the 
predominantly yellow C. orichalcea has convex lat- 
eral lip margins. The new species Scaphyglottis bi- 
callosa Dressier (Costa Rica) has smaller, more nu- 
merous flowers than 5. amparoana (Schlechter) 
Dressier and a higher, bilobed callus. Also new, 
Scaphyglottis monspirrae Dressier (Panama) has 
narrower leaves than S. punctulata (Reichenbach 
f.) C. Schweinfurth and a three-lobed lip. Another 
novel species, Sobralia purpurea Dressier (Costa 
Rica), has lanceolate leaves 1—2.5 cm wide and an 

chenbach f.) Dressier, comb. nov. Basionym: 
Arpophyllum medium Reichenbach f., Beitr. 
Orch.-K. C. Amen: 89. 1866. TYPE: Guate- 
mala. Las Nubes, 9 I 1857, Wendland s.n. (ho- 
lotype, W). 

Tlie genus Aq)ophyllum is a small group of very 
similar species, with little variation in flower structure. 
CorreU (1947) recognized only two species, A. alpin- 
um and A. spicatum La Uave & Lexarza, differing in 
the length of the sepals, petals, and lip. Arpophyllum 
spicatum^ the type of the genus, is quite distinctive in 
its thick, succulent leaves. As noted by Garay (1970, 
1974), A. luxiflvrum is also clearly distinct in its sub- 
entire lip and the puberulent surface of the ovaries. 
Garay recognized five species, with A. medium being 

. ^ 1 1 ui 1* T^u r intermediate between A, gifranteum and A, alpinum. 

mtensely purple, oblong lip. the synonymy ol r • i i » • a - 

Chysis bruennowiana Reichenbach f. & Warscewicz 

and the identity of C. tricostata Schlechter are dis- 
cussed. New combinations are published for Arpo- 
phyllum giganteum, subsp. alpinum (Lindley) 
Dressier, A. giganteum subsp. medium (Reichen- 
bach f.) Dressier, and Scaphyglottis pachybulbon 

(Schlechter) Dressier. 

This paper continues the descriptions of new 
species found in the preparation of the Orchidaceae 
for Flora Mesoamericana and new combinations 
needed for that treatment (Dressier, 1997, 1998). 

While the aspects of typical A. alpinum^ A, gigan- 
teum, and A. medium are distinctive, tliere is much 
variation, with the limits between A. medium and the 
other two being unclear, though A. alpinum, of high 
elevations, cannot be confused with A. giganteum, of 
low elevations. As A. medium is intennediate between 
these and I find no feature that will consistently dis- 
tinguish it from either extreme, I am compelled to 
treat all three as subspecies of A. giganteum. 

Key to thk Spp:ciks and Sl hsi'kciks ok AHf'orHYU.iiM 


ew species 

described in the genera Chysis, 
Scaphyglottis, and Sobralia, and new combinations 
are published in Arpophyllum and Scaphyglottis. 


Ovary anH rarhis spars(»ly glandiilar-pubem- 
lent, without black scales or trii-homes 2 



Ovary and rachis with prominent black scales 

and Irichomes 

2(1). Leaves fleshy, canaliculate, rannot be flattened 
without breaking 


A. spicatum La Llave & Lexar/a 

Arpophyllum giganteum Hartweg ex Lindley, 2'. Leaves leather), not canaliculate, easily flat- 

Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 4: 384. 1840. TYPE: 

Mexico. Between Tonatze and Tal 
Hartweg s.n. (holotype, K-L). 



tened A. laxifiorum Pfitzer 

Lateral sepals 4—5 mm long; column less than 
3 mm; leaves usually more than 2.5 cm wide; 

inflorescence 10-16 X 1,8-2.5 cm 

Arpophyllum giganteum subsp. alpinum (Lind- 
ley) Dressier, comb. nov. Basionym: Arpophyl- 
lum alpinum Lindley, Benth. PL Hartw.: 93. 

A. giganteum subsp. giganlcum 


Lateral sepals 6—9 mm long; column usually 3 
mm or more; leaves up to 2.5 cm wide; inflo- 
rescence either shorter or wider than above . . 


1842. TYPE: Guatemala. In montibus Totoni- 4(3), I„norescence 3-7 cm long 

capan, Hartweg s.n. (holotype, K-L). 

A. alpinum subsp. alpinum 

NovoN 10: 193-200. 2000. 


No von 

4'. Inflorescence 6-10 cm 

18-20 X 3.2-1 

A, alpinum subsp. medium ir i jiioio ^ i- 

^ ca. 15 cm long, peduncle 12-13 cm long, rachis 


ca. 3 cm long, with 3 flowers (in type), floral bracts 


The genus Chysis is generally s 

both in the 6 cm; ovary and pedicel 23 mm long; dorsal sepal 

fiehl and in herl)aria. Its scarcity in herbaria may narrowly obovate, obtuse, 25 X 13 mm; lateral 

be due, in part, to the thick pseudobulbs and the P^^^ oblong-ovate, apically oblique, subacute, 22 X 

large, fleshy flowers. A further problem Is that flow- 16.7 mm; petals cuneate-obovate, falcate, 27 X 8- 

ers pressed when old and wilted are slow to rehy- 10 ^^'■> lip 3-lobed, 20 X 31 mm, base cordate, 

drate. Storing them in alcohol for two or tliree lateral lobes obliquely ovate, obtuse, 8-9 X 8 mm; 

weeks may be necessary. Hooker (1861) felt the midlobe broadly flabellate with raised veins, mar- 
"structure of flowers, pseudobulbs, and foliage" of S^ns undulate, 7 X 15 mm; base of lip glabrous, 
C, limminghei to be "identical with the oth 
far as known, all Chysis lips have three or five larg- 

Ag keels 3, not reaching base of midlobe, basally low, 

ormine 3 rounded lamellae 5-6 X 1.5-2 

er keels and usually two to several smaller, lateral "^"^' column 12-13 mm long, column foot 10 nun 

keels. Paul Allen (1955), following Hooker and oth- ^^"g' with rounded lateral lobes near apex, with a 
ers, chose tlu^ keels as the primary feature In clas- small appendix or callus between column foot and 
sification and reduced Chysis to two species and ^^^^ ^^ ^^P- 

several varieties, depending on the presence of 5 
large and 2 smaller keels in C. aiirea, or, In C 
laevis, 3 large and 2 smaller keels. This system 

(Allen, 1955) ignores significant differences in the 
keels and in other features, but was used for many 
years, partly because so little material of the genus 
is available. The two new species described here 
are both allies of C laevis, having thick pseudo- 
bulbs and smooth keels on the lip. Another plant, 
more similar to C. aurea and painted by Rodriguez 
C, is also clearly undescribed, but I have seen no 
pressed material of the species (Rodrfgucz C. et ah, 
1986). There are plants, apparently of this species. 

This species resembles C. laevis in having three 
large keels on the lip, but the keels are laminar, 
rather than thick and fleshy. The flower parts are 
all shorter and proportionately wider than in C lae- 

vis. The most distinctive feat 


e species are 

found on the column foot. The foot has small, 
rounded wings beyond the middle, and distal to the 

wings there is a curious appendix between the col- 
umn foot and the lip. The epithet, addita, refers to 
this appendix or addition. This very distinctive spe- 
cies is known only from the type but should appear 
elsewhere in Chiapas and in Guatemala. 

in cultivation, and I believe its description should 
wait until specimens are available. 

Chysis orichalcea Dressier, sp. nov. TYPE: El 

Salvador. Cerro Los Naranjos, 1850 m elev.. 
Mar., F Hamer 162 (holotype, AMES; isotype, 
SEL). Figure lE-G. 

Chysis laevi Lindley similis sed segmentis brevioribus, 
latioribus, labello rotundato diffcrt. 

Chysis addita Dressier, sp. nov. TYPE: Mexico. Chia- 
pas: Cintalapa, epiphytic, moist ridge witli Pinus, 
QuerciLs, and Uqiddambar and Montane Rain 
Forest between Colonia Francisco I. Madero and 
Colonia A. I/ipez Mateos, elev. 1250 m, flowers 
yellow and maroon, 31 Dec. 1980, Z). E, Breedlove 
49026 (lu.lotype, CAS). Figure lA-D. 

Chpis lann Li,ul]^y similis sed segmentis brevioribus, nilnate. Peduncle 12-20 cm, raceme 3-12 cm, sev- 

lalionbus, callo ,\ laniellis instmcto, pede coliimnae or- in j n i i . i -.« 

_„. ^ eral-tlowered, floral bracts lance-ovate, acute, 12- 




20-26 X 2-3 cm, clavate. Leaves several, 10-40 
X 2-7 cm (including short petioles), elliptic, acu- 


15 X 4-6 

Roots lelty, 1.5—3 mm diam.; stems caespitose. 




an 23 cm long, clavate, long-stipitate; marked with red stripes; dorsal sepal obovate-ob- 

leaves several, petioles 3-3.5 cm long, blades el- 

26^32 X 10-1 

Figure I. A-I). Chysis addita Dressier {Breedlove 49026). — A. Perianth parts, flattened. — B. I^lt-ral view of column. 
--C, D. Two views of calhis. E-G. Chysis orichalcea Drrssler {Hamer 546). — E. Periantli parts, flattened. — F. lateral 
view of coliiMiii. — G. Lip and callus, the nt-ar lateral lobe lost. — H. Chysis bruerwowiana Heichcnbach f. & Warscewicz 
(liquitl material of cultivated plant), two views of callus. — 1. Chysis tricostata Sclilechter {Horich 60-7-43), two views 
of callus. 

Volume 10, Number 3 


Mesoamerican Orchid Novelties 







5 mm 

1 cm 

1 cm 


Figure 2. A-C. Scaphyglottis hicallosa Dressier {Lankester 978). — A. Periiiiitli j);irts, flattened. — B. Lateral view of 

:olumn antl lip. — C. Ventral view of column. D-F. Scaphyglottis amparoana (Schlechler) Dressier {Dressier 5577). 
D. Perianth jiarts, flattened. — E. Lateral view of column and lip. — F. Ventral view of eolumn. 

ovate, 23-27 X 11-14 mm; petals spatulate, fal- Woukinc; Kky to Known Spkciks ok C//ks7.s 
cate, 25-30 X 7-13 mm, blades obovate, obtuse; 
lip 15-19 X 25-30 mm, 3-lobed, lateral lobes ob- 

long, obt 

,11X9 mm; midlobe transversely 

oblong, ca. 10 X 11 mm, margins undulate, base 
broadly rounded, with 3 major keels and 2 much 
shorter, glabrous, apices rounded; column ca. 11 
mm, with foot 7-8 mm. 

Chysis orirhalcea also resembles C. laevis but 
differs in having shorter and wider perianth seg- 
ments and in the strongly convex lateral margins of 
the lip (when flattened). Like C addita, this species 
has something of a callus at the tip of the column 
foot; a similar, though smaller, callus may some- 
times be found in C. laevis. The epithet orichalcea 
is derived from the Latin orichalcum, chalcopyrite 
or foolV gold. Though the flowers of this species are 
quite golden, it is not the real C. aurea, whose 
thick, puberulent, subequal keels diverge distally. 

Paratype, V.L SALVADOR. Hoquerdn del Voledn San 
Salvador, forest No. slope, 18(M) m elev., 31 Mar. 1976, 
Hamer 546 (AMKS). 

la. Base of lij) pnbenilent; major keels of lip 5, sub- 
equal or lateral keels shorter; base of lip tapering 
to point of attachment. 

2a. Keels free, parallel, not forming large, raised 

3a. Keels thick, fleshy, diverging distally 

C. a 

3b. Keels laminar, not fleshy, parallel 


* 4 

Rodrfguez painting 

2b. Keels united to form a large, raised, fleshy 

callus with porreet apex. 

4a. Keels markedly unequal, 3 median 

keels much longer than 2 lateral keels, 

projecting forward 2-3 mm from distal 

attaclirnent; pseudobulhs slender, 1-1.5 

em wide, flexible C. brucnnowiana 

4b. Keels 5, subequal; pseudobulhs 1.5-4 
em thick, not flexible. 
5a. Se[>als and petals while; some floral 
bracts as much as 2.5 em long, 
ovate, conspicuous; pseudobulhs 
elavate, distinctly stipitate 
C. hrartesceris 

« 4 * 

51). Sepals and p<'tals marked with [nir- 
ple; floral bracts 10-15 mm long. 

inconspicuous; f>seudobuIbs oblong 


Volume 10, Number 3 


Mesoamerican Orchid Novelties 


5 mm 


10 mm 

Figure 3. Scaphyglottis monspirrae Dressier {Dressier 5668) 
and column. — C. Ventral view of column. 

A. Perianth parts, flattened. — B. Lateral view of lip 

Figure 4. Sobralia purpurea Dressier (Mora & Qairos s,n,) 
— B. Perianth parts, flattened. 

A. Part of stem with leaves and inflorescence hracts 


No von 

or ellipsoid, sessile or short-stipi- 

tate C limminghei 

lb. Base of lip glabrous; major keels 3 or 5, mark- 
edly unequal if 5; base of lip broadly rounded or 

6a. Appendix present between column foot and 
lip; column fool with distinct wings; keels 

laminar C. addita 

6b. Appendix lacking; colunui foot without 
wings or these minute, keels fleshy. 
7a. Dorsal sepal 3.5-4 cm long; lateral 
lobes of lip distinctly shorter than mid- 
lobe, lateral margins straight or shallow- 
ly concave In basal 1/2 to 2/3 . . . C. laei^is 
7b. Dorsal sepal 2.6-3 cm long; lateral 
lobes of lip subequal to midlobc, lateral 
margins prominently convex throughout 
C. orichalcea 


The taxonomy of Scaphyglottis is in relatively 
good order because of Adams s (1993) recent re- 
vision, but several novelties have appeared since 


Chysis bruennowiana Reichenbach f. & War- 

Scaphyglottis bicallosa Dressier, sp. nov. TYPE: 
Costa Rica. Cartago: Navarro, flowered at Las 
C6ncavas, 10 Apr. 1925, C H. Lankester 978 
(holotype, AMES). Figure 2A-C. 

Scaphyglottis amparoanae (Schlechler) Dressier similis, 
sed floribus minoribus et multioribus, labello pandurato- 
obovato, basi alte bicalloso differt. 

Epiphytic, to at least 45 cm tall; roots smooth, 

whitish. 0.5-1.5 mm diam • basal ^tprrm Ifi-?'^ nm 

scewicz, Bot. Zeit. 15: 157. 1857. TYPE: Peru. long, with several levels of superposed shoots de- 

Warscewicz, cult. Brunnow (W). 

Cliysis (Hired var. maculata Hooker, bot. Mag. 77: t. 4576. 
1851. Cliysis maculata (Hooker) Fowlie, Orchid Di- 
gest 35: 86. 1971. Syn. nov. TYPE: Colombia. Cull. 
Lucombe & Fince (K-L?). 

Chysis costartcc/i^LS Schlechler, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni 

Veg. Beih. 19: 297. 1923. Syn. nov. TYPF: Costa 

creasing in size upward; stems stout but not pseu- 
dobulbous, to ca. 5 mm diam., basally covered by 



16(X) m, mai 1913, A. Tonduz 17631 (CR). 



culata in Central America are indistinguishable 
from the South American C. bruennowiana, which 
is more similar to C, aurea Lindley than to the other 
named species of Central America (see Fig. IH). 

late, 9.5-21 X 0.7-1.2 cm, apically asymmetrically 
retuse; inflorescence terminal, from a cluster of sev- 
eral bracts, the bracts to 21 X 6 mm, the outer 
bracts verruculose; raceme 5-6 cm long, fractiflex, 
with 6-8 flowers; floral bracts 16-21 X 7-13 mm, 
elliptic, keeled, caducous; sepals and petals green- 
ish buff, lip white with chrome yellow blotch; ovary 





ceolate-oblong, basally cuneate, apiculate, 8.5- 

ChyHis tricostata Schlechter, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. 10.5 X 2.2-2.5 mm; lip 3-Iobed, ca. 5 X 5.5 mm, 

Berlin-Dahlem 8: 123. 1923. TYPE: Cult. Bot. basally short unguiculate, attached to column foot, 

Gart. Berlin-Dahlem, "wahrscheinlich Central sharply bent near base, the bend with 2 high calli, 

America" (B destroyed, Schlechter sketch at blade obovate, the lateral lobes ca. 1 mm long, mid- 


Though Fowlie (1971) published 

lobe transversely oblong, shallowly retuse, 2 X 5.5 
PI nim; column ca, 5 mm long, arcuate, winged, with 

Americ^" Chysis -^nA {nLT^Zrr^Lnxi^rom IL ^ P''^^"^"*' concave foot, the free portion ca. 1.5 
Rfo Birris Canyon, in Costa Rica, as C. tricostata, "'"^ '""^' P"""^^* ^"^ "^""^'"S "P^^''^ ^° ^^^^ ^^ 

none of his material was preserved. I have seen no 
good material of C. tricostata, but Schlechter's 


This species is closely allied to Scaphyglottis 
sketch of the type specimen (AMES) agrees well amparoana (Schlechter) Dressier, from which it dif- 
with Fowlie's characterization and with a flower fers in the smaller, more numerous flowers, and es- 
from a Horioh collection also from the valley of the pecially in the column foot and the base of the lip. 

Rfo Birris (MO accession 60-7-43, Fig. II). The In S. amparoana the column foot is porrect, and 
absence of small lateral keels in addition to the the blade of the lip is thickest basally, slightly sul- 
three large keels in the Schlechler sketch of the cate, and gradually thinner toward the apex (see 
type may be an oversight. I would prefer not to Fig. 2D-F). In S. bicallosa the column foot bends 
select a lectotype or a neotype without better ma- somewhat upward and the base of the blade is bent 
terial than is now available. Whether C. tricostata upward and again downward, with a thick, two- 
is an extreme fonn of C. laevis or a distinct species parted callus at the bend. The proportions of the 

lip and column also suggest that these are distinct 
species. Noting that the description of Costaricaea 



Volume 10. Number 3 


Mesoamerican Orchid Novelties 


amparoana (Schlechter, 1923: 31) indicated rela- 

Table 1. A comparison of Staph ) glottis lindeniana 

lively small flowers, Adams (1993) apparently and S. pachyhalhon. 
feared that the material of 5. bicallosa might actu- :::^^^^^^^^^^ 

ally correspond to the type of 5. amparoana. I have 

examined other specimens of 5. amparoana from Stipe 
the type locality, La Palma de San Jose, and while 
they do have smaller flowers than most other S, 
amparoana, they are larger than the flowers of S. 
bicallosa and they do not show the other distinctive 
features of that species. Schlechter's sketch of the 
lip of 5. amparoana (at AMES) suggests an imper- 
fectly rehydrated flower, but the lip is still quite 
unlike that of S. bicallosa. 

Paratype. COSTA RICA. Cartago: La Fuenle, 1200 
m, 9 Apr. 1925, A. Alfaro 72 (AMES, US). 



S. pachyhulbon 

5. lindeniana 

shorter than pseu- longer than pseu- 

dohulb, slender 

wider, length = 3— 

Base of lip 
(below bend) 

dobulb, usually 

thickest basally 
narrow, length 

= 6-10 X 

widest below mid- middle subequal to 

die, white apex, green 

shorter than blade longer than blade 

5 X widll 


Scaphyglottis monspirrae Dressier, sp. nov. 
TYPE: Panama. Darien: Cerro Pirre, elev. 

wider leaves, a much narrower lip, and the lip and 

1200-1400 m, 15-16 July 1977,/?. L Dressier ^^l^"^" f^*^^ are more distinctly '^sigmoid" than in 

5668 (holotype, MO). Figure 3. 

Scaphyglottis punctidatae (Reichenbach f.) C. Schwein- 
furtli similis, sed foliis angustioribus, labello j)rofun(!c tri- 
lobat(t differt. 

this or any other Scaphyglottis species, with the lip 
folding back on the column foot and then forward 
again on itself in a pronounced and compressed 
"Z/^ Both S. monspirrae and S. triloba are known 
from little material, and a more detailed comparison 

Epiphytic, 20-50 cm tall, with 2 or 3 levels of of the two must wait until better material is avail- 
superposed shoots, with the stems decreasing in able. The epithet, monspirrae, refers to the type lo- 
size upward; stems slender, not forming distinct cality, Cerro Pirre. 
pseudobulbs; roots 0.5—1 mm diam., whitish. 

smooth; basal stems 24-36 cm long, with striate 
sheaths bearing persistent leaf blades similar to the 
apical leaves; apical leaves 2, lanceolate-ligulate, 
tapering, narrowly retuse, 9—18.5 cm X 5-7 mm; 
sepals and petals brownish green, lip cream; ovary 
and pedicel 15—20 mm long; sepals elliptic or ob- 
long, acute, 9-9.5 X 2.3—3 mm; petals narrowly 
elliptic or lanceolate, acute, 9-9.5 X 1.7-4 mm; 

Scaphyglottis pachybulbon (Schlechter) Dress- 
ier, comb. nov. Basionym: Hexadesmia pachy- 
bulbon Schlechter, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni 
Veg. Beih. 17: 26. 1922. TYPE: Panama. C. 
W, Powell 229 (holotoype, B destroyed; iso- 

types, AMES, MO). 

Even with the removal of Scaphyglottis pachy- 

lip 3-lobed, 9—10 X 7-9 mm, with low U-shaped ,77 r n ^ t>' j * o q v 

\, ' ..,,,., , bulbon, 01 Losta Kica and western ranama, o. lin- 

callus near base of blade, base articulate to column 
foot, broadly cuneate with erect margins, lateral 
lobes antrorse-triangular, rounded, 1 X 1.8 mm, 
midlobe subquadrate, subtruncate, 2.3 X 4.2 mm, 
verruculose; column 5—5.5 mm long, arcuate, 
winged distally, the wings rounded-triangular, 
somewhat antrorse, column foot prominent, ca. 1.5 

deniana remains a variable species ranging from 
Mexico to Bolivia. John Atwood finds S. pachyhul- 
bon to be sympatric with S, lindeniana in the area 
of Monteverde and considers them quite distinct 
(pers. comm.). Further, preliminary analyses of 
DNA suggest that 5. lindeniana and S. pachybulbon 
are closely allied but distinct (Dressier, Williams 
& Whitten, in prep.). While no one feature is ab- 
The presence of well-developed leaves at mid- solute in separating them, there are a number of 
stem suggests a close relationship between 5. mon- features that, together, separate them quite well 




spirrae and 5. punctulata (Reichenbach f.) C. The pseudobulbs are different in shape, the basal 

Schweinfurth, and especially with the form of S. stipes are much shorter in S. pachybulbon, and the 

punctulata that occurs in central Panama, without proportions of the lip are also distinctive. The only 

pseudobulbs and with many persistent lateral specimens about which I have any doubts are very 

leaves. The distinctly 3-lobed lip suggests affinity poor or quite incomplete. The differences in pro- 

with S. triloba B. R. Adams. Such a relationship portion of both plant and flower are summarized in 

cannot be discounted, though 5. triloba has much Table 1. 




SuLralia purpurea Dressier, sp. nov. TYPE: Costa i . n 

^. ^ , „ i . when in ilower. 

Dota. So far, we have been unable to re-collect the 
plant in either area, but the plants should stand out 

Rica. San Jos6: Carretera Interamericana Sur, 
km 39, Casa Mata, entrada a San Cristobal, 

Acknowledgments. I am very much indebted to 

800 m, junio 1990, floreci6 en cultivo 19 Abril Stig Dalstrom for preparing the drawings of the new 
1993, Dora E. Mora & Carlos Quiros s,n, (ho- taxa, to Eric Hdgsater and the staff of A MO for 

lolype, USJ). Figure 4. 

discussion oi Arpophyllum and for the loan of useful 
material of Chysis, and to Roberto Gonzdlez Tamayo 

Herba epiphytica vel terrestris, folia distk-ha, lanceo- f^, j^^j ^■^^^ ^^e Latin diagnoses. 
lata, acuminata, Hos lemunalis, smgulis vel successiva, 
sepalum dorsale oblanoeolatum, sepala lateral ia elliptico- 
lanreolata, lahellum in basi convolutuni, lamina expansa Literature Cited 

Kulxjiiadrato-ohlonga, retusa differt. 

Plant ca. 1 m or more in height; leaves disti- 

chous, 1 

late, caudate-acuminate, 15-18 X 

1.1-2.5 cm, sparsely lepidote beneath, texture pa- 
pery, witli 9 major veins (including marginal veins). 

Adams, H. R. 1993. A Taxonomic Revision of the Genus 
Scnphyglottis Poeppig & Endl. (Orchidareae-Epiden- 
droideae). Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Illinois Univer- 
sity at Carbondale. 

Allen, P. H. 1955. A revision of the genus Chysis. Amer. 

Orchid Soc. Bull. 24: 664-666. 

sheaths striate, glabrous; inflorescence terminal, Correll, D. S. 1947. Some revisions of American orchids. 

bract cluster ellipsoid, 5.5-6 cm long, bracts stri- 

Lloydia 10: 214^217. 

. 1 1 J * J- ^ 11 111 1 . Dressier, R. L. 1997. Novedades en oniufdeas mesoam- 

ate, sparsely lepidote distally; sepals oblanceolate, ...v.„.._i n....;^«.i.„<. on. o^i oU 

subobtuse, dorsal 7.5-S X 2.1 cm, laterals 8.5-8.9 
X 2-2.3 cm; petals narrowly ovate, subacute, 7— 

encanas — 1. Orquideologfa 20: 253-265 

. 1W8. Orchids of Mesoamerica 2, Cranichidinae. 

Bob Inst. Rot. Univ. Guadalajara 5: 69-86, 

7.9 X 2.3-3 cm; lip subquadrate oblong, 8.5-9.5 Dun^terville, G. C. K. & L. A. Garay. 1965. Venezuelan 

X 4.5-4.9, apparently without keels; midlobe 3.3 
X 4.2 cm, deeply retuse, somewhat crisped; column 
3.3 cm, clavate. 

Orcliids Illustrated, vol. 3. Andre Deutscli, London. 
Fowlie, J. A. 1971. Obscure species: Tliree distinctive 
species of Chysis from Central America. Orchid Digest 

35: 85-87. 

Garay, L. A. 1970. Notas sobre el g^nero Arpophyllum y 

This new species is distinctive in its narrow, cau- su ocuncncla en Colombia. Orquideologfa 5: 66-73. 

date leaves of rather thin texture, in the nearly 

bracts, and especially in the 


. 1974. Sinopsis del g^nero Arpophyllum. Orquf- 

dea (M^x.) 4: 3 19. 

^_. k ui 1- U' u • J •!_ J 1 • Hooker, W. J. 1861. Chysis aurea van lemminf^hei Hot. 

narrow, suboblong lip, which is described as being w r T'\ ^Of^ 

Mag. Tab. 5265. 

intensely purple, or "casi nazareno." There is some Rodrfguez C, R. L, D. E. Mora, M. F. Barahona & N. H. 


Williams. 1986. G^neros de orqufdeas de Costa Rica. 

of the collectors remembers the plant as being Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jos^. 

found near Casa Mata, as recorded on the label, Schlechter, R. 1923. Beitrage .ur Orchideenkunde von 

, ., , . , , - ,11 Zentralamerika. 11. Additamenta ad Orchideolomam 

while the other remembers the plant as collected Costaricensem. Rcpert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 19: 1- 

on the road between Empalme and Santa Marfa de 307. 

Three New South American Species of Randia 

(Rubiaceae, Gardenieae) 

Claes G. R. Gustafsson 

Botanical Institute, Systematic Botany, Box 461, 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden 

Abstract. Three new species of South American nus there is also variation in the structure of the 
Randia (Rubiaceae, Gardenieae) are described and inflorescence. The inflorescences are usually ter- 
illustrated: Randia wigginsii Standley ex Gustafs- minal l)Ut sometimes axillary or cauliflorous (Burger 
son from montane tropical forests in Ecuador and & Taylor, 1993). Female flowers are usually solitary 
northern Peru is mainly recognized by its tomentose but sometimes in fascicles of 2 to 8 flowers (Burger 
to velutinous corolla tube and the lanate-velutinous & Taylor, 1993). The male flowers are usually in 
pedicels and fruits. The possible features of being fascicles with a few to several flowers but some- 
unarmed and having single male flowers are dis- times form cymes with many flowers (Lorence & 
cussed. Randia puhLstyla Gustafsson from lowland Nee, 1987; Lorence & Dwyer, 1987) and are some- 
tropical dry forests in western Ecuador and Colom- times solitary. This large variation makes it difficult 
bia is recognized by its puberulous style, the to- to understand which genus has the closest affinities 
mentose to puberulous fruits that usually are to Randia, 

crowned by a calyx with reflexed lobes, and by the 

small thorns. Randia longifolia Gustafsson from 

lowland tropical humid forests in western Ecuador nent tetrads may represent a natural group. Thi 

is mainly recognized by its relatively large, gla- gained support in a phylogenetic analysis by Pers- 

Robbrecht and Puff (1986) discussed that all 
in Gardenieae with pollen shed in perma- 




brous corolla, the linear calyx lobes, and by the son (1996) but was contradicted by Andreasen and 

reticulate finer vasculature on the abaxial surface Bremer (1996, in press) and Persson (in press), who 

of the leaves. The affinities for each species are discussed that pollen in tetrads may have arisen 

several times in Gardenieae. In Perssons (1996) 

analysis Casasia gained support as sister to Ran- 

Randia is a neotropical genus of approximately ^^^' but the later mentioned analyses did not point 

90 species ranging from ca. 30^N to 30^8. In South out any strongly supported sister to Randia. Other 

America and the Caribbean there are approximate- neotropical genera that in these analyses (Andreas- 

ly 45 species. The genus is represented by shrubs, en & Bremer, 1996, in press; Persson, in press) 

trees, and lianas in deciduous and evergreen veg- grouped together with Randia and Casasia as pos- 

etation from sea level to about 3300 m elevation. sible relatives were Rosenbergiodendron, Sphinc- 

Randia can be recognized from other members of tanthus, and Tocoyena, Sphinctanthus and Tocoyena 

by the following combination of were not included in the analyses by Andreasen 

characters: dioecious (female flowers with nonfunc- and Bremer (1996, in press). In this group the ge- 

tional stamens, male flowers with a nonfunctional nus with the morphologically nearest affinities to 

stigma and rudimentary ovary), pollen in permanent Randia is Casasia by being dioecious and having 

tetrads, a unilocular ovary with two parietal pla- pollen in tetrads. Lorence (1986) and Lorence and 

centas, fruits with many discoid seeds embedded Dwyer (1987) discussed the morphological features 

in a sweet pulp that turns dark when dry, thorns, in Casasia and Randia and also expressed doubt 

and conspicuous short-shoots with clustered stip- (Lorence & Dwyer, 1987) whether Casasia can be 

ules and leaves. There are, however, exceptions. maintained as a valid genus. More phylogenetic 

the Gard 

Monoecious and hermaphroditic species have been studies in Gardenieae need to be done in order to 
reported (Lorence & Dwyer, 1987; Burger & Taylor, find the monophyletic group to which Randia be- 
1993), pollen in dyads or monads have been re- longs. 

ported (Burger & Taylor, 1993), some species are 

The taxonomical work in Randia is complicated 

unarmed (Burger & Taylor, 1993; pers. obs.), and by the intraspecific variation in size and shape of 
sometimes the short-shoots are less conspicuous leaves, calyx lobes, degree of pubescence, persis- 
(Burger & Taylor, 1993; pers. obs.). Within the ge- tence of stipules and calyx, and number of thorns. 

NovoN 10: 201-208. 2000. 


No von 

Extensive collecting in the Neotropics in the last margins ciliate; anthers sessile, ca. 10 mm long, 

50 years has dramatically increased the number of dorsifixed in lower third, attached dislally in the 

luTharium specimens available, facilitating our un- widened part of the corolla tube, connective pro- 

derstanding of the genus. Even so, several species cess minute or absent; style glabrous, nonfunctional 

are still unsatisfactorily collected with only a single stigma lobes ca, 4 mm long; ovary rudimentary. Fe- 

or a few flowering specimens collected or none at male flowers not seen 

all. During the course of a revisionary study of 1.5-3 mm, glabrate; fruits broadly ellipsoid to sub- 
South American and Caribbean representatives of spherical, 
Randia (Gustafsson, in progress) collections rep- evated veins, densely velutinous when young, fruit 
resenting a number of undescribed species have wall ca. 1 mm thick, apex umbonate, persistent ca- 
been encountered, three of which are described be- lyx lobes similar to those of male flowers in shape, 
*w- size, and pubescence, seeds irregularly discoidal. 


4-5 X 3-4 



andia wigginsu 

TYPE: Ecuador. Loja: along Rfo Juntas, about 


Distribution and habitat. This new species is 
found in montane tropical forest from 1500 to 2250 

1944, /. L Wiggins 1099 (holotype, F; isotype! ^""Z" ^"^^f ^^' ^"^ northern Peru. The only two flow- 
ering collections examined {Wiggins 10996, Espi- 

NY). Figure 1. 

Speeies insignis habitu arhore 4-l(){-16) m alta, flori- 

nosa 1919) were collected in August and October. 

Randia wigginsii is easily recognized by the sol- 

bus sohtariis pedicellalis, nedicrllis et ovariis et ralvciim :♦ J- 11 * 1 J r 1 /I 1 .1 

,..M. l.n-to-vilnMn;. ..V... k;. -xa „.„, ..;..! 'tary, pedicellate, male and female flowers; by the 

lubis lanato-velutinis, Luiollarurn lubis 3^ mm diam. to- 


mentoso-velutiiiis, corollarum lohis cilialis, fruclibus 4-5 flowering pedicel, ovary, and calyx tube being la- 
X 3^ cm longis, velutinis, a congeneris distincta. nate-velutinous; by the tomentose to velutinous co- 
Trees 4— 10(-16) m high, dioecious. Leaf branch- 
lets velutinous when young, glabrous when old, un- 
armed. Stipules fused at base, on long shoots not . , , . , . , i . 

. ^ ^ i_ I 1 1 I 11 petiolate, subcoriaceous leaves with glabrous ad- 
seen, persistent on brachyblasts, broadly to narrow- ■ 1 ■ 1 / f V J •L\ ] I- 1 1 



3-6 mm, acute at apex, outer 
surface minutely verruculose, glabrate, inner sur- 
face with hairs and colleters at base, margin ciliate 


lo gianrous. reiioies D-i/ a i-z mm, velutinous. , j . 

Leaf blades subcoriaceous, broadly elliptic to ob- r> j- . . ,. ' 

axial sides (apart from the midrib) and slightly to 
distinctly impressed midrib and secondary veins. 
The abaxial sides are tomentose to velutinous (at 
least on vasculature) and have prominent midrib 


by assumption, as no thorns have been found on 

ovate, 8-13(-17) X 4-7(-8) cm, shortly acuminate 

at apex, cuneate to shortly attenuate at base, ad- , j. , . , , ^ , . 

. 1 . I 1 1 , 1- 1 1 I- ^^^ studied mciterial, and no mention of beine; 

axial midrib and secondary nerves slightly to dis- , . , , , i , i r,., 

,- .1 ' J * ^' • T i_ 1 • 1 armed is mentioned on the specimen labels. The 

tinctly impressed, tertiary veins slightly impressed , in- : .1,1 

. , ., , ^^yf ^wo male flowering specimens examined had 



prominent, tertiary veins slightly el- 



,1,1 1 1.1 1 J ■ 1 1 r ^^ ^^^^ collecting will reveal if this is the true state 

evated to level, vomlets level, adaxial leaf surface r d • •• rri 1 ^ • .11 

1 , , . , tor A. wigginsiL 1 he closest relatives are probably 

J , V... «„v***s^, v^iwv-iTTic.,. glabrous, abaxial r j h r 1 m 1 

7 f „ r . , , 1 . I, lound among a small group of undescribed monlane 

leat surface tomentose to velutinous all over or • /r> r • n ■ i , r . 

_ - 1 ■ J i J J • .1 species (Lrustalsson, in prep.) with laree fruits, pu- 

mainly on midrib and secondary veins, margins gla- , 1 1 n 1 ^ 

ni ,, , a T bescent leaves, and small pubescent flowers, 

owers unisexual. Male flowers solitary, rp, n ?• • • •• . 1 

».^^;^^lo in in V 1 1 c 1 * 1 .- ^"^ name Kandia wigginsii was written on the 

pedicels 10-30 X 1-1.5 mm, lanate-velutinous. , , . , , , 1 t^ 1 ^ r. 

PaK.^ i..k^ 1 o 1 1*1*- * ^^^^ designated holotype by Paul C. Standley but 

Lalyx tube 1-2 mm long, lanate-velutinous exter- ii- i j il u- 


nally, with a ring of hairs at base internally, lobes 

5, narrowly triangular to narrowly elliptic, 9-14 X 
1-2 mm, acute at apex, pilose externally, glabrous 
or with a few scattered hairs internally, margins 
membranaceous, ciliate. Corolla white, salverform; 
tube 15—18 X 3^ mm medially, tomentose to ve- 
lutinous externally, pilose in upper half internally, 
glabrous below; lobes 5, broadly elliptic to subor- 

was never published by him. 

Paratypes, ECUADOR. Chimborazo: canyon of Rfo 
Chanchdn, ca. 5 km N of Huigra, 1500-2(MK) m, Camp 
3316 (MO, NY, S, US). El Oro: Guayquichuma, 03"49'S, 




12—14 X 11-12 mm, obtuse at apex. 

glabrous externally, pilose toward base internally. 

(F. NY). Loja: 25 km (^ilamayo-Catocha, lumoff at Las 
Chinchas 2.3 km toward Pinas, 03°57'21"S, 79^9'07"W: 
2250 m, j0rgemen el al. 1464 (GB); Cerro Je Celica. 2.7 
km on Celica-GuachanamJ road, 04''05'46"S, 
79^56'45"W, 2250 m, j0rgvusen et aL 96 (GB). PERU. 
Piura: Huancahamba, Canchanue, Cerro (^liorro Blanco. 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New South American Randia 



\ ft'. 


/' - .-■■',- X 
" ■ -: ■:: •■■ ;.: ■• V 


Figure 1. Randia wigginsii Standley ex Gustafsson. 

A. Flowering branch, male specimen. 

— B. Adaxial side of 
leaf. — C. Stipules, small stipules (first and second from left) from short-shoot, large stipule from long-shoot. — D. Male 
flower liud. — E. Male flower in anthesis. — F. Calyx of male flower with two lobes removed. — G. Mah^ corolla, oi)ened. 
— H. Fmit. A, Wiggins 10996 (F); B, Diaz & Baldcdn 2455 (GB); C-E, Wiggins 10996 (F); F, Espinosa 1919 (F); G, 

Wiggins 10996 (F); H, Diaz & Baldeon 2455 (GB). 




Di<iz S. et al 2779 (CB). 

rudimentary. Female flowers not seen. Pedicels of 

5-8 X 1.0-2 


ical to ellipsoid, ca. 2-3 X L8-2.5 cm, tomentose 

uador. Guayas: 15 km E^of Guayaquil, Cerro ""^^ >^'^"^' ^T' becoming puberulous, yellow 

Mirador de los Monos, 02nO'S, 79°58'W 200 n T'T' "" ^" ''^' ^'^ """^ ^^^^^' "^^^^ 

retlexed and persistent; seeds irregularly discoidal, 


/u 1 * i^T> • * \itr\ . -r^^Mx- 5.0-9.0 mm diam, imbedded in duId. 

(holotype, GB; isotypes, MO not seen, QCNE ^ ^ 


Distribution and habitat. Randia pubistyla is 

<;.w.,M.» p... ;; / ; u »l cc • j t f^^nnd in lowland tropical dry forests in western Co- 

>pccies nanduie hebevarpae BetithatTi affinis, sed stvlis i , . , \^ , -^ yy^^v^m v.u 

piibonilis, fmclibus niajorlhus ad 2.5 X 2 cm diam., spin- 
is |>ar\'is ad 0.5 cm longas, foliis majoribus 7-16 X 4.5- 
10 fin (liffert. 

lombia and western Ecuador. The only three flow- 
ering collections examined {Brand 1082, Haught 
4792, Rubio & Palacios 2439) were collected in 

Shrubs to small trees to 6 m high, deciduous, ^^^^^^ (Ecuador) and April (Colombia). 

dioecious. Leaf branchlets tomentose when young. 

Randia pubistyla is characterized by the pul 

^•^-^-w^ <*«m<vym< J VWu4BBW^ Till 

later glabrate, thorns 1 or 2 at base of brachyblast, '''''''^ ^^^^^ ^""^ ^^^ tomentose to puberulous fruit, 
the thorns short, only to 5 mm, straight to slightly "^^'"'^ '' ''^*'^" characteristically crowned by the al- 

d at base, persistent on long "^f ^'^^^ '^^^^^^ ^^^y^ '«b^^^- ^he small (only to 

0.5 cm long) thorns on the branchlets, together with 



mm, aristate to mucronate at apex, outer surface ^^^ "'''''"y reticulate venation of the broadly ellip- 

surface with hairs and coUeters at !''^ ^.^^^ ^'^^'^^^' ^'^ '''^^^^ vegetative characters. It 
base, stipules on brachyblasts persistent, broadly '^ ^^^'^^"^ *^ Randia hebecarpa Bentham, a species 


igular to subobhme, 3-8 X 2^ 

found in northeastern South Am 

m size an 



pubescence of the flowers and leaf shape, but that 

culose, with many parallel veins, glabrous, inner 


2-^ X 0.5-1 

rface with hairs and colleters at base, margin mi- ^^"^ ^"^ "^"^ ^'^"^'^^ ^^^S^' ^^^"^^ (0.5-1.6 cm long). 

. (^-6 „..^. 

Paratypes. COLOMBIA. Anlioquia: I^ Playona, 15 
km from Turbo, 10 Mar. 1958, Bcrnal 10 (COL 2 sheets); 

to puberulous. Leaf blades papery, broadly elliptic, 


nate, sometimes apiculate at apex, attenuate at '^""* ^^ Arboletes, 5 km S of Arbolctes on rd. to Turl)o, 


plane, abaxial 



veins prominent, tertiary 4792 (COL US); rd. Tapdn del Dari^n, sector Rfo Le6n- 

midrib and 

veins less prominent to plane, veinlets plane, retic- 
ulate, adaxial leaf surface glabrous or with scat- 

MO, NY); Turbo, hills near Rio Mulatas, 300 m, Haught 




tered hairs on midrib, abaxial leaf surface tomen- , ,^^^ ,^,^ ^ . ,,,,, ^, - 

tose to puberulous when young, glabrescent, the f. f .f ^f (f ^ ^ sbeet^^^^ 

hairs on midnb and secondary veins more persis- taflcda 6246 (COL); Farque Natural Nacional, Los Kdtyos, 

tent, blade margins ± ciliate. Flowers unisexual. ^J^ P^ye rd. to Tilupo, ()-l(K) m, fx^dn 470 (COL); Los 

Male inflorescence in fascicles of 2 to 8 flowt 

4r-8 X 0.3-0 



to 0.5 mm long, pilose externally, glabrous inter- ]795 (COL. MO). ECUADOR, Esmeraldas: ca. 7 km SW 

nally, lobes 5, irregularly linear-oblong, 3-7 X 0.3- of Sua. ()0°51'N, 78T,a'W, 50 m, Webster 22822 (MO); 

1.5 mm, acute to shortly acuminate at apex, gla- ^*^"^ Mutiles. 00°54'S, 79°37'W. 20(V3(X) m, Cornejn & 

brous or pilose toward base externally, glabrous ^;""/"- ^-^^ (GB, GUAY). Manabi: 5 km from Jama on 

,•„.„ 11 • c I • . . -v ^1? , . "'• 'o Peflemales, 00°10'N, 80"14'W, 50 m Conieiu & 

in emally, margni fi.nbnate to cihate. Corolla white, «„„y-,, .,836 (GUAY). Guanas: Bosque pn,.e;tor Sst 

salverfonn, tube 9-13 X ca. 1.0 mm medially, dis- 02°12'S, 79°57'W, 200 m, Cornejo * Ronifaz 1364 (GB, 

tally widened, pilose externally, pilose internally GUAY), 150 m, 559S (CB, GUAY); Cerro Azul, W of Gua- 

but glabrous toward base, lobes 5, oblong to broad- y^^"'*' ^Vl^^'^d 15402 (S); Cerro Azul 


200 m, 


pilose externally, glabrous internally but 
basally pilose, margin glabrous; anthers sessile, 2- 
3 mm long, dorsifixed in lower third, attached dis- 
tally in the widened part of the corolla tube, con- 
nective process absent; style puberulous, nonfunc- 


tional stigma lobes 






of Guayaquil on rd. to Salinas, 50-100 m, Dodson & Thien 
527 (MO); Cerro Azul, Curdillcra Chongon-Colonche, be- 
hind Cemento Nacional, 12 km W of Guayaquil, Canyon 
of Canoa, 02^5^8, mnX)'W, Q^ntry & Josse 72348 (GB); 
Chon^on. Hacienda Cerro Azul, 3(K)-5()0 m, Hurling et 
al 9509 (GB); Canton Guayaquil, Bosque Protector Cerro 
IManco, 15 km on rd. to Salinas, 02nO'S, TQ'^SS'W, 350 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New South American Randia 


(P'^y^J.^iU.a^^ ^<\ 

Figure 2. Randia pubisiyla Gustafsson. — 
short-shoot. — I). Short-shoot with male inflorescence. 

A. Fruiting branch, female specimen. 

— E. Male flower bud. — 

B. Tl 


C. Stipules from 
F. Calyx of male flower, opened. — G. 

Male corolla, opened. — H. Style. — I. Detail of style. — J. Detail of persistent calyx on fruit. A-B, Hading 4822 (S); 
C-D, Rubio & Falacios 2439 (GB); E-I, Haaghl 4792 (COL); J, Cornejo & Bonifaz 5598 (GB). 


No von 


part of the corolla tube, connective process absent; 

m. 77/>«. ., a/. 839 (GB, GUAY); 13 km on rd. to Salinas, ^^yl^ gl^b^^^s, nonfunctional stigma lobes ca. 5.0 

02°10'S, 79^58'W, 350 in, Rubio & Tipaz 2383 (GB); ^^ ^^^g' ^vary rudimentary. Female flowers not 

along Sendero Buenavista above visitor crnter, 02''10'S, 

79°58'W. 250 m, !Seill & Sunez 10512 (CB), 02n0'S, 

80^10'W, 3<K)-t(K) m, l\ei!l & Nunez 10662 (GUAY); Re- ,.^„„" TV"" ' » " ii *" V"" ^7^*"7": """;; 

serva Ecologfa Churn.o, Cerro Cimaldn, 0245'S, y"""^' glabrescent, yellow when mature, fruit wall 

79°38'^X; 50-100 m, Cornejo & Bonifaz 5126 (GB, ^^- ^ "^"^ ^^^^^^ persistent calyx erect; seeds irreg- 

CLAY); Kfo Daiilf below Pichinclia, Hacienda Sania Bar- ularly discoidal, 7-10 mm diam., imbedded in 


3^ X 2.5-3 

harila, fhirling 4822 (S). 


Distribution and ecology. This species is known 
uador. Los Rfos: Hacienda Clementina, 200 m, """^^ ^^^^ *^^ rapidly diminishing lowland tropical 

Randia longifolia Gustafsson, sp. nov. TYPE: Ec- 

27 Jan. 1947, G. Hading 186 (holotype, S) 
Figure 3. 

humid forests in western Ecuador. The two sole 
flowering specimens examined {Hading 186, Cor- 


Species Raudiav carlosianae K. Kranse affinis, sed cor- November and January. 
IS rnaionbus, rorollarum tnbis 30-40 mm lonris. cor- ^ ... .. .. . 

collected in late 

ollamm lobis 20-25 mm longis, 

triangularibus ad linearibus 1.0-2 
allelis nnmeris differl. 


large, glabrous corolla and by the long, almost free, 
characteristically linear calyx lobes with parallel 

Shrubs to small trees to 6 m high, dioecious. Leaf \^"«*^™- ^he fruits are usually crowned by a per- 
sistent erect calyx. On the abaxial surface of the 
leaves, finer 


branchlets puberulent when young, hairs ± erect, 
unarmed. Stipules fused at base, persistent on long 
shoots, narrowly triangular, 12-15 X 2^ mm, acu- 
minate to acute at apex, with many parallel veins, 

lature makes the reticulation ev- 

Randia longifolia might be confused with R, car- 

glabrous externally, with hairs and colleters at base ^''''""'' ^ Y^"f ' ^"°'^^'" 'P^^^^' occurring in the 

internally, margin ciliate, stipules persistent on f "^^^^^^' ^Y the similar fruits and large 1 

brachyblasts, broadly triangular to narrowly trian- ^"* ^^ ^^^""'^^ '^'^^^''' ^y ^^'"^ ^™^^' ^^ ''^^'"S 

gular, ca. 2-10 X 2^ mm, acute to mucronate at Tl ^*''""^' ^^^^ ^"^^' ^0-26 mm long and 

apex, with many parallel veins, verruculose, gla- ^""^^^ ^ V^ """ ^"^' ^""^ ^^ """"""^ ^''^'"^ ^"^'' 

brous externally, with hairs and colleters at base ^*:T"'' °^^^'*^ '^f ^^ ^"^^^ ^^'''^^" ^h^" 2 mm) 

3-6 X 0.8-1 

mm, puberulent. Leaf blades papery, obovate, (11- 


shortly attenuate at base, adaxial midrib impressed ^^"^ '^"^.'^^ ^^^''f ^"'^ "" '"^"*^«" «^' ^'''"S 

with usually reticulate venation. 

Randia longifolia is here described as unarmed 
by assumption, as no thorns have been found on 




is mentioned on the specimen labels. 

and secondary veins prominent, smaller veins less Pamtypes, ECUADOR. Esmoraldas: Cerro Mnliles 





„..l ^„j 11 1 1 , _. . Bonifaz 837 (CB, GUAY); rd. Portoviejo-Pichinclia, 3 km 

puberulous on midrib, secondary and tertiary veins, r ^s^n PUruU 1 .-.fU9r^i n. H.rfiJ^- i„^...... 9^p«« 





cence in fascicles of 2 to 6 flowers, pedicels 5-10 * Wibom 2650 (S); Hacienda Clementina, Cerro Samama, 
X ca. 1 mm, puberulent. Calyx tube to 5 mm ^^^^^ ^^^ Momhe, ca. 38 km NE of Babahoyo, OrSQ'S, 
long, glabrate externally, glabrate with a few basal 79°22'W 2(K>^()() „, St&hl <t Knudsen 1182 (GB); Jau- 

1 . . , II 1 I r 1 ■ 1 1. neche, ^0 km on nl. Quevedo-Palenque via Mocachi, 

hairs mternally, lobes 5, narrowly triangular to lin- Canl6n Vinces, 100 m, Do<ison et al 7993 (MO), Dodson 

& Gentry 9883 (MO, US); Jauneehe, rd. Mocaehi-Pal- 


venation, glabrous to puberulent throughout, mar- 




enque, 15 km E on rd. Empalme-Balzar. 50-100 m, Dod- 
son et al 14461 (MO, NY); near Pichilingue, 50-100 m, 
Jdliva & Epling 307 (NY, S). Cuayas: Rfo Ayampe, Cerro 
El Burro, 0r4rS, 80^40' W, Corrwjo & Bonifaz 880 
(CUAY); Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco, 02°10'S, 

glabrous externally, puberulent in upper part, gla- 
brous below internally, lobes 5, ovate to broadly 79°58'W, 4(M) m, Cornejo & Bonifaz 1783 (GB, GUAY)! 

20-25 X 10 mm, subacute at apex, ^' ^^^'' bt^tween Piedras and Moromoro, 300 m, Escobar 

746 (MO). 

glabrous or with a few small hairs externally, gla- 
brous or with a few basal liairs internally, margin Acknowledgments. I am grateful to the curators 
glabrous; anthers sessile, ca. 6.0 mm long, dorsifix- of the following herbaria for making their collec- 
ed in lower third, attached distally in the widened tions available for study: COL, F, GB, GUAY, K, 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New South American Randia 


Figure 3. Randia longifoUa Gustafsson. 

A. Flowering branch, male specimen. 

imen. — C. Stij)ules, small sti])Lile (left) from base of short-shoot, large stipule (right) from long-shoot. 
bufl. — E. Male flower. — 

G^^ ua-^^s^ 

B. Fruiting branch, female spee- 

— D. Male (lower 

F. Calyx of male flower, opened. — G. Male corolla, opened. — H. Styh\ A, Hading IH6 (S); 

B, Ronifaz 837 (GB): C-H, Marling 186 (S). 



MO, NY, S, US. Special thanks are due to the cu- Ix)rence, D. H. 1986. Clossostipula (Rubiaceae), a new 
rators of GUAY, MO, and QCNE who sent several 8*^"^*^ ''''""' Mexico and Gnatemala. CanHollea 41: 453- 

collections as gifts. I thank Pollyanna Lidmark for 

preparing the excellent illustrations and Lennart 
Andersson for providing useful comments on the 


Lileralure Cited 

Aiulreaseii, K. & B. Bremer. 1996. Phylogeny of the sub- 
nniiily Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae). Opera BoL Belg. 7: 119- 

& J. D. Dwyer. 1987. New taxa and a new name 

in Mexican and Central Ameriean Rondia (Rubiaceae, 
Gardenieae). Bol. Soe. Rot. Mexico 47: 37^8. 

& M. Nee. 1987, Randin reiroflexa (Rubiaceae), 

a new species from southern Mexieo. Britlonia 39: 371- 


Persson, C. 1996. Phylogeny of Gardenieae (Rul)iaeeae). 

Bol. J. Linn. Soc. 121: 91-109. 
. In press. Phylogeny of Gardenieae (Rubiaceae) 

& . In press. Combined phylogenetic anal- 
ysis in the Rubiaceae-Ixoroi<leae: Morphology, nuclear, 
and elilor(»plasl DNA data. Amer. J. Bol. 

based on chloroplasl DNA sequences from the rps 16 
iiitron and frriL(UAA)-F (GAA) inlergenic spacer. Nor- 
dic J. Bot. 


IUug(M, W. & C. M. Taylor. 1993. Rubiaceae. hi: W. Bur- Robbrechu E. & C. Puff. 1986. A survey of the Gardeu- 

ger (editor). Flora Coslaricensis. Fieldiana Bot., n.s. 33: 
1-133. [Ramfia, pp. 279-289.J 

ieae and related tribes (Rubiaeeae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 
108: 63-137. 

New Taxa and Combinations in Eleutherococcus (Araliaceae) from 

Eastern Asia 

Kim, Chul Hwan and Byung-Yun Sun 

Faculty of Biological Sciences, 
Chonbuk National University, Chonju, Chonbuk 561-756, Korea 

Abstract. While preparing a monographic study Eleutherococcus brachypus (Harms) Nakai var. 

of Eleutherococcus^ we discovered the three new 

taxa, E. brachypus var. omeierisis, E. huangshanen- 
sis, and E. pseudosetulosus, described here. In ad- 
dition, three new combinations, E. divaricatus var. 
chiisanensis, E. pilosulus, and E. pubescens, are pro- 

Eleutherococcus Maximowicz (1859, emend. C. 
H. Kim & B.-Y. Sun) is an endemic Asian genus 
with about 35 species distributed mainly in north- 
eastern Asia including China, Korea, and Japan, 
with some members also extending to southwestern 
Asia (Kim, 1997). The genus Acanthopanax (De- 
caisne & Planchon) Witte was initially recognized 
as a subgenus of Panax L. by Decalsne and Plan- 
chon (1854) and raised to generic rank by Wille 

omeiensis C. H. Kim & B.-Y. Sun, var. nov. 
TYPE: China. Sichuan: Omei Hsien, Mt. 
Omei, 10 Oct. 1940, T. C Lee 3794 (holotype, 
US; isotype. A). 

Foliola 3, terniinaha foUola eUiptica, glabra; temiinales 
petioluli ca. 1 cm longi, glahri. Flores rum pedicellis ar- 

A hermaphroditic shrub to 2 m tall; stems erect, 
glabrous. Leaves 3-foliolate, leaflets elliptic, some- 
what chartaceous, glabrous on both surfaces, sec- 
ondary veins 3 to 5 pairs, the apex obtuse or acu- 
minate, the margin entire, the base cuneate; petiole 
0.5 cm long, glabrous; tenninal leaflets 2-4 X 1- 
1.5 cm, petiolule relatively long, ca. 1 cm; lateral 
leaflets somewhat smaller than terminal ones, ses- 
sile or short-petiolulate. Inflorescence of umbels ar- 
ranged in a simple cyme at the end of long branch- 

(1861). Harms (1894) combined the two eenera, r .i . , .i i * *i i r 

^ ^ ^ ^ "^ ' es ot trie current years growth, rarely at the end ol 

and adopted the name Acanthopanax, which has ^j^^^ branches, glabrous; pedicel articulated at up- 

smce been widely used by many botamsts. How- ^^^^^^^^ p^^^ l_j 5 ^^ j^^^^ glabrous. Calyx 5- 

ever, Acanthopanax does not have priority and is ^^^^^ed; petals 5; stamens 5; carpels 5, style united 

therefore illegitimate under current ICBN nomen- ^^^^ ^ ^j^gj^ ^^j^^^^ ^^-^^^ indistinctly 5-lobed, 

clature (Greuter t^t al., 1994)._Some recent authors ^^ i ^^ i^^^g. ^^^^^ 2 mm long. Fruit unknown. 

This variety is thus far known only from Mt. 
Omei, Sichuan, China, from which the epithet was 

(e.g., Hu, 1980; Ohashi, 1987; Hsu & Pan, 1993) 
have therefore transferred taxa from Acanthopanax 
to Eleutherococcus. 

ni ^ r r/ *L u u 1 derived. The typic variety occurs in Gansu, Shanxi, 

Plants 01 tleutnerococcus are shrubs and are . _. -^^ _. _. . ' . 

characterized by the presence of prickles, five-mer- 
ous flowers with two to five carpels, and palmately 

compound leaves. The genus as a whole is highly 
variable resulting in much taxonomic confusion 
(Kim, 1997). For example, E. koreanus Nakai was 
distinguished from £*. senticosus (Ruprecht & Max- 
imowicz) Maximowicz based on its unanned twigs. 
However, examination of specimens from various 

and Shaanxi in China. Eleutherococcus brachypus 
var. omeiensis (Hffers from other members of th 
genus by its articulation in the uppermost part of 
the pedicel. This variety is also distinguished from 
the typic variety in having a long (ca. 1 cm) peti- 
olule on the terminal leaflet. Other features are the 
same and lience we recognize it as a variety of E. 

regions has shown this character to be merely in- Eleutherococcus divaricatus (Siebold & Zuccar- 

cluded within the limits of natural variation among 
individuals. While preparing a monographic study 
of Eleutherococcus, we found three new taxa and 

describe them here: E. brachypus var. omeiensis, E. 
huangshanensis, and E. pseudosetulosus\ three new 
combinations are also made: E, divaricatus var. chi- 
isanensis, E. pilosulus, and E. pubescens. 

ini) S. Y. Hu var. chiisanensis (Nakai) C. H. 
Kim & B.-Y. Sun, comb, et stat. nov. Basion- 
ym: Acanthopanax chiLsanensis Nakai, J. Ar- 
nold Arbor. 5: 5. 1924. TYPE: Korea. Cheju- 
do: in silvis Yongsil 1000 m, £". Taquet 890 
(lectotype, selected here, C; isolectotypes. A, 


NovoN 10: 209-214. 2000. 


No von 


Eleuthcrococcus ditaricatus var chiisanerisis dif- cence of umbels arranged in a simple cyme at the 

fcrs from the typic variety in having setose tri- 

d of long branches of the current year's growth, 

chomes on its abaxial leaf surface rather than ex- glabrous; pedicel 1 cm long, glabrous. Calyx den- 
cluslvely sericeous indumentum. In variety tate or obscure; petals 5; stamens 5, the filament 

chiisanensis, these setose trichomes are often mixed 2.5 mm long; carpels 5 or 3 to 4, styles united into 

legrees. Other mor- a single column, stigma indistinctly 5-lobed, some- 
, and hence we rec- times 3- to 4-lobed, 1.5 mm long; ovary 2 mm long. 


phological features are the 

ognize this taxon as a variety of E, divaricatus. It Fruits globose, 5-angular when young, 8 mm long; 

is endemic to the Korean peninsula, whereas the the disc ca. 3 mm wide. Flowering August, fruiting 

typic variety occurs in Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, October. 

This species is restricted to Mt. Hwangshan, An- 

and Kyushu in Japan and Shanxi, Henan, and Zhe- 

jiang in eastern China. Among the syntypes {E. Ta- hui, Chi 



quel 890, E, Taquel 889, E, Taquet 5660, and T named for the type locality. Eleuthcrococcus huang- 
Nakni 369\ the first, here selected as the Icctotype, shanensis is most similar to E. henryi Oliver, E. 
has relatively well-preserved leaf indumentum and leucorrhizus Oliver, and E. setchuenensl^ (Harms) 
distinct pedicels in umbels, which are diagnostic Nakai. However, it differs from E. henryi by the 
characters. glabrous nature of its inflorescence, twig, and ab- 

axial leaf surfaces, and from E, setchuenensis by its 


vis Yon^sil KKK) ni, 17 Aug, 1918, E. Taquet 889 (A, C, 
E, Tl); in silvis Yoncfsil 




rate margins. This species is also distinguished 
from E. leucorrhizus by the shape, position, and 
sheets]). Chollalmk-tlo: Mt. Unjang, 6 Aug. 1994, C. H. number of prickles on its twigs. Characteristics of 

m" fu\\ *i^ vT '^To^?n?r!'"'""""/M ^ r,' ^^I'' ^ ''^*^ P^^^^^^^ ^"^ ^1«« constancy in the number, 

July 19U, /. Sakui 369 (Tl); Chinsan (Mt. Chin). Aiii;. i j i r ^ n 

1934, /?. K. Smith s.n, (US); Mt. Chiri, Nogodan, 11 Aug. "^^^^P"^' and pubescence of plant parts are usually 

important diagnostic features for evaluating species 


do: Myungchon-piin. Sanggo-myon, Chilhosan, 19 Aug. limits throughout the genus, and thus E. huangsha- 
1924, ? 114 (Tl). Ilanigyungiiaiii-do: Sam-su District, nensis is sufficiently well distinguished from its al- 

Onkul-nuiri valley, 8 Aug. 1887 " " 

Hogen, yulrnji, Hongo-sati, 7 July 1918, £". H. Wilson 

10404 (A). KangMon-do: Mt. Odac, 17 Aug. 1988, C. IL 
Kim S042 (JNU [2 sheets]); Inje-gun, Daeamsan, 28 Sep. 

lied species to be recognized as distinct. The three 
related species are distributed widely in China. 

However, E, leucorrhizus occurs in central 



1969, V: M. Kang 44755 (SNU); Daekwalyung, Neugch- western China including Sichuan, Yunnan, Hubei, 
ongsan, 22 Aug. 1969, T. B. Ue & M. Y. Cho s.n. (SNUA). Gansu, and Shaanxi, and extending to Bhutan; E. 

fy""«7;:^^^^ 1^^'^"^>'' 1^ Sep. ,e/c/iumen^^ is mainly found in central China; and 

1938, 7. //. Umng 95.^6 (SNU). r , • ■ i- i i ■ i • i n i 

E, henryi is distributed in central middle and east- 

itherococcus huangshanensis C. H. Kim & 
B.-Y. Sun, sp. nov. TYPE: China. Anhui: Mt. 
Wangshan, 19 Oct. 1933, W. C Cheng 4146 
(holotype, SING; isotypes, BM, US). Fit^ure 1. 

ern China centering on Hubei. 

Para types. 




gulis non-elastieis aeuleis, ca. 0.5 cm longis, ca. 0.2 cm 
latifi; foliola 5, supra et subtus glabra, duplicato-serrata. 
Umhellae (inflorescenliae) glahres. 

A hermaphroditic shrub to 5 m tall; stems erect, 
glabrous with scattered prickles, sometimes a sin- 
gle prickle at a node or below the petiole. Prickles 
non-elastic and stout, 0.5 cm long, 0.2 cm wide, 
shaq)-pointed with a broadened and enlarged base, 
pointing downward; the base narrowly elliptic, 1 cm 
long. Leaves 5-foliolate, blade widely elliptic or 
ovate, ca. 10X5 cm, chartaceous, glabrous on both 
surfaces, lateral veins 7 to 9 pairs, the apex acute 
to acuminate, the margin doubly serrate, the base 
cuneate; petiolule of terminal leaflet 0.5 cm long, 
glabrous; petiole ca. 8 cm long, glabrous. luflores- 

Aug. 1924, K. Ling 1172 (UC); \^ang Shan. 23 Sep. 1%5, 
? 779 (PE); Wang Shan, 18(K) m, 14 Aug. 1973, Zhou 
474 (PE); Shexian, 18 Sep. 1987, C L Huang 0253 

Eleuthcrococcus pilosulus (Rehder) C. H. Kim 
& B.-Y. Sun, Stat. nov. Basionym: Acanthopan- 
ax giraldii Harms var. pilosulus Rehder, J. Ar- 
nold Arbor. 9: 99. 1928. Eleuthcrococcus gir- 
aldii (Harms) Nakai var. pilosulus (Rehder) S. 

Y. Hu, J. Arnold Arbor. 61: 109. 1980. Acan- 
thopanax wilsonii Harms var. pilosulus (Reh- 
der) X. R Fang & C. K. Hsieh, Bull, Bot. Res., 





* + 




China. Kansu: Upper Tebbu country, in willow 
scrub, with birches, along streams, 3350 m, 
July-Aug. 1925, /. F Rock 13106 (holotype, 
A; isotype, UC). 

Volume 10, Number 3 

Kim & Sun 

Eleutherococcus from Eastern Asia 


Figure 1. Eleutherococcus liuangshaneruiU C. H. Kim & B.-Y. Sun. — a. Habit, flowfring brancli. — b. Flower with 

two petals and three stamens removetl. 

. Fmit. (a, b from Zhou 474; c from W. C, Cheng 4146.) 



Figure 2. Eleutherocorcus pseiidoseliilosus C. H. Kim & B.-Y. Sun. — a. Habit. — b. Abaxial surface of terminal leaflet. 
.'. Young fniit. (From D, E. Boujford & B. Bartholomew 24546.) 

This species has previously been recognized as ern China, including Gansu and Qinghai, whereas 

a variety of eillu^r E. girahlii or £". wilsoniL Com- E. wihonii is distributed widely in China except 
parison of these three taxa, however, shows that E, the eastern part, and E, giraldii mainly occurs in 
pilosulus has narrower leaflets, a densely pubescent Gansu, Hubei, and Shanxi, Shaanxi of upper mid- 

t1 L> 



abaxial leaf surface, and twigs with elastic prickles die China. On the basis of these characters, we 

with an elliptically protuberant base. Eleutherococ- therefore prefer to recognize E. pilosulus 

CMS giraldii has glabrous leaflets and twigs with tinrt species. 

elastic prickles with an indistinct base, and E. wil- 

... ,1 in 11 Representative specimerus. CHINA. Gansu (Kansu): 

sonii has glabrous leaflets and almost unarmed Hsia Mo K'ou, near Lichen, 2000-23(K) m. 7 July 1923, 

twigs. Eleutherococcus pilosulus is limited to north- R. C. Clilng 337 (A, US); Taochow, SW of Tow river, Wm, 

Volume 10, Number 3 

Kim & Sun 

Eleutherococcus from Eastern Asia 


Purdom s.n. (A); Tao rivt^r basin. W of Adjuan, rasiern Eleutherococcus pubescens (Pampanini) C. H. 

Minshan range, 3050 m, S July 1925, / F. Rock 12657 
(A, C); Tianzhu, 2500 m, 14 July 1959, He 4834 (PE). 
Qinghai: Menyuan. 2500 ni, 19 June 1960, Qinghai- 
G<insu Exped. 2687 (PE). 

Kim & B.-Y. Sun, stat. nov. Basionym: Acan- 

thopanax spinosus (L.f.) Miquel var. pubescens 

Pampanini, Nuovo Giom. Bot. Ital. 2: 678. 
1910. Acanthopanax gracilLstylus W. W. Smith 
var. pubescens (Pampanini) H. L. Li, Sargentia 

2: 85. 1942. Eleutherococcus gracilistylus (W. 
W. Smith) S. Y. Hu var. pubescens (Pampanini) 
S. Y. Hu, J. Arnold Arbor. 61: 109. 1980. 

TYPE: China. Hupeh: Monti di Ru-teen, ca. 
700 m, Sep. 1906, C Silvestri 1600 (lectotype, 
selected here, FI, A [photo]). 

This species is similar to E. gracilistylus and E. 
spinosus, but differs from them in having sericeous 
hairs throughout the abaxial leaf surface rather than 

Frutex scandens; ramus internodio aliquanlum setis being glabrous, except with tufted hairs in the axil 
(lensis, ca. 0.25 cm longis, aliquantum triangulis aculeis of the veins and setose trichomes along the mid- 

raris, ca. 0.4 cm longis, ca. 0.15 cm latis, nodi vel petioli vein. These characteristics are constant throughout 
hasis^absque aculco. Pcduiiculi 17^2 mm, glabri; pedi- ^^^ species. Eleutherococcus spinosus is confined to 

the Japanese archipelago, whereas E. gracilistylus 
is distributed throughout China and on Cheju Is- 
land in Korea. Based on these differences, we pre- 
fer to recognize E. pubescens as a distinct species. 

RepresenUitive specimens. CHIINA. Hubei (Hupeh): 

Eleutherococcus pseudosetulosus C. H. Kim 8i 

B.-Y. Sun, sp. nov. TYPE: China. Sichuan: Du- 

jianyan, Qishuping to Mashanping, upstream 
from the town of Longxi on the Longxi River, 
in thicket on open slope near Cryptomeria 
plantation, 1750 m, 4 Sep. 1988, Z). £. Bouf- 
ford & B. Bartholomew 24546 (holotype, BM; 
isotype, NY). Figure 2. 

cclli 8-10 mm, glahri. 

A dioecious shrub to 2 m tall; stems scandent, 
± densely hirsute, trichomes slender and somewhat 
flexuous, 0.25 cm long, a few scattered prickles, 
prickles absent at node or below the petiole. Prick- 

1 ■*-j 11 ]j*u ni Fan-sien, ca. 8(K) m, 20 May— 3 June 1906, C. Cdvestris 

las pomtmg downward, broadened at base, 0.4 cm ,_..^ /at u . n w^ V oo * ino'> c V^ c m-r 

. r^ ^ ,T rr 1-1 -i ^ ^^^ (A[i)hoto]): Wuchaug, 23 Apr. 1933. S. C, Sun l(l^.% 

long, 0.15 cm wide. Leaves 5-foliolate; termmal 7075 (A); Tung Chien ILien, road si.hs 10 Aug. 1928. //. 

leaflet obovate, 3.8-4.4 X 1.7-2 cm, slightly setose G. Cheo 183 (NT); Enshi, 1400 m. 22 June 1958, ? 24397 

on adaxial surface, glabrous on abaxial surface, lat- (NAS, PE); Yichang, 700-800 m, 7 May 1963, Z D. 

dr . /- • .1 • * *i, Jiane 61 (PE). Henan (Honan): willioul precise localily, 

veins 5 to o pairs, the apex acuminate, the \. ^^loi /r>T^\ w- yt-. ^ m i • lo m 

\ , • 20I8I (PE). JiangHu (KiangHu): Nanking, 19 May 

margin doubly serrate, the base cuneate; petiolule 1921^ i^ /r Tsu 591 (UC). Shaiixi (Shansi): Yuan Kiu 

of terminal leaflet 0-3 mm long; petiole 5.2-6.2 cm Hsien, Ni Shan, 28 Sep. 1921, K Hers 11-1824 (A). Sich- 

long, glabrous. Inflorescence a solitary umbel at the "»« (Szechuan): Le-po Hsien, 28(K) m, 11 July 1934, T 

end of short branches of current year's growth; pe- 
duncle 1.7—4.2 cm long, glabrous; pedicel 0.8-1 
cm long, glabrous. Calyx minutely 5-dentate; car- the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation 
pels 5, styles 5, connate to above middle, free i 

T Yu 3391 (PE). 

Acknowledgments. This work was supported by 

(grant no. KOSEF 951-0506-040-2) to B.-Y. Sun. 
recurved. Fruits widely globose, 6-7 mm long. The authors thank Pete Lowry and two anonymous 
black, 5-angular when young; the disc 1 mm wide. reviewers for their helpful comments on this man- 
Fruiting September. uscript and the directors of the following herbaria 

for the loan of specimens: A, AAUF, ANSP, B, BM, 

This species is restricted to Sichuan Province, C, E, FI, IBK, K, KUN, KYO, L, LINN, MAK, 

China. The name is derived from the nature of the MHA, MO, NAS, NY, P, PE, PNH, S, SING, SNU, 

surface of its twigs, which resembles that off. se- ^NLA, 11, LJ, DC 
tulosus (Franchet) S. Y. Hu. Eleutherococcus setu- 

losus and the new species described here are read- Literature Liteti 

ily distinguishable from other members of the genus Decaisne, J, & J. E. Planchon. 1854. Esquisse d'une mon- 
ographic des Araliacees. Rev. Hort. 4: 104—109. 

Greuter, W., F. H. Barrie, H. M. Burdet, \\. G. Chaloner, 

V. Dcmoulin, D. L. Hawksworth, P. M. j0rgensen, D. H. 
Nicolson, R C. Silva, R Trehane & J. McNeill. 1994, 

International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Tokyo 
Code). Regnum Veg. 131. 

Harms, H. 1894. Araliaceae. ///: Englrr & Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanzenfamillen 3: 1—62. [In German.] 

Hsu, P. S. & S. L. Pan. 1993. Additional transfers of Chi- 


by their bristle-like elastic prickles at the inter- 
nodes along the twigs. However, E. pseudosetulosus 
differs from £". setulosus by its glabrous peduncle 
and pedicel, longer and sparser bristle-like prickles 
in the intemodes, and the absence of nonelastic 
recurved prickles at the nodes. Eleutherococcus se- 
tulosus also occurs in Sichuan Province. 


No von 

nese Acanthopanax to Eleutherococcm (Araliaceae). Maximowicz, C. J. 1859. Primitiae florae Amureiisis. 

Sida 15: 593-595. 

Hu, S. Y. 1980. Elculhcrococcus vs. Acanthopanax. J. Ar- 
nold Arbor. 61: 107-111. 

Kim, C. H. 1997. Systematics oi Eleutherococcus and Re- 
lated Genera (Araliaceae). Ph.D. Thesis, Chonbuk Na- 
tional University, Korea. [In Korean.] 

Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-P6tersbourg Divers Savan 9: 

Ohashi, H. 1987. Eleutherococcus (Araliaceae) — A new 
system and new combinations. J. Jap. Bot. 62: 353-362. 

Witte, H. 1861. Les Araliac6es des jardins Hollandais. 
Ann. Hort. Bot. 4: 89. 

Two New Species of Secamone (Apocynaceae, Secamoneae) 

from Madagascar 

Jens Klachenberg 

Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Sektionen for fanerogambotanik, 

SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden, 

Abstract. Secamone schatzii and S. linearis are ciformis, as well as in the two new species S. schat- 
two new species of Apocynaceae, Secamoneae, zii and 5. linearis. 

from the Malagasy eastern lowland forest and from 

In addition to the smooth lower leaf epid 

the Marojejy mountains in northeastern Madagas- Secamone schatzii and 5. linearis have a leaf shape 
car, respectively. Both species are related to Seca- and venation similar to that of S. glaherrima and 
mone tenuifolia and S. glaherrima from the Central .S. sparsiflora, respectively. Both S. glaherrima and 

Plateau. The new species are described, illustrated, 5. schatzii 

distinguished by mostly elliptic leaf 

and compared with related taxa. A key to the eight laminae revealing only the midrib when dry, and 

species in the Secamone tenuifolia group is given. by having strongly dorsiventrally flattened staminal 

corona lobes. In contrast, Secamone sparsijlora and 

Secamone R. Brown is a paleotropical genus of ^- ^^"^""" ^^''*^ "^"■«'"' "'""^^y 1^"'^^'" ^^^^^^' ^^^° 

suffrutescent twiners or small scrambling herbs, '''^^ ""^>' ^^*^ '""^"^ ^'"'^^*^ ^^^" ^"^^ 

ly erect shrubs, with usually small white to yel- 
low flowers. In a revision oi Secamone in the Mad- Secamone schatzii Klackenberg, sp. nov. TYPE: 

agascar Region (Klackenberg, 1992), 56 species 
were recognized from Madagascar. Since then two 
additional species have been described from this 
island (Klackenberg, 1997, 1998). In the course of 
preparing the tribe Secamoneae for the Flore de 
Madagascar et des Comores, while examining re- 

Madagascar. Toamasina, Nosy Mangabe in the 

Bay of Antongila, 5 km S of Maroansetra, 

15°30'S, 49°46'E, 0-330 m, 2-19 Jan. 1990, 

■ a E. Schatz & E, Carlson 2941 (holotype, MO; 

isotypes, TAN not seen, WAG). Figure 1. 

Species haec Secamonae glaberrimae similis foliis el- 

cent material from the MO herbarium, I encoun- liplicis subtus non luberculatisque el lobis coionae dor- 
tered two specimens from eastern Madagascar that siventraliler applanalis, sed corollae lobis \i\ aeslivatione 
do not fit in any of the hitherto known 58 species. P^"^?"^ imbncatis et intra non subliliter tuberculatis autem 

The specimens were collected in the lowland at 
Nosy Mangabe and in the mountains in Marojejy, 

ef)id(^rniide laevi vel coronae lobis brevioribus differt. 

Liana with terete glabrous stems. Leaves oppo- 

respectively. After morphological analysis it is ev- site, herbaceous, entire, flat but at least when dry 

ident that they represent two new species of Seca- slightly revolute at the very margin, glabrous; blade 

mone. Both are herein described, illustrated, and ca. 4—6 X 1.5-2 cm, elliptic, cuneate at the base, 

given the names Secamone schatzii and S, linearis, acute at the apex; venation not visible except for 

Both Secamone schatzii and 5. linearis resemble the midrib when dry; midrib ± even with the leaf 

S. tenuifolia Decaisne and 5. glaherrima Schu- surface on both sides; epidermis smooth on both 

mann, two rather common species known from the sides; petiole ca. 5 mm long. Inflorescences axillary 

Central Plateau. Secamone tenuifolia and S. gla- or terminal, shorter than the adjacent leaves; cymes 

herrima constitute, together with S. dequairei mostly dichasial, rather lax and with few flowers; 

Klackenberg, S. drepanoloba Klackenberg, S. spar- axes ca. 5-10 mm long, mostly glabrous; pedicels 

siflora Klackenberg, and 5. unciformis Klacken- 3—5 mm long; bracts 0.5-1.0 mm long, ciliate. 

berg, a group of taxa characterized by having usu- Flowers pentamerous, actinomorphic. Calyx lobes 

ally thick valvate corolla lobes that are finely only shortly connate, ca. 0.9-1.0 X 0.9 mm, almost 

tuberculate on their inner side. The staminal co- orbiculate to broadly ovate, rounded at the apex, 

rona lobes are also usually tuberculate toward the externally glabrous but ciliate, internally pubescent 

base. The majority of the hitherto described species at base with a small gland (coUeter) in each sinus, 

in this group further display a tuberculate lower Corolla ellipsoid in bud and rounded at the apex, 

leaf epidermis. However, this is a character absent somewhat contorted with the left margins slightly 

in Secamone glaherrima, S. sparsijlora, and S. un- overlapping, not twisted, fused for ca. 1/2 of its 

NovoN 10: 215-219. 2000. 


No von 

1 mm 

0.5 mm 





G^A— ^ u5*-vH-^<_ ^«^-i 


Figure 1. Secamone srhatzii Klackenberg. —A. Habit. 

B. Fl 

ower in 


portion of corolla. — F. Portion of corolla from within. — F. Gynostegium. 

— C. Flower. — I). Cynostrgium and 

G. GynostegiuTTi with one anther removed. 
— H. Anlhcr, lateral side. — I. Style head. — J. Pollinarium, lateral side (top) and axial side. A-J, Schatz & Carlson 
2941. Prawn by Pollyanna Lidmark, Stockholm. 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New Species of Secamone 


length Into a tube, hairy in the mouth, yellow-or- Secamone linearis Klackenberg, sp. nov. TYPE: 

ange; tube ca. 1.3 mm long; lobes curved outward 
to almost rotate, ca. 1.3 X 1.5 mm, oblong to broad- 
ly ovate, obtuse at the apex, smooth. CoroUine co- 
rona present in form of an epipetalous bilobed 
cushion in each lobe sinus. Staminal column ca. 
1.2 mm high; connective produced into a membra- 
nous tip; filaments with horny margins (poUinium 

Madagascar. Antsiranana, Reserve Naturelle 
Integrale 12, Marojejy, au Nord d'Andapa, aux 
environs du sommet de TEst, 14°29'S, 
49°38'E, 1300-1500 m, 21-22 Jan. 1994, K 
Rasoavimhahoaka et ai 14 (holotype, MO; iso- 
types, S, TAN not seen). Figure 2. 

Speeies haec Secamonae tenuijiorae et 5. sparsiflorae 

collectors) to the base. Staminal corona lobes ca. simiHs foliis plus minusve hnearibiis et lobis corolla*' intra 
0.7 mm long, dorsiventrally compressed and flat, yuLtiliter tubertulatis; ah ilia foliis subler non tiihenula- 
akr..,t o- ]^^r. ^^ ^U^ ^t^«.:v. IT I, ^ ^^^' ^ h^*^ pedicellis brevioribus el habitu voluhili, et a 

about as long as the stammal column, somewhat , , ■ i • i- ■ . 

" coronae duabus lobis distmcte tlorsivrntraliter applanatis 

et corollae lobis nori distincte valvalis aiitem panini im- 
briratls differt. 

Liana with terete glabrous stems. Leaves oppo- 
site, herbaceous, entire, flat but at least when dry 
ascending, ellipsoidal, 0.15-0.2 ^,^^^^^1^ ^^^^j^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^j^^. ^^^^^ ^^ 20- 

mm long. Ovary of two separate carpels, subinfer- 30 x 1-3 mm, linear to rarely narrowly ovate, at- 
lor. Style absent. Style head ± equaling the sta- ^enuate at the base, acute to acuminate at the apex, 
minal column; narrower upper part about as long glabrous; venation not visible except for the midrib 
as the lower broader part, ca. 0.6 mm long, slightly when dry; midrib ± even with leaf surface above, 
broadened at the apex. Fruits not seen. ± even with leaf surface or slightly raised below; 

epidermis smooth on both sides; petiole ca. 1 mm 
long, sometimes with reddish hairs. Inflorescences 

arched, truncate at the apex; basal portion ± flat 
and finely papillate near the base, narrower than 
the lobe, attached from base along slightly more 
than half of the stamen. PoUinia minute, 2 in each 
anther loculus, ± 

Distribution and habitat. Secamone schatzii is 
only known from the type collection from Nosy 
Mangabe in the Bay of Antongila on the east coast 
of Madagascar. It was climbing to 16 m above 
ground into the canopy. It was collected in flower 
in January. 

Secamone schatzii is known from low altitudes in 
the eastern rainforest zone, in contrast to 5. gla- 

axillary (sometimes appearing terminal), much 
shorter than the adjacent leaves; cymes di- to 
monochasial, rather dense with up to ca. 8 flowers; 
axes up to 5 mm long, covered with few reddish 
hairs, often more densely hairy along one or two 
sides; pedicels up to 1.5 mm long, usually hairy; 
bracts 0.5-1.0 mm long, usually broad, triangular. 
Flowers pentamerous, actinomorphic. Calyx lobes 

berrima, which is generally distributed on the Cen- only shortly connate, ca. 0.6 X 0.9 mm, ovate, 
tral Plateau of Madagascar. Although similar in acute at the apex, glabrous outside^ but ciliate, hairy 
habit and in gross flower morphology, Secamone inside and with a broad gland (colleter) in each 

schatzii differs from S, glaberrima by its smooth (vs. sinus. Corolla ellipsoid in bud and rounded at the 
papillate-tuberculate) inner surfaces of the corolla apex, seemingly valvate but actually contorted with 
lobes, by having a ring of relatively short hairs in It^ft margins slightly overlapping, not twisted, some- 

the corolla tube (vs. five distinct triangular patches ^^^^t campanulate, fused for ca. 3/5 of its Length 

of long retrorse hairs), by having the corona lobes ^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^i^h long retrorse hairs in filled trian- 

more or less equaling the staminal column (vs. dis- S^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ "^^^^^ inside, white; tube ca. 1.3- 

tinctly longer), and by the stigma head, which has ^"^ "^"^ ^^'^S^ ^^'^^'^ ^^^^^ outward, ca. 1.9 X 1.3 

subequal lower and upper portions (vs. twice as "^"^^ triangular, ± acute at the apex, thick, finely 

l^r,,. ^r...r^^ ^^^^^^ \ T^ ii'*" *u 11 1 u papillatc inside, smooth outside. Corolline corona 

long lower portions). In addition, the corolla lobes ' ^ . i r 

of 5. schatzii thin toward the margins. These mar- 
gins further slightly overlap to the left when exter- 
nally viewed. In contrast, S. glaberrima, S. sparsi- 
flora, and 5. tenuifolia all share corolla lobes that 

present in the form of an epipetalous bilobed cush- 
ion in each lobe sinus. Staminal column ca. 1.3 mm 
high; connective produced into a membranous tip; 
filaments with homy margins (pollinium collectors) 
to the base. Staminal corona lobes ca. 0.6 mm long, 

are more or less evenly thick to the margin in a dorsiventrally compressed and flat, slightly longer 

distinctly valvate arrangement. than the staminal column, somewhat arched, trun- 

This species is named after George Schatz, Mis- cate at the apex; basal portion ± flat, smooth, al- 

souri Botanic-al Garden, who collected the only most as broad as the lobe, attached from base along 

known material of this species during one of several slightly more than half of the stamen. Pollini 
inventory trips to Nosy Mangabe. 


nute, 2 in each anther-loculus, ± ascending, ellip- 


No von 

1 mm 


Figure 2. Secamonc linearis Klackenberg. — A. Habit. — B. Flower in bud. — C. Flower. — D. Gynoslegium and 
portion of corolla. — E. Portion of corolla from within. — F. Gynoslegium. — G. Gynostegium with one anther removed, 
fl. Anifier, lateral side. — T. Style head. — J. Pollinarium, lateral side. A-J, Rasoavimbahoaka et al. 14. Drawn by 
Pollvaruia Lidmark, Sloekholni. 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New Species of Secamone 


soidal, 0.1—0.15 mm long. Ovary of two separate 
carpels, subiriferior. Style absent. Style head pro- 
jecting above the staminal column; narrower upper 
part slightly shorter than the lower broader part, ca. 
0.5 mm long, cylindric, entire at the apex. Follic-le 
(only gall-infested one seen) ca. 2.0 X 0.8 cm, nar- 
rowly ovoid, straight, glabrous. Seeds not seen. 

Distribution and habitat, Secamone linearis is 
only known from the type collection from the Ma- 
rojejy mountains at 1300-1500 m altitude. Habitat 
unknown. It was collected in flower in January. 

Secamone linearis from the Marojejy mountains 
in the northeastern part of Madagascar most resem- 
bles S. sparsiflora from the Isalo mountains to the 
southeast. Both species probably represent isolated 
segregates of the rather common Secamone tenui- 
folia, whose wide distribution lies between 5. li- 
nearis and S. sparsiflora. There is, however, a dis- 
junction between Secamone tenuifolia and 5. 
linearis^ as 5. tenuifolia has not been found north 
of the Antananarivo area (Klackenberg, 1992: 85), 
some 500 km south of the Marojejy mountains. 
Both Secamone linearis and S. sparsiflora lack the 
distinctly tuberculate-papillate lower leaf epider- 
mis, but both share with 5. tenuifolia narrow, usu- 
ally linear leaves. Secamone linearis differs from S, 
sparsiflora by its shorter and hairy pedicels (1—1.5 
mm vs. 3.5 mm long and glabrous), its reddish 

hairy inflorescence 

(vs. glabrous), a twining 

habit (vs. a shrubby one with erect or spreading 
branches), as well as by its dorsiventrally flattened 
and truncate staminal corona lobes (vs. acute to 
obtuse lobes, dorsally rounded, as seen in S, spar- 
siflora and 5. tenuifolia). It has tuberculate-papil- 
late inner surfaces of the corolla lobes, like Seca- 
mone glaberrima, S, sparsiflora, and S. tenuifolia, 
but differs from them in that the corolla lobes are 
not distinctly valvate. In this character it is instead 
more similar to Secamone schatzii in that the lobes 
become thinner toward the margins and are slightly 
overlapping each other with their left margins as 

seen from outside. 

The epithet of this species alludes to the narrow 


A key to the eight Malagasy species that consti- 
tute the Secamone tenuifolia group discussed in the 
text is presented below, also serving as a character 

florescences glabrous; pedicels more llian 

3.5 mm long S. sparsiflora 

2b. Twiners; inflorescence axes and pedicels 
usually pubescent with reddish hairs; pedi- 
cels less than 3.5 mm long. 

3a. Leaf usually with reddish hairs below 
and with finely and densely tuberculate- 
papillate epidermis, seemingly [)ow- 
dered (fine-grained) (seen clearly with a 
lens at X25); corolla distinctly valvate 
S. tenuifolia 

3b. Leaf almost glabrous with lower epider- 
mis smooth; corolla lobes somiwhat 
contorted with left lobe margins shglitly 
overlapping S. linearis 

lb. Leaves elliptic to ovate. 

4a. Leaves with midrib and primary nerves vis- 
ible when dr)-; staminal corona lobes hook- 
like or sickle-shaped, cylindrical or laterally 
flattened toward apex. 

5a. Leaf underneath with smooth epidermis, 
not tuberculate-papillate; corona lobes 
hook-like, jutting out at ca. 90° from 

staminal column S. unciformis 

5b. Leaf underneath with finely and d(^nsely 
tuberculate-pa[)illate epidermis (lens 

X25); corona lobes sickle-shaped, ± 
arched over stamina! colunm. 

()a. Corolla lobes > 2 mm long; corona 

lobes (free [)art) > 1 mm long with 

the apices converging above sta- 
minal colunm, distinctly laterally 
flattened and sharp-etlged at dorsal 
side, broadened only at the very 
base below the anther wings .... 

S. drepanoloba 

6h. Corolla lobes < 2 mm long; corona 
lobes < 1 mm long and not con- 
verging above staminal column, 
somewhat laterally flattened but 

dorsally rounded S. dcquairei 

4b. Leaves with midrib only visible when dry; 
stamina! corona lobes arched but ± dorsi- 
ventrally flattened toward apex. 
7a. Corolla lobes ± evenly thick to margin 
and valvate, with inner surface covered 
with white (when dry) fine papillae; co- 
rona lobes longer than staminal column 

S, glaherrima 

7b. Corolla lobes becoming thinner toward 
margins and with left margins slightly 
overlapping, not finely papillate; corona 
lobes ± equaling staminal colunm . . . 

5. schatzii 

Literature Cilt^d 

Klackenberg. J. 1992. Taxonomy q{ Secamone s. lat. (As- 
clepiadaceae) in the Madagascar Region. Opera Bot. 
112: 1-127. 

. 1997. Secamone niarsupiata Klack. (Asclcpia- 

daceae, Secamonoideae), a new^ species from Madagas- 
car. Candollea 52: 301-304. 

la. Leaves linear to narrowly elliptic. 

2a. Shrub with erect or spreading branches; in- 

, 1998. Secamone drepanoloba, a new species of 

Asclepiadaceae. Bol. Jalirb. Sysl. 120: 119-120. 

A New Species of Gagnebina (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) 

from Madagascar 

Melissa Luckow 
Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, U.S.A 

David Du Pay 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE, United Kingdom 

Amsiimct. a new species of Gagnebina from 

Ciigiwb'uuie bernieriariae (Bailloii) Liickow sinillis, set! [ye- 

norlhcrn Madagascar, G, bakoliae Luckow & Du ^''''*^ ^* radiidc doi-saliter glal)i-is, ventraliter lonieiitosis, pin- 
Puy, is described and illustrated. The new species "*' i" rachide non valide accrescentibus, fmrlihus 10 cm 

usijue longis et a(n)l)a(l!is, el anthens nvato-sagiltatis divorsa. 

Spindly shrub or small tree 2-5 m tall; young 

is most similar to G. bernieriana, and shares with 

it features such 

sting buds, dehiscent fruits, 

and pollen in 16-celled polyads. Gamcbina baho- u u i J u . ^i. j -^u i 

,. • .. „ , . V "^ . , V , . branches angled, pubescent on the edges with curly 

liae dilfers from G. bernieriana in having the pinnae 
lecrescent both apically and basally, the petiole 



or spreading golden hairs; older branches terete, 

1 I , , J • 11 I » 1 I u • 11 with smooth, mottled gray bark; brachyblasts ab- 

lenscly lonienlose adaxially but gIat)rous abaxially, . i i ■ i 

sent, but resting buds present with 6 to 8 perulate 

scales, 5-6 X 1.5-2 mm, ovate, striate with raised 

and pods somewhat larger and darker in colon 

Recent fieldwork in Madagascar by the authors has nerves, glabrous, stramineous. Stipules dimorphic, 
led to the discovery of a new species of Gagnebina. those on the leaves fonnedjust after the resting bud 
This genus is known from some six species, all of breaks oblong, 4-5 X 1.5-2 mm, acute apically, 
which are endemic to Madagascar and the nearby striate, stramineous, similar in color and texture to 
Comon)s and Mascarene Islands. Traditionally cir- the resting })ud scales, deciduous; stipules gradu- 
cumsrribed by indehiscent, winged fruits, Gagnebina ally becoming subulate distally on the branch, 6- 
was expanded by Lewis and Guinct (1986) to include 9 x 0.5 mm, ± persistent, present on most flow- 
any species witli linear anthers. This involved the re- ering and fruiting branches. Leaves 6-12 cm long. 

assignment of several species that had previously the petiole, rachis, and pinnae adaxially tomenlose 
been included in the closely related genus Dichrosta- ^ith gray or stramineous hairs, abaxially glabrous. 

chys. Both genera have staminodial flowers at the base petiole 0.8-2 cm long, rachis (4)6-10 cm long; nec- 

of the inflon^scence and centers of diversity in Mad- tary L5 mm diam, sessile, crateriform, orbicular, 

agascar. Recent cladistic analyses by the first author borne between the proximal pair of pinnae, often 

(Luckow, 1995) indicated that Gagnebina should fur- between the terminal pair and sometimes between 

ther expand to encompass all those species with hnear ^^ber pairs; pinnae (10)15 to 20(25) pairs per leaf, 

or subulate stit)ules if it was to be monophyletic. An- decrescent at both ends, 2-1 cm long, the axis 

* -^ ueeiescciii ai uoin enus, ^^ cm long, ine axis usu- 

other character correlated with stipule morphology, ^^jy f^^^j^g ^ ^^j^^j^^^ p^j^^ 1_2 ^^ i,^^^^^^ ,^6 

and mentioned by Lewis and Guinet (1986), is lack 

insertion of the terminal pair of leaflets; leaflets 40 

of the brachyblasts that characterize species of Di- , ^n/irw • • oov/nocAc 

, I I i/ ■, , I 1 1 ^" 60(70) pairs per pinna, 2-3 X 0.35-0.5 mm, 

diriKstachys and Alanlsilocle/uiron. In contrast, the spe- r r i ^ ^ . . i i- i n i 

../,.,. 11. . linear-iatcate, acute, truncate-oblique basally, gla- 

cies ot iHimwhina discussed herein nossess resting i .. .i. . .. , . ., . 

possess restiner i ^. m* * .i i . • • i • 

,.., irm. 1 .1 brous, sometimes ciliate, the nearly centric midvein 

buds with peniles. this may charactenze the e;enus - .ii .i i i r t» i i ^ o 

, , '^ . . , . . , . , , ^. visible on the dorsal surface. Peduncle 2-3 cm 

as a whole, altliougli furtlier work is needed to dem- 
onstrate tliat resting buds iu^e pn^sent in aU species 

in the genus. 

long, sparsely puberulent, in fruit becoming {2-)4r- 

:es axillary, one 

7 cm long, stout, woody; infl 

or, more frequently, two per node, each a congested 

Gagnebina bakoliae Luckow & Du Puy, sp. nov. spike of 40 to 75 flowers, 1-2 cm wide, the rachis 

TYPE: NW Madagascar. Antsiranana: Route Na- 2.5-3 cm long, the proximal flowers sterile, the dis- 

tionale 6, ca. 25 km NE of Ambilobe, near vil- tal fertile. Bracteoles subtending each flower 1.5 

lage of Aml)ilomagodro, close to Ankarana Mas- mm long, carinate, linear, deciduous, ciliate, 1- 

sif, 49WE, 13^0rS, 220 m, 17 Nov 1992, G. nerved. Sterile flowers 7 to 20 per inflorescence, 

P Lewis, Z). Du Puy & B. D. Schrire 2141 (ho- calyx shallowly cupulate, 0.5-1 mm long, constrict- 

lotype, K; isotypes, BH, P, TAN). Figure 1. 

NovoN 10: 220-223. 2000. 

ed at the base to form a minute pedicel, the 5 lob 

Volume 10, Number 3 

Luckow & Du Puy 

Gagnebina bakoliae from Madagascar 


Figure 1. (r<ign('hir}fi hnkoliav Lurki)\\ X \)y\ I'liy. 
nrclarv. — i.. I.oniriliidinal .section nf (crtilf flowrr. - 


Seed. Bars = 

A. M<)\M'ririg hraiulilr!. 

— B. Leaf willi elose-up of peliolar 
I), I'Vrtile flower. — K. Sterile flower. — V. liifriiete.seenee. — (i. 

1 (Ml ill A, B. K: I mm in C, I), K; 2.o mm in G. 

o}>tuse, centrally veined, ciliate, en'ain-while; pel- Perfect flowers with a perianth like that of tlie sler- 

als 5, distinc-t, 1.5-2.S mm h)nj;, lanceolate, mem- ile flowers l>ul larger, calyx 1-1. S mm long, petals 

branous, 1-uerved, glabrous, cream-colored; sta- 2—3 X 0.7—1 nun; stamens 10, the filaments ex- 

minodia 10, 1-1.5 cm long, white, filamentous. serted 5-(') mm beyond the petals, anthers ovate- 


Figure 2. —A. Polyad of Gagnehinn bakoliae. — B. Single grain from polyatl of G. bakoliae. — C. Polyad of G. 
bernicriarm. — 0. Single grain frorii jxilyad of G. hrrnirriana. — E. Polyad of G, myriophyUa. — F. Single grain from 
poljad of G. myriophyUa. Bars = 20 ^m \n A, C. E; 5 /xni in W. 0, E 

sagittate, nearly hasifixed, eglandular, light yellow; 

Distribution, Northern Madagascar, Ankarana, in 

ovary 1-1.5 mm long, sessile or short-stipitate, dry deciduous woodland and riverine forests, usu- 
ally bordering streams, on limestone outcrops and 


porate. Pods 1 to 4 per peduncle, sessile, 5-10 X rocky soils, 90-220 m. 

0.7-1.2 cm, woody, lanceolate, acute at both ends. 


Phenology. Flowering November, fruiting 



sunken between the ribs and often splitting diago- used for building houses, 
nally over the seeds on old pods; seeds 6 to 12 per 
pod, obli(juely inserted, 7-9 X 5-6 mm, ovate- 

Common names. Hazomburona, Famoha; wood 

rhomboidal, castaneous, pleurogram 
plete, endosperm thin. 


This species is named in honor of our friend and 
colleague at the University of Antananarivo, Bak- 


olimalala Rakouth. Gagnebina bakoliae is inter- 
mediate in some characters between C. hernieriana 

Volume 10, Number 3 

Luckow & Du Puy 

Gagnebina bakoliae from Madagascar 


and G. myriophylla (Baker) G. P. Lewis & Guiiiet. 

Because Lewis and Guiiiel (1986) had found pol- 

The new species and G. bernienana have both l)een len to be a useful character in Giignehina, we ex- 
grown from seed in the greenhouses at Cornell, and amined several pollen sanijjlcs from the three spe- 
they are found to differ consistently in the following cies using scanning electron microscopy (Fig. 2). 
characteristics. The pirmae of G. hernieriana are The pollen of G. bakoliae is usually in 16-celled 
strongly accrescent, with the distal pair 3-4 times polyads, although occasionally 12 to 20 grains per 
as long as the proximal pair. In contrast, the distal polyad were observed (Fig. 2a). The exine is 
pinnae of Gagnebina bakoliae are decrescent (Fig. coarsely reticulate and tricolporate (Fig. 2b). It is 
1). The petiole and rachis of G. bakoliae are dense- most similar to that of G. bernieriana, which also 
ly tomentose adaxially but nearly glabrous abaxi- has a 16-celled polyad but a more irregularly re- 
ally, whereas the petiole and rachis of G. bernieri- ticulate exine and colpi either obscure or non-polar 

ana are pubescent (but not usually tomentose) (Fig. 2c, d). The pollen of G. myriophylla (Fig. 2e, 

throughout. Although pod sizes overlap in their f) is quite different, with rugulate exine and vesti- 

overall ranges, pods of G. bakoliae are on average gial central syncolpi. 

Paratypes. MADAC/ASIJAH. Antsiranana: licsaho- 
ba. near Ankarana. on Rte. 6, 1.*? Mar. 1993, M, Luckow 

larger than those of G. bernieriana (7—10 cm vs. 5— 
7 cm, respectively). The seeds of G. bakoliae are 

also larger (7-9 mm vs. 5-6 mm). The apex of the 4225 (\M\. K): Ankarana Special Kcs(^rve, 14 Mar. 1993, 
valves of G. bakoliae is often nearly symmetrically ^^- kuckow 4231 (BH. K). 

acute, while that ot G. bernieriana is strongly asym- 
metrical. The fruits also differ in color: those of G. 
bakoliae are a deep chocolate-brown; those of C. 

Acknowledgments. This work was supported by 

National Geographic grant 5800-96 and NSF grant 

DEB-9726981 to M. Luckow. We thank Bente King 
bernieriana a lighter golden-brown. Although flow- f^,^ ^j^^ drawing, the Missouri Botanical Garden 

ers and inflorescences of the two species are very Madagascar Program for logistical support, ANGAP 

similar, the anthers of G. bernieriana are oblong- f^j. collecting permits, and Bill Dress for the Latin 

sagittate whereas those of G. bakoliae are ovate- 



Gagnebina bakoliae can also be confused with G. Literature Cited 

myriophylla, especially in fruiting condition. Gag- 
nebina myriophylla is known only from northwest- 
Madagascar in the Sambirano region. The an- 
thers of this species are linear and bear a terminal 
apiculus. The fruits are very similar to those of G. 
bakoliae, but are somewhat smaller (4^ cm long) 
and thicker. 

Lewis, C. P. & Ph. (iuint't. 1986. Notes on Cagiiehina 
(Leguniinosae-Mimosoi(leae) in Madagascar and neigh- 
bouring islands. Kew l^iill. 41: 463^70. 

Luckow, M. 1995. A phvlogenetie analysis of the Didiros- 
tachys group (Miniosoideae: Minioseae). Pp. 63—75 in 
M. D. Cris[) & J. J. Doyle (editors), Ad\anees in Le- 
gume Systematics, part 7: Phylogeny. Koyal Rolanic 
Gardens, Kew. 

Three New Brazilian Species in the Genus Marcetia 

(Melastomataceae, Melastomeae) 

Angel (I Barges Martins 

Departamento de Botanica, Universidade Estadual de Catiipinas, CP 6109, 

13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil. ainartins@unicamp,br. 

Current address until 31 August 2000: Department of Bolany, 

California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, 
San Francisco, California 94118-4599, U.S.A. 

Abstoact. Three nt-vv species oi Marcetia are de- such as M. ericoides (Sprengel) 0. B(*rg ex Cogniaux 

scribed and illustrated. Marcetia semiriana occurs and M cancscens Naudin. Marcetia shcpherdii in ihe 

only in Serra do Cipo, Minus Gerais. Marcetia she- only species in the genus that is endemic to coastal 

pherdii, colltn-ti'd in Maraii, at sea level, and M. Baliia, where it occurs in the sandy vegetational 

lychnophoroides, from Chapada Diamanlina, are formation commonly referred to as restinga. The ge- 

both endemic to Bahia. The new species Marcetia nus Marcetia can be distinguished within the tribe 

shepherdii and M, lychnophoroides, together with M. Melastomeae mainly by the combination of tetram- 

luetzelburgii Markgraf, constitute a group of closely erous flowers and simple anthers that lack basally 

related species. They share in common subcoria- prolonged connectives (except in M. shephcrdii) 

ccous, fleshy, imbricate to subimbricate, revolute and, in some species, may have short ventral tu- 

leaves. Marcetia shepherdii is distinguished by its berculale appendages. 

rigid, erect l)ranchlets, yellowish green leaves that Three of the species studied in my taxonomies 

art^ glabrous on the adaxiul surface, unappendaged revision of Marcetia (Martins, 1989) are new. Tht^ 

and broadly dilated connectives, linear-oblong the- are described and illustrated here, 
cae with a ventrally inclined pore, and a unique 2- 

locular ovary. Marcetia lychnophor aides has veluti- Marcetia shepherdii A. B. Martins, 

nous to sublanate branchlets, cincrcous-grecn 

leaves that are densely puberulous-sericeous on the 

abaxial surface, unprolonged and inconspicuously 

bilobulate connectives, and a 3- or 4-l()cular ovary. 

Marcetia semiriana is very similar to M. taxifolia 

(A. Saint-Hilaire) DC, differing in the prostrate 

brunches, long pedunculate flowers, and straiglit 

Marcetia is a neotropical genus of 27 species 
largely endemic to Brazil. Exce[)t for the wide- 
spread Marcetia taxifolia, whicli has a liicentric 

sp. nov. 

TYPE: Brazil. Bahia: Maraii, 4 km de Maraii, 
12 Mar. 1977 (fl, fr), G, J. Shepherd. L S. Ki- 
noshita, /. B. Andrade & N. Taroda 4550 (ho- 
lotype, UEC). Figure 1. 

ILiec species Marcrtiar lut'lzclhinj:!! jffiiiis, sed ah ea 
foliis arete adpit'ssis s<^ssiliLus revolutis dense indiricalls 
iiileriiodia l)r<'\ia occultaiilihus, laiius hasiii v<msus den- 
udiitis. consjiiciie ainiulis folioniin delapsorum j)racditis, 
larniiui foliari supra glabra in sieeo flavovireseenii, slam- 
inuni filarHeiitis ler 1on»^i()ri1)us. anilieris apice rotundalo 
venlialiter minute dehisi'enli atquc ovario l)iI(K*ulari dif- 

Erect subshrub ea. 60 em, cojiipaetly branched; 

distribution in eastern Brazil and northwestern 
South Ameri(;a (Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyana), branchlets rigid, subterele to inconspicuously qua- 
all oth(^r species of Marcetia Inwe n^stricted distri- drangular, moderately puberulous or nearly gla- 

butions. Marcetia species 

usually shru])s or brous, at the base defoliating widi age and with 

subshrubs that occur in campo rupestre in the Serra conspicuous leaf scars. Leaves opposite, sessile, 

do Espinhafo, Minas Gerais, in the mountains of appressed, densely imbricate and concealing the 

Goias, atid especially in the Chapada Diamantina, short internodes; blade lanceolate-ovate, 2.5-3 X 

Bahia. Campo nipestre is an exclusively Brazilian 1 mm, fleshy-coriaceous, basally cordate, apically 

complex mosaic of vegetation types characterized recurved and nnicronulate, margins revolute, gla- 

by extensive outen)[)s of highly acidic rocks, nutri- brous on the adaxial surface, glandular-pubescent 

ent-poor soils, and local variations in topography, abuxially, obscurely 1-nerved. Flowers 4-merous, 

slope, aspect, and moisture regime. A few Marcetia subsessile, solitary in upper leaf axils resembling a 

species occur in both montane and littoral areas, terminal foliaceous spiciform inflorescence, becom- 

NovoN 10: 224-229. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New Brazilian MarcBtia 

p . 




- r 

'. 1 

1^ * 

* ^ . • 


■ 4 _ 

4 L 

i' J 



■- •■ 







— A. Flowering branch. — 1^. Leaves, abaxial (left) and adaxial (right) 
C. Rranehlet apex. ^D. Antij)etal()us stamen (left) and antisepaloiis stamen (rigfit). — li. Ovary and styh'. 

Figure 1. Marcetia shepherdii A. B. Martins. 
surfaces. — 

■F. Petal. — C. Hypanthium with bibracleolate pedicel and calyx. (A— G drawn from Shepherd et al. 4550.) 


No von 

ing axillary by overtopping growth; bracteoles ca. 1 Marcetia lychnophoroides A. B. Martins, sp. 

mm long, similar to the leaves; hypanthium cam- 
panulate, 2-2.5 mm long, glabrous; calyx lobes tri- 
angular, ca. 1 mm long, with acute to subrotund 
apex, glabrous, minutely glandular-ciliolate at the 
margins; petals obovate-oblong, 6-6.5 X 1.5-2 

nov. TYPE: Brazil. Bahia: Caete-A^u, Cach- 
oeira Glass, 30 June 1983 (fl), L Paganucci 
de Queiroz 702 (holotype, HUEFS; isotypes, 
ALCB, SP). Figure 2. 

Haec species ad Marcetiam shepherdii et M. luetzelbur- 

mm, pmk to lavender, base shortly attenuate, apex ^,7 foHi^ conf.^rtis crasse coriaceis satis revolutis accedil, 
acute; stamens subisomorphic, the antisepalous autem ab ambabus non soUjm foliis longioribus et habitu 

robusliore, sed etiam antherarum connectivorumqup forma 
maxime distincla. 

slightly longer; filaments 9-10 mm; thecae ca. 3.5 
mm, linear-oblong, straight, with a small ventrally 
inclined pore, the connective shortly prolonged and 

Erect much-branched shrub 1-1.3 m; b 


broadly dilated below the thecae, ± continuous subterete to obscurely quadrangular, densely cov- 
with the filament, unappendaged. Ovary superior, ered with velutinous to sublanate or sericeous tri- 
2.5 mm long, glabrous, 2-locular; style 10-12 mm chomes, cinereous to canescent, glabrescent and 
long, glabrous; stigma not expanded. Capsule ellip- defoliating with age at the base, the leaf scars con- 
tic, flattened, 2.5-3 mm long, enveloped by hypan- spicuously alveolate. Leaves opposite, sessile, sub- 
thium and calyx; seeds cochleate, ca. 0.5 mm long, appressed and densely imbricate; blade lanceolate- 

numerous, testa tuberculate. 

ovate, 8-10 X 2-2.5 

mm, cinereous-green, 

subcoriaceous to fleshy coriaceous, base rounded to 

Tliis species is named after George J. Shepherd, subcordate, apex shortly blunt-acuminate, margins 

Professor of Botany at UNICAMP (Universidade totally revolute, sparsely puberulous and obscurely 

Estadual de Campinas), who collected the type and striolate on the adaxial surface, densely puberu- 

only known collection of this species. 

lous-sericeous abaxially, 1 -nerved. Flowers 4-mer- 

Sterile plants of Marcetia shepherdii closely re- ^^.^' subsessile, solitary, in upper leaf axils, resem- 


semble M. luetzelhurgii Markgraf. Marcetia she- 
pherdii has rigid, erect branchlets, while in M. 

luetzelhurgii the branchlets are more flexuous. The ^ T' ''T ^'^ ^^^ ^^^^^^' ^^^ "'^'^'"' '*™"^^^ 
leaves, which are superficially similar in these two '■''^°^'^' '^yPf "thmm oblong-campanulate, ca. 4 

species, are muc 


appressed in M. shepherdii 

than in M luetzelburgiL In M. shepherdii they are 
glabrous on the upper surface and yellowish green. 

mm long, moderately puberulous; calyx lobes linear 
to narrowly triangular, ca. 4 X 1 mm, apex acu- 



In th 

Useful morphological characters in distineiiishine; u »t \ * ' r u.i j- 'i ■ 

I ■ 1 1 r 1 1 abruptly acute; stamens slightly dimorphic in size, 

these two species can be also found in the stamens antisepalous ca. 9 mm, antipetalous ca. 8 mm; the- 

and ovary. Marcetia shepherdii has much longer fil- ^^^ 4^ 5 ^^ j^^g^ linear-oblong with a small ven- 

aments (9-10 mm) than M. luetzelhurgii (2-3 mm). t^^^y jj^^n^^j p^,^^ ^^^ connective not or slightly 

" e new species the connectives are unappen- prolonged and inconspicuously bilobulate ventrally 

daged, sliortly prolonged, broadly dilated below, at base; ovary oblong, 3- or 4-locular, superior, gla- 

and the thecae are linear-oblong and rounded at brous; style 15 mm, glabrous: 

the apex, with a small ventrally inclined pore. Its Capsule 4-5 mm long, enveloped by the tardily ca- 

ovary is 2-locular, a unique feature in this genus ducous hypanthium and calyx; seeds cochleate, ca. 

where the usual condition is a 4- to 3-locular ovary. 0.6 mm long, numerous, testa tuberculate. 


In contrast, Marcetia luetzelhurgii has linear-trian- 
gular thecae with a beaked, dorsally inclined apex, 
a staminal connective that is barely prolonged with 
ventral appendages, and a 3-locular ovary 

Marcetia lychnophoroides belongs to an informal 
group of species that includes M. shepherdii and M. 
luetzelhurgii. All of these species share subcoria- 
ceous to fleshy, densely imbricate, one-nerved 
leaves with margins that are uniformly revolute. 
ently confined to Marau, Bahia. The only available Distinguishing characters of the new species in- 
specimen was collected at sea level, on a "mata de ^lude its velutinous to sublanate branchlets, longer 
restinga" border. The species may be rare as only leaves, anthers, and connectives. 

Marcetia lychnophoroides differs notably from M. 

The distribution of Marcetia shepherdii is appar- 

one specimen has been collected. However, this 

coastal region of Bahia, which is experiencing shepherdii in its 3- or 4-locular ovary, and unpro- 

widespread destruction, is still poorly known bo- longed or slighdy prolonged connective that is mi- 

tanically. nutely bilobulate at the base. In M. shepherdii the 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New Brazilian Marcetia 



Figure 2. Marcetia lychnophor aides A. B. Martins. 

A. Fl 

owering brant'h. 

B. Leaves, ahaxial (left) ami adaxial 

(right) surfaces. — C. Branchlet apex. — D. Antipetalous stamen (left) and antisepalous stamen (right). — E. Ovary and 
style. — F, Petah — G. Hypanthiuni and calyx. (A— G drawn from Paganiicci de Qiieiroz 702.) 


No von 




^^ nm 

^r w 

t* 4 








Figure .*i. Mdrrvtia semiriaua A. B. Martins. 
suriacr. — 

A. Flowering hraiu-Ii. 

B. Leaf, adaxial surface. — C. Petal, adaxial 

— D. Antipelaloiis stamen (left) and anlisepaloiis stamen (right). — E. Ovary and style. — F. Bud showing 
hyi)anlhium with bibrateolate pedicel and calyx. (A-F drawn from Daniel S: llrnsold 2294.) 

Volume 10, Numbers 


New Brazilian Marcetia 


ovar)' is 2-lo('ular with the conned ivr consistently angular, 2.5—3 X 0.5—0.8 mm; petals broadly ob- 

prolonged. The two species also {lifler niaikedlv in ovale to elli{)tic 7—8 X 5—6 mm, lavender to pink, 

distriI)ution and habitat. Mdicetin shepherdii is base attenuate, apex obtuse-apiculale usually with 

presently known only irom the restinga vegetation, a single gland-ti|)petl hair; stamens isojuorphic with 

al sea level, whdi* \L lychnophonndes is endeiiuc straight anthers, thecae oblong, 2—3 nun long, with 

to tlie campos nipestres on the higher mountains of a small ventral-terminal pore, tlu^ comux'tive slight- 

Chapada Diamantiiui, in interior Bahia. Marcetia ly prohniged, ventrally minutely bilol»ulate at the 

lychnaph oroides differs Irom M. lurlzelhurgii by its base; ovary elliptic, 2.5 mm long, superior to slight- 
ly attached to the hvpanthium at the base, 4-locu- 

bular dorsallv inclined apex that characterizes M. lar, glabrous; style 6—7 mm, glabrous; stigma not 

longer anthers tliat are linear and lacking the tu- 


expanded. Capsule 3.5—4 mm, covered by the per- 

The epithet lychfiopJioruides emphasizes the sim- sisleut hypanthium and calyx; seeds cctchleate, 0.4 
ilarity of sterile individuals of this sj)ecies to sonu^ mm long, nuuKTous, testa tuberculat(*. 

sjiecies in tlu^ genus Lychnophora Mailius (Astcr- 
aceae). The Creek words lychnis lor lamjx phorus 
for bearing, and oidcs for reseml)ling were joinetl 
to describe tlu- branching habit of the [)lant, which 
looks like a candelabra. 

PiUiitypes. HK \/ll.. Haliia: Harm da K^liui. *•) kni ai 

Marcetia semiriana is named for my friend and 
colleague Joao St-mir, Professor of Botany at LNI- 
CAMP, who was my initial mentor in my studies of 
the Melastomataceae. 

Marcetia seniiriaaa can be confused with flat- 
leaved specimens of M. taxifolia, [\w (»nly species 

sitl (la eidade. estrada para hiiavii. I.T2t'S. M"18'\\. I*) in the genus that grows sympatrically with M. se- 

Oet. VnV<\ (fr). R. M. Ilarln 2(^<r27, (I KC); l>alrneir a^. miriana. The widespread M. taxifolia is quite var- 
proxinio a (^aete-Arii. (laehoelra da I'lnnara ((/lass). I 1 
Oct. 1987 (Id. r<ig(inurci de Ouciraz I'l'^l (ALCH, CK- 

PKC, K HHK. Ill KTS. K. N^. KB. Sll I KC. LS). 

cios ah^ng the nnid from Clu 

Marcetia semiriana A. B. Martins, sp. nov. TYPE: 
Brazil. Minas Gerais: Santana do Riacho, 
rockv sloiK^s in the vicinitv of Alto dos Pala- 

i[)cu do Sol to 
Concei^-ao do Mato Dentro in the Serra <lo 

Cipo, elev. ca. 1200-1400 m, 11 Feb. 1982 
(fl, fr), T Daniel & iV. Hensold 2294 CFCR 

3700 (holotype, SPF; isolypes, CAS, LEG). 

Figure 3. 

Haee speeie'> priino aspecln Munrliac faxijoliae simili-- 
setl ah ea eaiilr [if o.-^trato. floi il)ii> l(»ri<^t' |>eduiicLilati.^. 
slatninuin fdatnetilis st>lis(|ue hrev iorihus et anllieris rec- 

tis differt. 

iable, and several forms can be distinguished on 

llu' basis of ioliagt^ characters alone. None display 
llu^ prostrate habit, long peduncles, shorter fila- 
ments and style, or smaller straight anihers of M. 
semiriana. Marcetia hatschhachii A. B. Martins, en- 
demic* to Grao-Mogo] in Minas Gerais, resembles 
M. semiriana, but can !)e separated by a few con- 
stant c*haracters. Of these the most significant are 
features similar to those distinguishing M. semiri- 
ana irom M. taxifolid. In addition, M. hatschhachii 

is distinguished from M, semiriana hy the ventral 
location of the anther pores and the {jetiolate 



Lax or iliiluse ^ubshrub 15—20 cm tall; branclu*s 
subquailrangular. (lexuous. prostrate, the youn< 


branchlets, leal blades on both surfaces, hypanthi- 
um, and c-aly\ lobc-s sparsely puberulous-glandulan 
Leaves subsessile; p(»tioIe 0.7—1.2 nun long; blade 
oblong-ellij)tic 6—10 X 2—6 nun, membranous, flat, 

base subround(Ml-obtuse, apex obtuse shoi1-acu- • i i 

1 11 i- I . -> . r I lor th<' doctoral ^rant. 

nunate, marguis glanduiar-ciliolate, o- to 5-nene(l. ^ 

Flowers 4-mcrous, solilar)^ in U])per leal axils; ped- 
icels ca. 1 nun long; p*Mluncles 4— .S uuii long; lirac- 
teoles 4—5 X 1.5-2 mm, similar to the leaves, ob- 
scundy 3-nervi'd; hvpanthium narrowly cami)anulale, 
2-3 nun long; calyx lobes oblong-lanccolatc to tri- 

'(inifvpes. HK A/IL. Miliar G«'rais: Munici'pio <Ie 
Saiitana do Riaelio. \'al da Lagoa. 22 Feb. 1986 (fl, fr), 
CJiukr et (d. s.n.. (^tS(J 962 i (SPI'); Sena do Cij)6, Km 

1.^2. 24 Apr. I9r>() (fl, fr), Ihtarte 2647 (US); Kodovia Helo 

llori/unte-Alto do l*alaei(). eaniinlio para a ('>arh()eira. 16 
Jan. Vmn (fl). V. /.. \h'tiezes S: P. Morales s.n., CFSC 

umryj (SPK i kc). 

Acknouledgments. I thank Frank Almeda for 
reviewing the mamiscript, Eduardo Kickhofel for 
preparing the line drawings, and FAPESP (Funda- 
(^■ao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo) 

Literature Ciited 

Marlins. A. H. I*)(>*^. He\ isao Taxonomiea do (ienero \I(ir- 

celia DC. (Melastoinataeeae). Tes<* de l)ouloia<lo fuii- 

|)iiMishinl thesis], llriiversidade Ksladiial de Campinas. 

Sa(t Paulo. 

Griffinia alba (Amaryllidaceae), a New Species from 

Northeastern Brazil 

Kevin D. Preuss and Alan W, Meerow"^ 

University of Florida, Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, 
3205 College Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314, U.S.A. *Corresponding 



Current add 

: USDA-ARS-SHRS, 13601 Old Cuder Rd., 
Miami, Florida 33158, U.S.A. 

AnSTRACT. Griffinia alba is described as new with Worsleya. All species that we have examined 

from Tapera, Pcriiamhuco, in northeastern Brazil. have 2ft = 20 chromosomes, with frequent triploidy 

It is most similar to the type species for the genus {2n = 30) characteristic of cultivated relicts of ex- 

Griffinia, G. hyacinthina, which is known from the tirpated populations (Preuss, 1999). Griffinia is na- 

states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo in south- tive to the various forest ecotypes of the Mata At- 

eastern Brazil. It differs from this species by its lantica and the nearby northeastern regions of the 

cuneate leaf bases, and more numerous, entirely Caatinga Province (Oliveira-Filho & Ratter, 1995). 
white flowers with longer pedicels and narrower te- Griffinia subg. Griffinia is characterized by small 
pals. Griffinia alba is the first white-flowered spe- to large, diurnal, strongly zygomorphic, lilac, or h- 

cies to be described in subgenus Griffinia. 

lac and white-colored flowers with the upper sta- 

Rkscmo, Griffinia alba e descrita como uma nova "'^" assurgent and separated from the other decH- 
esp^cie do municfpio de Tapera, Pemambuco, "^^^ ^""^ ^^^ sometimes obsolete). Tins subgenus 
Brasil. Griffinia alba € mais semelhante na forma ^^^^P^^^ "^^^^t \ro^\va\ forest habitats of the Mata 

a G hracinthina, que ^ encontrada nos estados do ^^1^"^^^'^' "^ Brazdian AUantic Forest, ranging from 

Rio de Janiero e S^o Paulo. Difere desta pela base ^^'' '^^^^ ^^ Pemambuco in the north to die state of 

cuneada da folha, flores inteiramente brancas mais ^^"^ ^^'^^^ ^" ^^^ ^^'^^^'- ^^#"f*^ ^^H- J¥^^^ has 

numerosas com pedicelos mais longos, e t^palas ^^g^^^^t, large, nocturnal, white-colored flowers, 

mais estreitas. Griffinia alba € a primeira Griffinia ^"^^ occupies a more xeric habitat^ such as the de- 
corn flores cor de branco descrita no sobgSnero 


ciduous cerrado forests found in Coids and Tocan- 
tins and the caatinga woodlands of llie northt-ast 
region. Belonging to subgenus Griffinia, G. alba is 

The most recent taxonomic treatment of the ge- described as new from Tapera, Pemambuco, and is 

Griffinia Ker Gawl 

^ six species (Traul 

ever, since that time the genus Hyline Herbert, 



composed of two species, has been reduced to a Griffinia alba K. Preuss & Meerow, sp 


subgenus of Griffinia (Ravenna, 1969), and an ad- 
ditional four species belonging to subgenus Griffi- 
nia have been described (Morel, 1960; Ravenna, 
1969, 1974, 1978). The genus is unique in the 

TYPE: Brazil. Pemambuco: Tapera, wooded 
habitat, 16 Nov. 1936, B, Pickel 2907 (holo- 
type, US). Figures 1, 2. 

Haec species Griffiniae hyarinthinae K<t CawltT affin- 

Amaryllidaceae for the presence of a true hypan- is, seJ ab ea floiibus albis, ainpliuiibus, pedicellis lon- 
thium, formed by the continuation of the perigonal g'^ribus, atqiie foliis hasi anguste cuneali^ dilR-rl. Habitat 
tube over the ovary in some of the species (Raven- '" '*'^^' T^l^^nxe, I\ man.buro, Brazil. 

na, 1969; Preuss, 1999). Phylogenetic analyses 

Bulbous terrestrial geophyte to ca. 50 cm tall 


ed on nuclear rDNA ITS sequences resolve Grif- (Fig. lA). Bulb tunicate with contractile roots; tu- 
nics thin, drying brown, and becoming papery 

neri (Hooker f.) Traub & Moldenke, also endemic Leaves distichous (Fig. lA), petiolate; petiole to 30 

to Brazil (Meerow et al., 2000; Preuss, 1999). 


cm long; lamina (Fig. IB) ovate to elliptic, to ca. 

d some- 40 cm long and 12-15 cm broad, margin entire, 

times white or silver-spotted leaves, its turgid seed apex acuminate, base cuneate and gradually taper- 
lacking phytonudan, and blue range pigmentation ing into the petiole, with prominent transverse re- 


NovoN 10: 230-233. 2000. 

ticulate venation (Fig. IC), glabrous adaxially, glau- 

Volume 10, Number 3 

Preuss & Meerow 
Griffinia alba from Brazi 


1 cm 

K D Pretitt 

FigLirt' 1. Griffinia nlha Preuss & Meerow [Pickd 2907). - 
adaxial surface sliu\vin<r commissural verialioii. — D. Flowt^r. 

A. Recoustructed habit. — B. Siugle leaf. — C. Detail of 

cous abaxially. Inflorescence scapose (Fig. lA); sidcrably smaller, blue-flowered species; its exact 

scape 35-38 cm tall, two-edged, solid, green, gla- provenance is unknown (it was shipped to England 

brous, tenninating in a 16- to 17-flowered pseudo- from the state of Rio de Janeiro). Traub and Mol- 

umbel (reduced helicoid cymes) enclosed by two denke (1949) considered it "intermediate" between 

partially fused ocreaceous, spathc bracts 2.3-2.5 

G. hyacinthina Ker Gawler and G, parviflora Ker 

cm long; pedicels 2.1-2.9 cm long, green. Perianth Gawler. Griffinia alba closely resembles G. hyacin- 
(Fig. ID) zygomort)liic; tepals 6 in two whorls, thina, but differs from that species by its cuneate 

white, glabrous, fused into a perigonal tube ca. 1.3 

leal base, which gradually tapers into the petiole. 

1.5 cm long that is continuous with the ovar>^ (thus gn^ater number of flowers (up to 17 compared to 8 
forming a true hypanlhium), arranged in a 5 + 1 

manner with the upper 5 tepal segments reflexed 
and the lowermost descending, 4—5 cm long and 1- 

to 10), longer pedicels, white vs. lilac-colored flow- 
s, and more linear tepal segments. Griffinia alba 

1.5 cm broad, narrowly obovate with acute apices, i,^ subgenus Griffnia. 

is the first entirely white-flowered species described 


the outer whorl apiculate. Stamens 6 (5 declinatt 

Griffinia alba is endemic to the gallery forests of 

and 1 assurgent); filaments varyini>: in length from ^i * d *i i ■ i r * i i 

, ^ . northeastern Brazil and is known from a smgle lo- 

1.4 to 3.2 cm; anthers ca. 1 mm lone;, versatile, r* • t* n i t-l at . 4*1- .• 

,^ , . cality m iapera, rernamliuco. Ihe Mata Atlantica 

introrse, dehiscing hmgitudinally; pollen whitish. 
Style filifonn, declinate, ca. 3.6-3.8 cm long; stig- 
ma truncate-punctate. Ovary semi-inferior, trilocu- 
lar, ovoid to subglobose, ca. 5 mm diam.; ovules 2 
to 6 per locule, axile but basally displaced, biser- 
iate. Fruit and seed unknown. 

formerly extended into the state of Pernambuco via 

dendritic passages, or gallery forests (Bucher, 
1982), into the Caatinga Province (Oliveira-Filho & 
Ratter, 1995), Rizzini (1979) suggested that the gal- 
leries, in conjunction with the other hinterland for- 
ests, represent extensions of the Atlantic forest into 

During an investigation of the systematics of the the cerrado domain. 

genus Griffinia (Preuss, 1999), this new species was 

Since this new species is represented by just a 

recognized from the type specimen [Pickel 2907, single collection, we presume that it is rare or ex- 
Fig. 2), which had been detennined as Griffinia in- tirpated in its native habitat. Unfortunately, defor- 
termedia Lindley. However, G. intermedia is a con- estation currently threatens the native habitats of 



Itrk. klol. I(ri:. 

•li-M«* . 

Fi*;iir(' 2, 



llololxpt' of CrilJiuia alha {Pickvl 2907. US). 

V f 

•^. % 

W '^ ' ' -^ 


H*b ♦Vr-^ 


Mofi» V 



Nm '*v ^* 



Volume 10, Number 3 

Preuss & Meerow 
Griff inia alba from Brazil 


all Griffinia (Dean, 1995), and species of the genus 
are among the most endangered of South American 
geophytes (Walter & Gillet, 1998). 

Acknowledgments. We thank US for the loan of 
the specimen and Kent D. Perkins of FLAS for as- 
sistance in processing the loan. This work was sup- 

Secoru! hilernatiorial Syniposiuin on the Comparative 
Biology of the Monocotyledons, CSIHO Press, Sydney. 

Morel, G. 1960. Griffinia rochar, a new anKmllid sjircies. 
Baileya 8: 133. 

Oliveira-Filho, A. T. & J. A. Ratter. 1995. A studv of the 
origin of central Brazilian forests by the analysis of 
plant species distribution patterns. Edinburgh J. Bot. 
52: 141-194. 

ported in part by NSF grant DEB-968787 to AWM Preuss, K. D. 1999. Systematic Stndies in the f^enus Grif- 

and Charles L. Guy. Florida Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station Journal Series No. R-07146. 

Literature Cited 

Bueher, F. H. 1982. Chaco and Caatinga — South Ameri- 
can arid savannahs, woodlands and thickets. Pp. 48- 
79 in B. J. Huntley & B. H. Walker, Kcology of Tropic al 
Savannahs. Sprin*^er-Verlag, FVrlin. 

D<'an, W. 1995. With Broadax and F'^irebrand: The De- 

finia (Amar)llidaceae). Masters Thesis, University of 

Florida, rfainesville. 
Ravenna, P. 1969. Studies in the genus Griffinia. V\, Life 

25: 62-68, 
'. 1974. Studies in the germs Griffinia. PI. Life 30: 


. 197H. New species in tlie genus Griffinia. PI. Life 

34: 82. 

Rizzini, C. T. 1979. Tratado de fitogeografia do BrasiL As- 

pecto sociologicos e floristicos. HUCITEC-KDUSP, Sao 

slruction of tlie Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Univ. Califor- Trauh, H. P. & H. N. Moldenke. 1949. Arnar^llideae: 

nia Press, Berkeley. 
Meerow. A. V(,. M. V. Fay, M. W. Chase, C. L. Guy. (^-B. 

Tribe Aniarvlleae. The Atneriean Plant Life Soei(^tv. La 

Li, D. Snijnian .^ S\\ Yang. 2()()0. Phylogeny of Amar- Walter, K. S. & H. J. Gillet. P><)8. 1997 lUCN Bed List 

yllidaceae: Moleeides and morphology. Pp. 368—382 in 
K. Wilson & I). Morrison (editors). Proceedings of ihe 

of Threatened Plants. lUCN-World Conservation Unit, 
Cainhridge, U.K. 

A New Species oi Adenocalymma Martius ex Meisner 

(Bignoniaceae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil 

Veridiana Vizoni Scudeller 
Depto. Botanica— IB/UNICAMP, C.P. 6109, Campinas-1 3. 083-970, SP, Brazil 

Abstract. A new species is presented for the ge- Hunt, 1974). It is characterized by branchlets te- 

nus Adenocalymma (Bignoniaceae tribe Bignon- rete, tendril simple, leaves entire, raceme axillary, 

ieae). Adeiwcalymma magnoalatum Scudeller oc- bracts usually conspicuous but caducous, calyx 

curs in the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas ^ith conspicuous black patelliform glands on the 

Gerais, Brazil. Its subcoriaceous blades and sec- ^^^^^ gij^^ corolla tubular, bright yellow, either 

ondary vems raised and yellow below, a quadran- wholly tomentose or pubescent, very rarely wholly 

gular ovary, and especially the 4-alate fruit and ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 4 f^^^j^ ^^^^^^^^ 1 staminode, 

convex, bi-alate seeds compressed on the back dis- *u o j- ■ * *• o i u ^ j t -. 

. , , . ^ anther z-divancate, stigma 2-lamellate, and fruit 

tinguish the species 

Resumen. Se presenta una nueva especie para el 

capsule septifragal. 

In this paper, a new species is presented from 

g^nero Adenocalymma (Bignoniaceae tribu Bignon- the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, in the State of 

ieae). A, magnoalatum Scudeller, del "Parque Es- Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Parque Estadual do Rio 

tadual do Rio Doce," Minas Gerais, Brasil. La es- Doce is located between 42''38'30"-48°28'18"W 

pecie se caracteriza por sus hojas subcoridceas y ^nd 19%8'18"-19'^29'24"S, encompassing the mu- 

venas secundanas elevadas y amariUas en el enves, ^^ieipalities of Tim6teo, Marli^ria, and Dionfsio, 

un ovario cuadrangular y especialmente por el fruto .^^pHsing an area of approximately 36,000 ha 

4-aIado y las semulas convexas y bi-aladas com- /t *•* * t? * j i j t?i . 'iru\A\ 

. . , , , -^ (Instituto Estadual de Florestas, 1994). 

primidas dorsalmente. 

The etymology of Adenocalymma Martius ex Adenocalyimna magnoalatum Scudeller, sp. nov. 

Meisner is complex. The name is a compound of 
adenos (aSeuo^ f. = glands) and calymma {KaAvix- 
jia n. = head-covering); these characteristics are 
found in almost all species of the genus. Meisner 
(1840) published the original description of the ge- 

TYPE: Brazil. Minas Gerais: Marli^ria, Parque 
Estadual do Rio Doce (PERD), estrada do Res- 
taurante, 10 Oct. 1996, V V Scudeller 579 (ho- 
lotype, VIC; isotype, MO (fr only)). Figure 1. 

Haec species A. paidistaro Bureau & K. Schumann et A. 

nus with the spelling Adenocalymna. However, En- duseni Kraenzlin affinis, sed ab els calyce et corolla extus 

dlicher (1841) used the spelling ^(/enora/jmma. As tomentosis, ovario 4-angulari, capsula oblonga, 4-alata glan- 

1. . j-rr . 11- r x! • .-11 dulls patelifonnibus in alis et seminibus alatis differt. 

a result, two ditterent spellings oi this name still ^ 

persist. Scudeller (2000) proposed the conservation 

Liana. Branchlets elliptic to terete, lenticels 

of the Adenocalymma spelling, based both on what abundant, without interpetiolar glandular fields; 

appears to be Meisner*s own correction (1843), to pseudostipules oblong-elliptic to linear, 0.7-1.0 X 

the index of his original description, and Bureau 0.1-0.3 cm, glabrous, with 1-3 patelliform glands 

(1872). Bureau pointed out that the original spell- at midpoint, persistent. Leaves opposite, brochi- 

ing used by Meisner (in his original description) dodromous, bifoliolate; tendrils simple; petioles 

was wrong and commented, "J'ai vu plus de dix 2.1-3.2 cm long, terete, with prominent lenticels; 

Etiquettes de la main de Martius, toutes r^digees petiolules 2.6—4.1 cm long, terete; blades 11.4- 

conform^ment k I'etymologie grecque, et dans 17.0 X 4.5-7.7 cm, oblong-elliptic, chartaceous, 

VEnchiridion d'Endlicher, qui a paru en 1841, on glabrous above, densely lepidote below, base asym- 

trouve le meme nom cit6 sous la forme correcte: metric, apex acuminate, margins revolute; primary 

Adenocae.ymma" (Bureau, 1872: 19-20). 

veins straight, immersed above, prominent and yel- 

The genus Adenocalymma is represented by ap- lowish below; secondary veins 8 to 10 pairs, mod- 

proximately 60 species (Mabberley, 1997). It is dis- erate acute (angle of divergence = 55"^), yellowish 

tributed in tropical America, from Mexico and the when dry. Inflorescence 5.95-14.27 cm long, 5-8 

Lesser Antilles to Uruguay and northeast Argentina pairs of flowers, axillary racemiform, bracts and 

(Bureau & Schumann, 1896-1897; Sandwith & bracteoles 0.2-0.5 X 0.1-0.2 cm, linear, caducous, 

NovoN 10: 234-237. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 3 


Adenocalymma magnoalatum from Brazi 


without patellifomi glands; calyx green, tubular, 5- duseni presents the petiolule longer than the petiole 


and leaflets ovate-lanceolate as in A. hatschbachii. 

side, patelliform glands toward apex, margins vil- Gentry (1993) distinguished the latter species by 

lose; corolla yellow, tubular-infundibuliform, with 5 larger bracts and bracteoles, the usual presence of 

lobes, mucronulate, symmetric, basal tube (ca. 1.2 conspicuous calyx glands, thicker distinctly coria- 

cm) glabrous, toward apex tomentose outside, gla- ceous leaves, and the corolla more infundibuliform- 

brate inside except lobes tomentose on both faces, campanulate with included anthers. 

corolla tube 4.2-5.4 X L5-1.9 cm, lobes 1.3-1.7 
X 1.5—1.7 cm, mucronulate; stamens epipetalous, 

In the absence of fruit, .4. magnoalatum can be 
confused with A. paullstarum and A. duseni, with 

didynamous, included, longest pair 2.0-2.5 cm leaves with yellow veins when dry, bracts cacKicous, 

5 cm long, villose at the and corolla recurved. However, .4. magnoalatum is 


level of filament insertion, with capitate glandular distinguished from those by the petiolule usually 
trichomes, staminodes inconspicuous, anthers gla- longer than the petiole, the oblong-elliptic leaf 

7 cm long, with thecae divergent, con- blade with 8 to 10 pairs of secondary veins, and 


nective slightly prolonged, apiculate; ovary narrow- the quadrangular ovary. 

ly lanceolate, quadrangular, ca. 0.7 X 0.1 cm, 
glabrous, bilocular, ovules biseriate in each locule. 

The Parque Estadual do Rio Doce was visited 
monthly from September 1995 to Februar\^ 1997 (Scu- 
style terete, ca. 3.6 cm long, stigma evenly 2-la- deller & Carvalho-Okano, 1998). Adenocalymma 
mellate, with the lamellae oblong, 0.23 X 0.11 cm; magnoalatum was found flowering only bet 
nectar disc annular-pulvinate, ca. 0.2 X 0.1 cm. uary and March 1996, and in October 1996 
Capsule septifragal oblong, 4-alate, 21.7 X 4.9 cm. 



e Gentry, 
1974), with two or more flowering peaks annually. De- 
the wings; seeds compressed on the back, convex, spite this phenology, seed dispersal was only observed 

1.3 cm, wings hyaline- at the end of October, concomitant with one of the 




Distribution and habitat, Adenocalymnui mag- 
noalatum is known only from the type locality, Parque 
Estadual do Rio Doce, occurring in its Southwest 
area. This forest in the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce 

annual flowering peaks. According to ScudeUer 
Carvalho-Okano (1998), all other species of Adeno 





As found in the literature, most Adenocalymma 

represents one of the last remnants of the Aflantic species occurring in Brazil and surrounding coun- 
Rain Forest under legal protection in Minas Gerais. ^^ies have a cylindrical or a slightly dorsiventrally 

The species extends into the forest canopy. 

flattened fruit. Only three species, A. gracielzae A. 

The new species is related to the species group H. Gentry,/!, apurense (HRK) Sandwith, sind A. pur- 
with linear pseudostipules, conspicuous glands in purascens Rusby, occurring in the north of Brazil 
the calyx, subcoriaceous blades, and secondary and in Central America present a winged fruit. 

veins raised and yellowish below. Similar species 

Adenocalymma gracielzae differs from 4. mag- 

are A. bracteatum DC, A. comosum DC, 4. duseni, noalatum by the dorsal vein of the capsule being 
A. hatschbachii A. H. Gentry (calyx eglandular), inconspicuous; the capsule having a puberulous 

and A. paulistarum. 

and grooved surface; and the seeds being quadran- 

Adenocalymma magnoalatum is characterized by gular but unwlnged. Although A. apurense presents 
the mucronulate corolla lobes and quadrangular a slightly winged fruit, its seeds possess a larger 
ovary, and is especially distinguished by the 4-alate seed body and narrow lines. In spite of the super- 
fruit with well-developed veins and winged seeds. ficial similarity of the fruit, this new taxon differs 

Adenocalymma bracteatum is characterized by from .4. purpurascens by the shape of the leaves 

its tomentose calyx and bracts as long as buds, and (ovate and very thick) and the bracts (as long as 

it also occurs in the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce the buds and broadly ovate). 
(Scudeller & Carvalho-Okano, 1998). This species 
is easily distinguished from the new species by 

shorter leaves (7.3-9.7 X 2.6-4.8 cm), ovary terete, 

and bracts concave. Adenocalymma comosum has 
the calyx glabrous. Adenocalymma hatschbachii 
differs from A, magnoalatum by the leaflets Ian- Jperd; fic7; estm^^^ 

Paratypes. BRAZIL. Minas Gerais: Marlieria, 
Parque Ksladual do Rio Duce, cstrada da CamfK)Iina, 24 

Jan. 1996 (fl), V. V, Scudeller 187 (PERD, \ IC), 24 Jan. 
1996 (fl), v. V, Scudeller 191 (KB, VIC); estra(hi do Hes- 
laurante, 25 Jan. I0'>6 (fl), V V. Scudeller et al. 217 

(PFRD. UEC. VIC), 12 Mar. 1996 (fl). V: V: Scudeller 232 

ceolate, long acuminate and the calyx eglandular y y Scudeller 574 (RB, VIC); estrada do Restaurante, IS 

or with few inconspicuous glands. Adenocalymma Oct. 1996 (fl), V.' V. Scudeller 594 (MO, SPF, VIC). 


Novon 1. Adrnocalynuua magnoalalum S.u.l..ller. —A. Flowering branrh. — B. Pse.ulostipuJe Wiih paldliform gland 
at rtiKlpoml. —L. Bud showing bracts arul bractc-oles inconspiiuous aiul calvx witli pntrllifnrm glands. —1) Uteral 
view of the nower. — E. Frunlal view of lh<- flower. — F. Longitudinal cross scclio.. thn>ngh corolla, showing the 

Volume 10, Number 3 



Adenocalymma magnoalatum from Brazil 


Acknouiedgments. This article is part of a mas- 
ters thesis in l)()tany from the Depto. Biologia Vege- 
tal-DBV/UF\^, MG, Brazil. I am grate^ful to the Coor- 
deiiayao de Aperfei^'oamento de Pessoal de Nivel 
Superior (CAPES) and to the Funda^^ao de Amparo a 
P(\squisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG — 

CBS grant no. 943/96) for financial aid during this 



VIC); to Lucia Lohmann for assistance with referenc- 
es; to Tarciso S. Filgueiras and Marcos Aurelio Pe- 
reira for revision of the Latin description; to Reinaldo 
Antonio Pinto for preparing the line drawings, and, 
especially, to Rita Maria de Carvalho-Okano for her 

advice throughout this study. 

LiU-rature Cited 

Bureau, E. 1872, 
ture (]e la tige. 
Bull. Sue. Bot. 

\aU'ur des caractrrrs tires de la stnic- 
[)<)ur la classification dcs Bignoniacccs. 
[■■ ranee 19: 1 1-20. 

& Scliumanii, K. ]8*>6-18*>7. Bignoniaceae. hi C. 

P. F. Martins. Flora Brasilit^nsis 8(2): 1-452. 
Endiicher, S. 1841. Bignoniaceae. Enchiridion holanicuin: 

classes el ordinrs plantannii, p[). 344—347. 
Gentry, A. II. 1974. Flowering phenology an<l diversity in 

tropical Bignoniaceae. Biolrojtica 6: 64—68. 

— . 1W3. Six new species of Adenocalyinnd (Bignon- 

1 *'''*■ 

iaceae) from eastern South America. No\oii 3: 137—141. 

Inslituto Estathial de Florestas — lEF. 1994. Pesquisas 

prioritarias para o Par<|ue Esladual do Rio Doee, Brasil. 

Belo Horizonle. 
Mabberlpv. !). J. 1997. The Plant-Book: A Portable Die- 


tionary of the Vascular Plants. 2nd ed. Cambridge L]niv. 

Press, Cambridge. 
Meisner, C. F. 1836-1843. Bignoniaceae. Plantaruni vas- 
cularium genera secundum ordines naturales digesta. 1: 

300-3(11: 2: 206-211. 

Sandwith, N. Y. & D. R. Hunt. 1974. Bignoniaceas. pt. 1. 
[n P. R. Reitz (editor), Flora llnstrada Catarinense. Blu- 
menauense. Santa Catarina. 

Scudeller, V. V. 2000. Proposal to conserve the name Ad- 
enocalymtna Mart, ex IVI<Msn. (Bignoniaceae) with a con- 
served spelling. Taxon 49: 303-304. 

& R. \I. de Car\'allio-()kano. 1998. Bignonieae 

(Bignoniaceae) no Parque Estadual do Rio l)oe<\ Minas 
Gerais, Brasil. Iheringia, Bol. Sl(l): 79-133 

c[)ii>etalous insertion of the stamens. — (i. Details of the anther. — H. Cynoeeiiun showing nectar dise, ovar>, and 
stigma (style not shown). — I. Transversal cross section through ovar>' at tnidpoint, — J. Fruit, external view. — K. Fruit, 
itit<MtiaI view. — E. Detail of fruit wing showing [)atelliform glands. — M. Seed, showing two wings. [V. V, Scudi'llcr 579.) 

A New Leptochloa (Poaceae: Chloridoideae) from Papua New 

Guinea and the Torres Strait Islands of Australia 

Neil Snow 

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Northern Colorado, 

Greeley, Colorado 80639, U.S.A. 

Abstract. Leptochloa simonianaN.Smm is new- Siniilis [jeptochloac caerulcnli aulem paiiiculae raiuis 

ly described from Papua New Guinea and Boigu pHuihns, pilis ararlinoidpis lemmatis basi, Icmmatibus 

Island ill the Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. ^luinisque longiorihiis. vaginis densp srahris interduni pi- 

A key and tabular diagnosis are provided for L ^^^ tuberculatos piloses gerenlibus, diffrrt. 

simoniana and morphologically similar congeneric 

species. It most resembles the sub-Saharan species . ^^'"^^J^^ annual, caespitose. Culms erect, some- 

L coerulescem. Its chief diagnostic features are the **!"!^l Tr !"f' ^"^^'^^ ^^^^V ^^^^^^ roots, 90-140 

long-sericeous to arachnose hairs at the apex of the ' 

callus ar " 


1 tl»e densely scabrous adaxial and abaxial ^^^P^essed; nodes glabrous but often glaucous; in- 
leiif surfaces. The species is currently known from ^^^""^^^ glabrous, 6-20 cm hmg, hollow. Leaf 
only three sites and is thus considered vulnerable. ^^^^^^s somewhat flattened near ground, longer or 



shorter than internodes, prickles short but dense 

Sn,.w, una especie nueva de Papua Nueva Gui.u-a ^^^^S^^""': tuberculate pilose hairs sometimes pre- 

y de la Ma Boigu en el Estrecho de Torres, ,? ' ""''"' ^ /T"' t'"T ^"'"l ^'"''"^ o'"" 

Queensland, Australia. Se proporcionan una clave '^""f"'" Pigmentation. Ligules membranous 3-4 

y_una diagnosis tabular para L simoniana y espe- Zl :i^VZ:^ ^^T; "^ f^^t' ^ 

20-35 X 0.35-0 

cies congen^-ricas morfologicamente siinilares. Es . tu u . . , , , .' „ 
muy parecida a L coerulescens, una especie del T""' ^^T^^""' "^7" ^"^ H'"^' ^^a^ionally 
sub-Sahara. Se distingue principalmente por los tri- l"'^^""^ ? ^^ tuberculate pilose, flat but dry- 
comas largos a aracnoi<leos en la base de la lema '"^ '"''°^"**;' ^*^'"^'">"g attached at base, midrib 
En actualidad la especie se conoce s6lo de tres P^,«"""ent above near base, less so elsewhere. Pan- 

icles narrow, inserted basally, exserted ca. 2/3 
length or more, 45-75 X 2-10 cm; branches 65— 
75, alternate or sub-whorled, ascending to steeply 

lugares y por lo tanto se la considera vulnerable. 

The eragrostoid genus Lep(oc7i/ 

curs worldwide from temperate to tropical regions ascending, 5-10 cm long near base de^creasing^o 
and consists of some 40 taxa (Snow, 1997a, 1998a). 5 mm or less near apex, rigid to slightly flexuous. 
All widespread annual species are considered densely scabrous throughout and highly striate ax- 
weedy in agricultural situations (Hiifliger & Scholz, ----- 



,. I- . , , • '■ pressed, 3.0-3.4 mm long, imbricate ca. 1/5-1/2 

caily transcending oceanic boundaries and becom- their length, pedicels 0.5-1. 0(-2.0) mm long 
ing estabhs_hed on continents far beyond their nor- Glumes membranous, 1-nerved. narrowlv tri«, 

This article describes a 



«;on t ,>. n . r I^'"'"'''" '''^«"g^V« "^y apex attenuate, scabrous with prickles on midnerve 

attentron by the collector of the type matenal. Bar- and sometimes laterally; upper glume 1.8-2.4 mm 

bara \^a.crhouse, and brings to three the number long, apex acute to attenuatV and sometimes shortly 

^f*mi=»C in th*a nr*3Tinc? ci»-*^.^ 1007 - / 

^f 1 T -1 1 . r , . , ^'^"B? aucA at uic lu aiieiiuaie ana sometirr 

ol newly described species m the genus suice 1997 r>.M^..^^ f k -.u • i i • i 

rSnnw k ^ir^on 1 Q07. c_.. i oom.^ Hiucronate, scabrous with prickles on mid 

(Snow & Simon, 1997; Snow, 1998b). 





MorrJ..Joo-ir.a1 ot».-n . » f u u ■ . • 1 i»^i<'i'iAAy. i^emmas *)-nervea, membranous, tower- 

Morpliologiral attrit)utes of herbarium material r«^„t\ o •? o 7 ^ \ V ^"-^i 

were measured and comn^re.l to Unwn c...;.. .f "lost) 2.3-2.7 mm long, ovale, green, sometimes 

1 J ] . 1 ... "i"»i/ ^.o—^.i mm long, ovate, green so 

sured and compared to known species of ,• i • V SJ^^"' "" 

7 following Snow HOQTn^ „n^./. ^U.,1,. ^'"^^'^ '"^™"" ""^ cnmson, lateral nerves 

Leptochloa following Snow (1997a) under a phylo- '"'^'^^ maroon or cnm. 
genedc spec-ies concept (Snow, 1997b). Descriptive I^™'"'"^"^ ™^ ^'^''^^'h 

tenuities Association Committee (1962). 





d abaxially, hairs se- 
of the Svs- "*^^^"^ ^^ arachnose at very base and callus apex 

(up to 1.3 mm long) but becoming relatively short 
sericeous (< 0.5 mm long) apically along nerves 
(sometimes sparsely so), sometimes shortly seri- 
ceous between nerves in Inw^r thirrl Viair fir^c fo_ 

Cook District, Boigu 

Island, Torres Strait, 9n3.89'S, 142°13.26'E, pered (Snow, 1996); apex acute or slightly emar- 

31 Mar. 1998, B. M, Waterhouse <fr X F. Grim- ginate and sometimes shortly mucronate. Palea 

shmv BMW 4862 (holotype, BRI; isotypes, BO, thinly membranous, subequal to ca. 2/3 lemmatal 

BRI, CANB, GREE, K, L, LAE, MEL, MO, length, narrowly elliptic to narrowly ovate seri- 


NovoN 10: 238-241. 2000. 

ceous to arachnose along nerves; apex obtuse or 

Volume 10, Number 3 



Leptochloa simoniana from Papua New Guinea 

Table 1. Suniman- of character differences fictween Leptochloa simoniana ami morphologically similar species in 
the genus. Character data from related species from Snow (1997a). 

Callus apex 

Leaf sheaths 

Leaf blades 






Ligule (mm) 

Panicle branch 

Panicle branch 



Lower gluni(^ (mm) 

LIp[>er glume (mm) 

Lower lemma (mm) 

long-sericeous to ar- 

scabrous with tuber- 

culate pilose hairs 



densely scabrous 
abo\c/bclow; oc- 
casionally with tu 
berculate [)ilose 


ninutelv but very 
densely scabrous 
abo\e and below 



rigid to slightly flex- flcxuous to arcuate 



L 5-2.0 

L. cliuirnsis 

L scabra 




s or 



few pilose hair'i 
near apex 
glabrous to minutely 

glabrous to scabrous; 
margins glabrous 

scabrous above and 





(0.5-) 1.5-2 

rigid to slightly flex- flexuou^ to arcuate 







with nerves slightly protruding. Lodicules 2, 0.3- icle branches, dense prickles on the adaxial and 
0.4 mm, widely obovate, apex truncate. Stamens 3; abaxial leal surfaces, and dense prickles on the 
anthers ea. 0.5-0.6 mm long, yellow. Caryopsis sides of the upper glume. Two characters in partic- 
1.2-1.3 X 0.6 mm, narrowly elliptic to narrowly ular help diagnose Leptochloa simoniana from re- 
ovate in hilar profile (Snow, 1998c), depressed lated species. The first is the long-sericeous to ar- 
ovate to oblate in trans-sectional profile, hilar achnose hairs occurring on the upper portion of the 
groove absent, surface smooth, light brown; peri- callus. The second diagnostic feature is the dense 
carp tightly adnate to endosperm. 

distribution of prickles throughout both sheaths and 
blades of the leaves, up[)er glume, and occasionally 
lower glume (e.g., Waterhouse 4121). Diagnostic 

Vernacular name. Simon sprangletop. 

Leptochloa simoniana is currently known only „ c r i i - - 

r . n ." tU a ^ fr> leatures oi Leptochloa simoniana, L. coerulescens, 

irom two collections near the southern coast ol rap- , , . . /x ^ at i r j m 

ua New Guinea and two colleetions (including the ^- ^•/'"'7':^^^ (L- N^es, and L scahra Nees are sum- 
type) from Boigu Island, Torres Strait, Australia. "^^""71 ^", ^^^^^^ ^: "'"^^ ^^"^ ^^"^'^ ^^'''''' generally 
Two collections originated along footpaths and their 
connecting villages, whereas the two collections 
from Boigu Island were both taken from a refuse ^^""^ ^^'^'" J^cumeuted for several species of I^p- 
dump at the end of an airstrip. The species grows ^^^"^'^^^^ ^^'S- Hitchcock, 1936; Lazarides, 1980; 
in seasonally inundated or disturbed sites such as Nowack, 1994; Snow, 1997a; Snow & Simon, 

resembh* L, simoniana. 

Although transoceanic arrivals into Australasia 

footpaths, which is typical of other annual laxa in 

1999), L. coerulescens has not been reported outside 

the genus (Snow, 1997a). Its preference for dis- «^ ^^^^^'^ (Snow, 1997a). Specimens of the neotrop- 

turbed sites, along with the weedy tendencies of ^^^^ species L scahra have been known from New 

many annual taxa of Leptochloa (Snow, 1997a), sug- Guinea for some time (Hitchcock, 1936) and these 

gests the species could also spread as a weed. Lep- recently were confirmed (Nowack, 1994; Snow, 

tochloa simoniana also has been observed growing 1997a), but this is far outside its normal range. I 

in brackish sites and adjacent mangrove vegetation h^ve seen (Snow, 1997a) the New Guinea speci- 

(Waterhouse, pers. comm. 1998). Given the paucity mens of Brass that Nowack (1994) suggested might 

of collections, the appropriate designation for L si- be L scahra. These specimens are as follows: L 

moniana is vulnerable (Criterion D; Species Sur- scahra (:^725 pro parte; 6304a); L virgata {3725 

vival Commission, 1994: 20). 

pro parte). Two other collections of Brass from New 

The gross morphology of Leptochloa simoniana Guinea belonging to L scahra are 1597 and 6043 

most resembles that of L. coerulescens Steudel, (Snow, 1997a: 447). 

which is native to much of sub-Saharan Africa The collectors note on the label of the type 

(Clayton, 1972; Philips, 1974; Koekemoer, 1991; specimen insect predation on many florets, and 

Snow, 1997a). Features shared by both species in- speculate the larvae as being those of chryso- 

clude a narrow panicle, ascending habit of the pan- melid beetles (not verified). Mealy bugs also have 





Figurr 1. h'piorhloa simoniana N. Snow {Waterhouse 4J0H). — A. Spikelel; araclmose hairs of callus evident in florets 
two and tliree. — B. Lli)[)erniost floret from different spikelet; lemma at left, palea at riglil. priekle-bearing rachilla, and 
arachnose hairs at apex of callus. 

been observed on the base of culms, root crowns, 
and the abaxial surface of the ligules. The author 
would greatly appreciate viable seed of this spe- 
cies for further systematic studies of Leptochloa. 
It is a pleasure to name this species after Bryan 


o ' 


Simon, Senior Principal Botanist at the Queen ' ' 
Herbarium, whose steady research output over 
three decades has greatly advanced our knowledge 
of the grass floras of Africa and Australia (e.g., Si- 
mon, 1971, 1972, 1992, 1993; Simon & Jacobs, 3' 

Kky vn LEinoaiiOA SfSU)MANA and Similar Si'kclks 

and Africa, one collection from Mt. Isa, Queens- 
land, Australia L chincnsls 

Panicle l>ranclies ± flexuous; raehilla generally 
invisible between u[>[>erniost florets; upper florets 
somewhat imbricate 3 

Leaf sheaths scabrous, glabrous on marj^ins; sec- 
ond glume ± glabrous; lemma 2.1-2.4 mm long: 
panicle branches 5()-150; southern Nortli Amer- 
ica to South America, introduced but apparently 

rare in New Guinea L scabra 

Leaf sheaths glabrous throughout; ficconrl glume 
with prickles on nerves and sides; lemma 1.6— 
2.2 mm long; panicle branches 27^7: sub-Sa- 
haran Africa L coerulvsceius 

L Callus bearing long-sericeous to arachnose hairs; 
Papua New Guinea and Torres Strait Islands of 
Australia L simoniana 

V . Callus glabrous; Asia, Africa, or New World, very 

rarely Australian 2 

2. I'anicle branches mostly rigitl, not flexuous; rach- 
illa often visible t)etwren uppermost florets; up- 
per florets barely if at all imbricate; soulliern Asia 

Paratypes. PAPUA NKW GUINEA. Western 

Province: Old Mawalta, 9°08.4'S, 142^56.9' L, 13 
Feb. 1997, B. M. Waterhouse BMW 4121 (HO, BHl, 
NAQS); Ture Ture, 9"06.5'S, U.'rOO.O'K. 13 Feb. 
1997, B. M. Waterhouse BMW 4108 (BRl). AUSTRA- 
LIA. Boigu Ihlantl: Torres Strait, rubbish dumj), 
9"14.0'S, 142^12. 5'E, 20 Aug. 1999, Waterhouse 5389 

Volume 10, Number 3 



Leptochloa simoniana from Papua New Guinea 

Acknowledgments. Thanks to B. Waterhouse 
and A. Holland for bringing these specimens to my 
attention; L. Pedley for the Latin diagnosis; C. Ul- 
loa Ulloa for help with the Spanish abstract; S. 
Renvoize, J. Veldkamp, and V. Hollowell for re- 
viewing the manuscript; and the Queensland Her- 
barium for providing research space and facilities. 

LilcraUire Cited 

Clayloii, W. D. 1972. frptorhloa P. Reauv. Pp. IVJl-lVM 
in F, N, Hepper (editor), Fluia of Tropical \^Vst Africj, 
Vol. 3, Part 2. 2n(l ed. Crown Agents for Oversea (Gov- 
ernments and Administrators. Milli)ank. Lorulon. 

Koekemoen M. 1991. h'ptoihloa W Beanv. hi: (i. F. 

Cihhs-Kussell, L. \^atson. M. Koekemoer, L. Sinook, N. 

1* Barker, H. M. Anderson & \1. J. DalKvitz (editors). 

Grasses of Southern Africa. Revised ed. Mem. Bot. 

Surv. S. Africa 58: I Ifi^l 18; 198-199. 
Ilaniger, E. & H. Seholz. 1981. Grass Weeds 2: Weeds of 

the Sul)fanulies Cliloridoldcae, Pooideae, Or^zoideac. 

(:IBA-(;EIGY, Basle. 

Hitchcock. A. S. 1936. Papuan grasses collected h\ 1.. J. 
Brass. Briltonia 2: 118. 

Lazarides. M. 1980. The genus Ijeptochloa Beauv. (Bo- 
at eac, Eragrofttidcac) in Australia and Papua New 
(/uinea. Brunonia 3: 247-269. 

Nowack. R. 1994. Revision of h'ptochloa Beauv. (incl. 
Diplachne Beauv.) (Poacea(^) in Malesia. Rlieedtra 1: 

Pliilhps, S. M. 1974. 66. lA'ptovhloiu Pp. 276-284 in H. 

VI. Polhill (editor). Flora of Tropical East Africa, (ira- 
mineae. Part 2. Crown Agents for Oversea Govermnenis 
and Administrations, hv \^ liitcfriars Press, London. 
Simon, B. K. 1971. Rhodcsian and Zambian grass li^ts. 

Kirkia 8: 3-83. 

. 1972. A revision of the genus Sarciolepis in the 

. 1992. A revisioti of the genus Aristida L. (Po- 

aceae) in Austraha. Austral. Syst. Bot. S: 129-226. 

. 1993. A Key to Australian Classes. 2n(] ed. 

Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Bris- 

& S. ^\ E. Jacobs. 1999. Revision of the genus 

Sporobolu.s (Poaceae, Chloridoideae) in Australia. Aus- 
tral. Syst. Bot. 12: 373-448. 

Snow. N. 1996. The phvlogenetic utility of lemmatal mi- 
croniorpliology In I^piocliloa s.l. and related genera in 
suhtribe Eleusininac (Poaceae, Chloridoideae, Eragros- 
tideae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 83: 504-329. 

. 1997a. Phytogeny and Systematics ol Ijeptochloa 

P. Beauv. sensn lato (Poaceae, Chloridoideae). Ph.D. 
Dissertation [unpubHshed]. \^ashington University, St. 
Louis. Missouri. 
. 1997b. Application of the phylogenetic species 

concept: A botanical monographic perspective. Austro- 

baileva 5: 1—8. 

. 1998a. Nom(Miclatural changes in h'plochlod P. 

Beauv. sensu lato (I\>aceae, Chloridoideae). Novon 8: 

. 1998b. A new species of Leptochloa from Sri 

Lanka (Poaceae: Cldoridoideae). Novon 8: 183-186. 
. 1998c, Caryopsis morphology (){ Ijcptochhxi sensu 

lato (Poaceae: CliKtridoideae). Sida 18: 2 i 1—282. 
& B. K. Simon. 1997. Leptochloa soutliuoodii (Po- 

aceae: Chloridoideae), a new species from south-east 

Queensland. Austrobaileya 3: 137-143. 

& . 1999. Taxonomic status and Austra- 

V\on\ Zambesiaca area. Kew Bull. 27: 387-406. 

lian distribuli(m of llie weedy neotro[>ical grass fj'pto- 
ckloa fusca subsp. uninervia, with an ujKlated key to 
Australian Leptochloa (Poaceae, Chloridcndcae). Austro- 
baileya 3: 299-305. 

Species Sunival Connnission. 1994. lUCN Red List Cat- 
egories. lUCN Council. Gland. 

Systematics Association Committee for Descriptive Bio- 
logical Terminology. 1962. I. Terminology of simple 
symmetrical plane shapes ((diart 1). Taxon 1 1: 145—156. 

New and Interesting Milkweeds (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) 

W D. Stevens 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

Abstract. Three Mesoamerican species o{ Mars- obvious geographic patterns. In this case, the cor- 
denia and four oi Matelea are described as new and onal differences are obvious, as used exclusively in 

illustrated. New combinations are provided for a bundell s key to the varieties, intermediate coronal 
South American Blepharodon, a Mesoamerican Cy- conditions are not found, and there is a strong geo- 
nanchum, seven Mexican species oi Dictyanthus, a graphic pattern. Recent collections have only re- 
species of Gonolohus from Mesoamerica and Ec- inforced Sundells distinctions. However, with the 
uador, and one Mesoamerican and two Ecuadorian same information available, I prefer to recognize 


the varieties 



one of Metastelma, both from Mexico, are lectotyp- ter to the species rank as accepted for other genera 
ified, and the new name Marsdenia purpusiana W. of Mesoamerican milkweeds. Furthermore, recog- 
D. Stevens is provided for Ecliptostelma molle nition of iiifraspecies of tropical milkweeds implies 
Brandegee. The typification oi Matelea ampiya- a better systematic understanding than I can justify. 
cuemis Morillo is clarified, and the synonymy of For the five mainland varieties to be recognized 

Metaplcxis rostellala Turczaninow is corrected. at the rank of species, only the following new com- 

bination is required. It is peculiar that the Carib- 
of ongoing studies of asclepiads, bean variety, C. racemosum var. havanense Sundell, 
several new species, new combinations, and no- apparently is still known from a single Sess^ and 

latural trivia have come to light and are pre- Mocino collection {s.n., K) from Havana, Cuba. 
sented here. Species of Cynanchum subg. Mellichampia tend to 

occupy weedy habitats and are generally well rep- 
resented in herbaria; one could speculate that this 
single Cuban specimen might be a mainland col- 

In th 

*vJ V' 

Blkphah()i)(>\ Decaism k 

Blepharodon piclum (Vahl) W. D. Stevens, comb. i .,; _ t • i u i j • .i_ 

*^ p • n L ^ v^iio, t^uiiiw. lection somehow mislabeled in the peregrinations 


Basionym: Cynanchum pictum Vahl. ^f ^^e Sess6 and Mocino materials 

Eclog. Amer. 2: 24. 1798. TYPE: French Gui- 

ana. Cayenne: "Cajcuna," von Ruhr s.n. (ho- Cynanchum cyathiforme (Sundell) W. D. Ste- 

lotype, C). 

This long-overlooked name, the last unassigned 
Vahl name for a New Worid milkweed, clearly ap- 
plies to the common South American species that 
has been generally treated as Blepharodon nitidum 
(Vellozo) J. F. Macbride. The original description is 
quite good, including the nitidous leaves, capilla- 

vens, comb, et stat. nov. Basionym; Cynan- 
chum racemosum var. cyathiforme Sundell, 

EvoL Monogr. 5: 5L 1981. TYPE: Guatemala. 

Santa Rosa: Cuajiniquilapa, 900 m, Heyde & 
Lux ex Smith 6187 (holotype, US; isotypes, M, 

NY, US, VT). 

d th 

ceous pedicels longer than the peduncl 

distally villose-canescent corolla lobes. The only 

other species of Blepharodon found in the general 

area of the type colltx:lion, B, glaucescens (D 

ne) Fontella, is quite different and a photograph of 

the type verifies this conclusion. 

« DicnxsTUVS Decaisne 

Stevens (1989) reviewed the species of Matelea 
subg. Dictyanthus, excluding three species some- 


telea. Furtl 


studies of the generic limits of Ma- 
telea and related genera now support the 
recognition of Dictyanthus at the generic level, in- 
cluding the three species previously excluded. Dic- 
Sundell (1981) divided Cynanchum racemosum tyanthus can be distinguished from related genera 
(Jacquin) Jacquin into six more or less allopatric by having at least some of the trichomes uncinate, 
varieties. The coronas of Cynanchum subg. Melli- the glandular trichomes translucent, a digitately 

s are at least partly ad- 

champia are disturbingly plastic, as well illustrated five-lobed corona whose 

in Sundell s careful study, but generally do not have nate to the corolla, and follicles with asymmetrical 

NovoN 10: 242-256. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New Milkweeds 


bases and sparse, curved, conical prickles. While G()M)L()BVS MlCHAUX 

most of the species have names available in Dic- 
tyatithus, the following require new combinations. 

Dictyanthus altatensis (Brandegee) W. D. Ste- 
vens, comb. nov. Basionym: Gonolobus altaten- 
sis Brandegee, Zoe 5: 244. 1908. TYPE: Mex- 
ico. Sinaloa: vicinity of Culiacan, Yerba 
Buena, 10 Sep. 1904, Brandegee s.n, (holo- 
type, UC). 

Dictyanthus eximius (W. D. Stevens) W. D. Ste- texture, and indumentum of the adjacent corolla, 

vens, comb. nov. Basionym: Matelea eximia W. The more obviously staminal elements of the co- 

D. Stevens, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: rona, when present, are immediately within the fau- 

1552. 1988 [1989]. TYPE: Mexico. Chiapas: cal annulus. Some species of Gonolobus having a 

Finca Uni6n Judrez, 12 Aug. 1937, Matuda tubular faucal annulus, such as G. lasiostemma 

Gonolobus fimhriatiflorus has a long, tubular fau- 
cal annulus enclosing the stipitate gynostegium. 
"Faucal annulus," as here used, corresponds to 
Woodson's (1941) terminology and is the same as 
Kunze's (1995) "annular corona." The homologies 
of the coronal structures of gonoloboid milkweeds 
are not well understood, but I use the term faucal 
annulus for the outermost structure on the corolla 
limb, annular in form and generally with the color. 

1778 (holotype, MICH; isotype, MEXU). 

Dictyanthus hainatus (W. D. Stevens) W. D. Ste- 
vens, comb. nov. Basionym: Matelea hamata 
W. D. Stevens, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 
1540. 1988 [1989]. TYPE: Mexico. Guerrero: 
La Union, 50 m, 29 July 1898, Langlasse 257 
(holotype, US; isotypes, GH, P). 

Dictyanthus lautus (W. D. Stevens) W. D. Stevens, Panama and Costa Rica have large follicles with 5 

comb. nov. Basionym: Matelea lauta W. D. Ste- broad wings, typical of Gonolobus. 
vens, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 1548. 1988 

[1989]. TYPE: Mexico. Colima: gorge of Rio Gonolobus fimbriatiflorus (Morillo) W. D. Ste- 

(Hemsley) Woodson from Mesoamerica, either lack 
or have a vestigial staminal corona, which would 
be entirely included within the annulus tube if pre- 
sent, and the anther appendages typical of Gono- 
lobus are also vestigial. In the original publication 
oi Matelea fimbriatiflora, the annulus was described 
as the (staminal) corona, leading to the generic mis- 
placement. Recent collections of this species from 

Cihuatlan, 13 mi. N of Santiago, 200-300 m, 
27 July 1957, McVaugh 15826 (holotype, 


Dictyanthus macvaughianus (W. D. Stevens) W. 
D. Stevens, comb. nov. Basionvm: Matelea 
macvaughiana W. D. Stevens, Ann. Missouri 
Bot. Gard. 75: 1545. 1988 [1989]. TYPE: 
Mexico. Jalisco: near Guadalajara, 5 Aug. 
1902, Pringle 8629 (holotype, MSC; isotypes. 

vens, comb. nov. Basionym: Matelea fimbria- 
tiflora Morillo, Emstia 29: 2. 1985. TYPE: Ec- 
uador. Pichincha: 20 km W of Santo Domingo 
de los Colorados, 1000 ft., 18 Oct. 1961, Ca- 
zalet & Pennington 5061 (holotyp(% US; iso- 
types, BM, F, K, NY). 


Fontella and Schwarz (1982) recognized six spe- 

ENCB, F, G, GH, L, MEXU, MO, NY, P, PH, cies oi Jobinia^ five in Brazil and one in the Andes. 

POM, UC, US, VT, W). 

Dictyanthus sepicola (W. D. Stevens) W. D. Ste- 

, comb. nov. Basionym: Matelea sepicola 
W. D. Stevens, Phytologia 32: 387. 1975. 
TYPE: Mexico. Jalisco: ca. 6.9 mi. SW of Hwy. 
15 along road to Amtca, 23 Aug. 1971, Ste- 
vens 1436 (holotype, MSC; isotypes, ENCB, F, 

The most conspicuous characters of the genus are 
the paired, axillary, diffusely paniculiform inflores- 
cences of small (mostly 2—3 mm long) flowers, 
thickened nodes with prominent interpetiolar ridg- 
es, fleshy leaves with inconspicuous secondary ve- 
nation, and a lobed, cupulate corona. In these six 
species, the gynostegium varies from sessile to stip- 
itate and the corona from free of the gynostegium 
to tightly appressed to the g}^nostegium stipe. Job- 

Dictyanthus suffruticosus (W. D. Stevens) W. D. inia paranaensis Fontella & C. Valente, in partic- 

Stevens, comb. nov. Basionym: Matelea suffru- ular, has the connate part of the corona adherent 

ticosa W. D. Stevens, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. to the gynostegium stipe and the five free lobes 

75: 1558. 1988 [1989]. TYPE: Mexico. Oa- diverging from the top of the stipe. Continuing this 

xaca: 4 mi. W of junction of Mex. 185 with trend toward adhesion of the corona to the stipe 

Mex. 190, near La Ventosa, 17 Aug. 1971, only slightly, the corona superfi<ially a[)pears to be 

Wunderlin, Divyer, Spellman & Vaughn 800 comprised of five free lobes on the gynostegium 

(holotype, MO; isotype, MEXU). 

stipe, the normal condition of Metastelnia, The fol- 



lowing three species are in this category, having ana needs to be lectotypified with a syntype that 

been misplaced in Metastelma and Cynanchum. Al- does match the original description, and Ecliptos- 
though this significantly expands the geographic telma molle needs to be renamed in Marsdenia. 
range oi Jobinia, it does not require any significant Heyde & Lux 4542 is chosen as the lectotype be- 
change in the generic concept. In fact, the paired, cause it matches the original description in all de- 
tails, and Heyde and Lux specimens are belter rep- 


and ( 



resented in American herbaria. 

anomalous in eitlier Metastelma or Cynan- 


nflorescences. Johinia eulaxifl 

now known from several collections from central 

Mexico to Hond 

, while the other two additional 

species are still known only from Ecuador. 

inia nalslevu 

nov. Basionym: Cynanchum baUlevii Morillo, 
Ernstia n.s. 2: 60. 1992. TYPE: Ecuador. 



: Ba* 

za-Tena road, 8 km from Baeza, 

77^50' W, 0^31 'S, 1800-1900 m, 28 Oct. 1976, 

BaLlev & Madsen 10415 (holotype, AAU; iso- 
type, MO), 


comb. nov. 

Basionym: Cynanchum campii Morillo, Ernstia 



July-12 Aug. 1945, Camp EliOl (holotype, 
NY; isotypes, K, MO). 

Marsdenia gilgiana W. Rothe, Bot. Jahrb, Syst. 
53: 410. 1915. TYPE: Guatemala. Santa Rosa: 
Casillas, 4000 ft., May 1893, Heyde & Lux ex 
Smith 4542 (lectotype, selected here, MO; is- 
ulectotype, B probably not extant). 

Marndenia purpusiana W. D. Stevens, nom. nov. 
Based on Ecliptostelma molle Brandegee, Univ. 
Calif, Publ. Bot. 6: 371. 1917, not M. mollis 
Sehlechter. TYPE: Mexico. Veracruz: Zacu- 
apan, 1916, Purpus 7662 (holotype, UC; iso- 
lype, MO). 

Marsdeiiia nicaraguensis W. D. Stevens, sp. nov. 
TYPE: Nicaragua. Matagalpa: ritlge between 
Cerro Bravo and Cerro Picacho, N of Hotel 

Selva Negra, 13^01 'N, 85°54-55'W, 1490- 
1550 m, 26 May 1985, Davidse, Grijalva & 
Sousa 30465 (holotype, MO). Figure 1. 

Species afflnis MarsJeniae stephanoUilifoliae, a qua ca- 

Jobinia eulaxiflora (Lundcll) W. D. Stevens, '><■.• pulu-scenti apice sfyli brevioiv clifion. 





Twining vine, lower stems and underground parts 

rum Lundell, Wrightia 5: 351, 1977. Metastel- unknown, stems glabrous or minutely pubendent 

ma eulaxiflorum (Lundell) Liede, Novon 7: 41. when young, lenticellate; sap while. Leaves oppo- 

1997. TYPE: Guatemala. Baja Verapaz: Union site, blades 16-18.5 X 8.7-13.2 cm, elliptic or 

Barrios, E of Km 154, 8 June 1975, Lundell barely ovate, apex caudate or acuminate, base ob- 

& Contreras 19401 (liolotype, LL; isotype, tuse, rounded, truncate or shallowly lobate, gla- 


brous, fleshy, lateral veins 4 to 6 pairs, middle 
veins 45-55° to midrib, colleters 4 to 16; petiole 
4.2-7.2 cm long, glabrous. Inflorescence 1 per 
node, paniculiform, often bifurcate at base or above 
Marsdenia gilgiana W. Rothe was described with and then with 2 to 4 congested-racemifonu branch- R. Br<)w\ 

three syntypes: Purpus 2095, Heyde & Lux 4542, es, appressed-puberulent, pechincle 3-25 mm long, 
and Bernoulli & Carlo 1865. The Puri)us collection pedicel 3.5-5 mm long, often curved, bracts 2-2.5 
differs significantly from Rothe s key characters for 


the species, particularly in having the calyx lobes 2 colleters below each sinus within, lobes ovate 

shorter than the corolla tube, ratlu^ than distinctly with rounded tips, 2.8-3.2 X 1.8-2.9 mm, adaxi- 

longer, and in having the corona lobes inconspic- ally glabrous, abaxially appressed-puberulent, mar- 

uous and apically attenuate, rather than well de- gin inconspicuously ciliolate; corolla urceolate, 

veloptnl and dilated above, and clearly represents without thickenings in sinuses, adaxially villose in 

a different species than the other two syntypes. mouth and along center of lobes, retrorse-barbate 

Ecliptostelma molle Brandegee was based on Pur- in upper half of tube along a line below each lobe, 

pus 7662, collected from the same locality as Pur- abaxially glabrous, yellowish green with a pink tint 

pus 2095, and both collections clearly belong to the on tube, tube 3.5-4.2 mm long, lobes elliptic, tip 

same species, although Brandegee considered the rounded and notched, 2.3-2.9 X 1.7-2.3 mm, in- 

a to be absent rather than merely inconspic- conspicuously ciliolate; corona apparently green, 

uous. To resolve these problems, Marsdenia gilgi- lobes broadly sagittate, lateral margins somewhat 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New Milkweeds 


5 cm 

2 mm 


0.5 mm 

2 mm 



2 mm 

Figure ]. Marsdenia niraragitensis W. D. Stevens. — A. Flowering branch. — B. Partial corolla, adaxial side 
Calyx lobe, abaxial side. — D. Gynostegium. — E. Pollinariuni. Drawn from the type, Davidse el al. 30465. 


thickened and revolute below, 1.6—1.8 mm long, minutely apiculate, ca. 1.2 mm wide. Follicles and 
1.4^1.7 mm wide at base; stipe 0.2-0.3 mm long, seeds unknown. 

anther wings ca. 1.3 mm long; corpusculum ellip- 
soid, ca. 0.38 mm long, ca. 0.18 mm wide, trans- 

This species seems to be closest to Marsdenia 
phanotidifolia Woodson from Guatemala, with 

lator ca. 0.15 mm long, pollinia ellipsoid, ca. 0.45 which it shares large fleshy leaves, urceolate co- 
mm long, ca. 0.2 nmi wide; style apex convex and rollas, and fleshy corona lobes with reflexed mar- 



gins. Marsdenia nicaraguensis is clearly different 2-2.3 cm, glabrous; seeds obovate, 14-1 S X 6-7.5 
from that species in having smaller flowers, calyx mm, yellow-brown, margin 0.5-0.7 mm wide, en- 
lobes abaxially pubescent, corolla lobes shorter tire, surface smooth, coma 2^ cm long, white or 
than the corolla tube, and a short style apex not slightly tawny. 
exceeding the anthers. It shares fleshy leaves, bi- 

furcating l.iflorescences, and the general pattern of ^ ^^'^ ^'P*^"^' ^^' ^^^ S*^"^'"^^ appearance of Mars - 

indumentum within the corolla with M. steyermarkii ^'"'^ steyermarku Woodson, with which it sh. 

Woodson, also from Guatemala, but that species has '^^^^'"""^ narrower and fleshier leaves than related 

long, thin c:orona lobes much exceeding the style 'P'^""'^'' ^^^"'■^atuig inflorescences, and a campan- 

gpgjj ulate corolla with the same general pattern of in- 
dumentum of the corolla; it differs from that species 

Paralypcs. NICAItAGUA. Jinote^u: Macizos de Pe- in having shorter corona lobes and corolla lobes 

flas Blancas, i;3°l(^17'N, 85°40-U'W, 1350-1650 m, 14 longer than the tube. Marsdenia stephanoi 

Jan. 1979, Strrcns I i:i20 (MO). Matagalpa: Cerro El I'i 
■ac'ho, Lr(K)',\. a5''55'W, 1420 m, 5 Jan. 1984, Gi-nlry rt 


and M. nicaraguensis are distinguished by their ur- 

ul. 44030 (MO); .\\V bicpe of Cerro El I'i.acho, 13WN. ceolate corollas and broader leaves. 

85°55'Vi, 1420-1520 in. 25 May 1983, Stevens 22121 

Paratypes. NICARAGUA. Esteii: El Quiahii. 10 km 



Moreno 21 182 (MO). Matagalpa: Cerro Siinta Marfa, 3 

Marsdenia olgamarthae W. D. Stevens, sp. nov. kin SE dc Esquipulas, 12°38'N, 85''46'W, 1200 m, 25 Jan. 
TYPE: Nicaragua. Estelf: Cerro Quiabu, just l'^^^^ ^^^^'^^^^ 25388 (MO). 

below summit, 13°06'N, 86^25'W, 1550-1600 

m, 27 Apr. 1980, Stevens & Montiel 16906 Marsdenia veronicae W. D. Stevens, sp. nov. 
(holotype, MO). Figure 2. 

Ilabitu Marsdi-iiiae steyermarkii subsiinilis, a qua lobis 
roronae breviorihus lobis corollae lubo coroUae breviora 
recedit. Species uxori carissimae Olga Martha Montiel, 
qua inecutn planlas ejusdetn speciern rolleclavil, nomi- 


Twining wootly vine, lower stems and under- 

TYPE: Nicaragua. Leon: slope and ridge im- 
mediately W of Quebrada Las Ruedas, NW of 
El Transito, 12°05'N, 86"43'W, 15-30 m, 13 
May 1981, Stevens, Moreno & Henrich 20152 
(holotype, MO). Figure 3. 

Species forte Marsdrniar rnarrophyllac affinis, at foliis 
craasioribus coriaceis et floribus albis alljidisve recedens. 

ground parts unknown, stems glabrous, lenticellate; Spo^:^^'^ bolanicae Veronica Juarez Jaiines, Marsdeniae 

I ., T •* Ul J -7 r irv o ^.y o 4 sttidiosae, grate nominavi. 

sap white. Leaves opposite, blades 7.5-10.8 X 3.4^ 

6.6 cm, elliptic, apex acuminate, base obtuse, Twining woody vine, lower stems with brown, 

rounded or truncate, glabrous, lateral veins 7 to 9 corky bark, underground parts unknown, stems to- 

pairs, middle veins 50-55° to midrib, colleters 8 to mentulose, glabrescent, lenticellate; sap white. 

10; petiole 1.8-2.5 cm long, glabrous. Inflorescence Leaves opposite, blades 9.6-16(20) 


1 per nodtN paniculiform, often bifurcate at base or cm, elliptic, apex acuminate to attenuate, base ob- 
above and then with 2 to 4 racerniform branches, tuse to rounded, mosdy abruptly and inconspicu- 
appressed-puberulent, peduncle 0-12 mm long, ously cordate at attachment of petiole, rarely con- 
pedicel 2.8-4 mm long, bracts 0.7-1.6 X 0.9-1.1 spicuously lobate, glabrous or sparsely tomentulose 
mm, dehate; calyx with 1 to 3 colleters below each at base above, glabrous to densely tomentulose be- 
sinus within, lobes ovate with rounded tips, 2.1- low, lateral veins 4 to 7 pairs, middle veins 50-70** 
2.5 X 1.8-2.4 mm, adaxially glabrous, abaxially to midrib, colleters 4 to 12; petiole 0.9-2.2 cm 
sparsely appressed-puberulcnt, margin inconspic- long, glabrous to tomentulose. Inflorescence 1 per 
uously ciliolate; corolla campanulate, without node, congested-paniruliform, nearly umbelliform, 

mm loiiir. 

long, pedicel 
1.5 mm, deltate; 

thickenings in sinuses, adaxially villose in mouth tomentulose, peduncle 0-3.5 

and along center of lobes, abaxially glabrous, cream 3.5-5.5 mm long, bracts 2-3 > 

to yellow, tube 2.2-2.3 mm long, lobes elliptic, tip calyx with 1 to 2 colleters below each sinus within, 

rounded and notched, 3.3-3.8 X 1.7-2.4 mm; co- lobes elliptic with rounded tips, cucullate, 4.3-5.2 

rona lobes broadly deltate, 1.3-1.6 mm long, 1-1.2 X 2 


mm wide at 1 

; gynostegium sessile, anther wings mentulose, margin ciUolate; corolla tubular to nar- 

0.7-0.9 mm long; corpusculum ellipsoid, 0.3-0.33 rowly campanulate, without thickenings in sinuses, 

X 0.1-0.13 nun, translator ca. 0.1 mm long, pol- adaxially retrorse-barbate in a small patch at base 

linia ellipsoid, 0.27-0.33 X 0.12-0.28 mm; style of tube below each lobe, abaxially glabrous, white 

apex attenuate, 1.6-1.9 mm long. 1.2-1.4 mm wide 
at base. Follicle fusiform with acute tip, 10-11 X 


5-6.8 X 3.4^ 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New Milkweeds 


2 mm 

5 cm 




. ij - , 

r" - 

^* K ■ 


'I _ 

J L L L 

ri Ir 

^^ _'■ 

L n^._ 


i . 

- t ^ \^ 



2 cm 

.J - 

h -I 


-f ^ 


4 .^. 





[->-:,■,?' N 


0.5 mm 

2 mm 

2 mm 

Figure 2. Marsdenia olgamarthae W. D. Stevens. 
Calyx lobe, abaxial side. — D. Gynostegium. — E. 
Montiel 16906, F drawn from Moreno 25388. 

— A. Flowering branch. - 
Pollinarium. — F. Follicle 

-B. Partial corolla, adaxial side. — C. 
A— E drawn from the type, Stevens & 


No von 

5 mm 

5 cm 

5 cm 

0.5 mm 

5 mm 

Figure 3. Marsdenia veronicae W. D. Stevens. — A. Flowering braneli. — B. Parlial corolla, adaxial side. — C. Calyx 
lobe, ahaxial sitle. — D. Gynostegiuni. — E. Pollinarium. — F. Follicle. — G. Leaf hase, adaxial side. A-E drawn from 
the ly|H\ Stevens, Moreno & Ilenr'uh 20152, F, G drawn from Slerens 2.'i()74. 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New Milkweeds 


4.6 mm; corona lobes lanceolate, inconspicuously »^i^ 1'^ ^l^''- 1^^^'^- Janzen I23HI (MO). KL SAT,VADOR. 
to conspicuously truncate and dentate at tip, 3-3.8 ^,t,^'^:^^^• ^'t'\P'''^^?' ^^'^'^*-'^' 89^18'W, 11 May 

^ r,r, 1 o •. . - I'^'^S, Villacorta * ,Uo;//a/ro ^285 B, I.AGU, MO). Sanla 

mm lone, v.y—l.o mm wide at base; evnosteiifmm * \i * ^ n^ . - c f>* / i c i m . ^ 

^' ' &' & Ana: \H'taf)an, Montana ^an Diego, (> km S de Metapan, 

sessile, anther wings 1.2-1.4 mm long; corpuscu- 14"16'2()"N. 89°27'4()"W, 50() m. 28 Apr. IWS, Linares 
lum ellipsoid-sul)sagittate, 0.62-0.68 X 0.17-0.23 & Martinez 2725 (MO). NICARA(;LA. Boaco: 3 km W 
mm, translator 0.25-0.28 mm long, pollinia narrow- of H^^y. 7 ..n toad lo Camoapa, 12"19'N, 85°36'%; 320 

I 1 . 1 n7 1 1 c N/ n •} A ac * i "i' 4 Aug. 1984, Stevens 22984 (MO). Carazo: Mpio. Oi- 

ly ohovate, 1.07-1. 15 X 0.3-0.35 mm; style apex ■ i S ■. i * i-, i ^xx i r^- • i 

^ -^ * namba. Huenavista tic Apompua, \,\ km Sw de IJinamba, 

conical, apiculat*% 1.5-2.2 mm long, 1.2-1.6 mm ir4rVN, 86"18'W, 70 m, 10 July 1984. Mormo 24312 
wide at base. Follicle ellipsoid, slightly asymmct- (MO); 3.3 km SE tif Casares on road to Hueliut-te, SE of 
rical, blunt at both ends, 11-14 X 4-5.5 cm, gla- b^^ R^^'^na Grande, ITSS'N, 86^2 1'W. 0-50 m, 10 July 

1977, StPicns 2745 (MO). Chontales: 10 km de Camoa- 
pa. La Union, 12"19'N, 85°35'W, 25i\~'M)i) m, 15 Nov. 
1982. Moreno 18666 (MO). Granada: Isia /apatera. entre 

brous; seeds obovate, 9.2-10 X 5.5—6.3 mm, olive- 
green lo tan, margin 0.5—0.6 mm wide, entire to 

slightly crenulate distally, surface smooth, coma Ensenada Los Clii(|ueros y El Carrizal sohrrVl i^amino a 

Sonzapote, ir45'N, 85°50-5rW, 40-55 m. 20 Jan. 
1982, Sandino 1886 (MO). Leon: 1 km de El Transito, 

3.5—5.5 cm long, while to tawny. 

This new species constitutes part of what has eamino a El Cuimn), 12''03'N, 86°42'W, 10-20 m, 26 Nov. 
been considered Marsdenia macrophyUa (Hum- 1980. Moreno 4800 (MO); Camino a EI Veh^ro. 4.3 km de 
boldt & Bonpland ex Sc-hultes) E. Founder. As un- '^ ^'anelera a Puerto Sandino, 12^10'N, 86°46'W, 20 m. 

10 Eeh. 1981, Moreno 652I-b (MO); Km 47.5 Carretera 
Vieja a Leon, 12''09'N, 86°39'W, 60-80 m, 10 Aug. 1981, 

derstood here, M. macrophyllti ranges from Panama 

through most of South America, while M. veronicae Sandino 1 1 88 (MO); along road SE from II wy. 32 near 
ranges from northwestern Costa Rica into Mexico. Puerto Somoza. 3.9 km from Hwy. and 0.6 km \ of road 
Marsdenia veronicae has smaller, more coriaceous ^^ Miramar, 12"09'N, 86'45'W, 20 m, 29 Jan. 1978, Ste- 

leaves with corneous margins, which frequently be- 
come undulate on drying and have bases that are 
usually rounded or obtuse and only cry^plically cor- 
date at the very base. Furthermore, M. macrajdiyUa 
has red to red-brown flowers, w^hile those ol M. re- 

white to yellow-green. Marsdenia 
schlechteriana W. Rnthe shares with these two spe- 
cies a tendency for the corona lobes to have ragged 
rather than simply acute apices, but this is a high- 


vens 6226 (MO); El Vclero, mouth of Estenj San Jose, 10 

km S of Hwy. 32, 12°()8'N, 86'=45'W, 0-5 m, 9 Sep, 1984, 

Stevens 23074 (MO); slope and ridge inmKnIiatelv W of 
Quebrada Las Ruedas, NW of El Transito. ir05'N, 
86"43'\^; 15-30 m, 10 Dec. 1977, Sterens 5451 (MO). 
Managua; Camliio a San Francisco Libre, 5 km \^' of 
empalme Managua-San Francisco Liltre, 12^21 '20"N, 
86°05'\\: 50 m, 11 Mar. 1983. Grijalra 2391 (MO); Cam- 
ino Darfo-Presa Santa Barbara, 8 km NW i\e Ciudad Dar- 

10, 12^47' UrN, 86"1 rW, 80-100 m, 26 J.uie 1983, Gri^ 

jalva 2677 (MO); Mpio. San Francisco d(4 Carnlcero, 12 
km NW del ])uebl(i en caserfo La Mojarra, alrededores del 
Kio Viejo. I2°25'\. 86'^21'W: 80 m. 12 Sep. 1980, Guz- 
man el al. 1089 (MO); Orilla del Hfo Salamina, El Charco, 
13 km de la carretera a Montellmar, 12°(K)'N, 86''38'W, 
engleriana W. Rollie, a high-elevation species en- 28-50 m, 13 Nov. 1980, Moreno 4636 (MO); 3 km de la 

carr(*tera Managua-Sebaeo, camino a San h rancisco Libre, 
26 Jan. 1981, Sandino 364 (MO); Km 15 on Carretera 
Panamerii'aua Norte, between Managua and Tipitapa, 1 
Eeb. 1978, Vineclli 130 (MO). Malagalpa: 1-2 km de 

elevation species ranging from southern Mexico to 
El Salvador that blac-kens on drying. Marsdenia ve- 
ronicae is somewhat more distantly related to M. 

demic to northwestern Costa Rica with corolla lobes 
less than 5 mm long and leaves that dry blac-kish 
and are pannose below, M. nicoyana Pittier, a low- 
elevation species from northwestern Costa Rica and Puertas Viejas. camino a San Jos^ de Los Remates, 

the Pacific slope of Nicaragua with corolla lobes 
less than 5 mm long and leaves that are not crvp- 

tically cordate at the base, and M. propinqua Hem- Matfjfx Aibi ft 
sley, a southeastern Mexican species with corolla 
lobes less than 5 mm long and leaves that are pan- 
nose below. 

12°35'N, 86"0r\\. 430^70 m, 10 May 1982. Moreno 

16239 (MO). 

Matelea amply acuensis Morillo, Caldasia 17: 
418. 1995. The original description and illustration 
of this species, while nicely crafted, cite the type 

Paratypes. COSIW KICA. Guanaeaste: Bagaces, collection as ''Hahn Trewell 94.'' For the sake of 

herbaria holding isotypes of this interesting spe- 
cies, it should be pointed out that the type collec- 

P.N. Palo Verde, Valle del rem[)is(jue, Cerro Coyolal, 

10^2riO"N, 85n3'(K)"\\. 10-100 m, 23 May 1994. Cha- 

larn'a 956 (CR, INR. MO): PN. Palo Verde. Valle del 

Tempisque. Sector Los Negritos. Hf 21' 10"N, 85°13'0()"\\. tion is R. Hahn & R. Treduell 94. 

10-100 m, 11 Feb. 1995, Chararna 1222 (1NI5. MO); La 

Cruz, P.N. Santa Rosa, I'em'nsula de Santa Elena, Eslaeion 

Murcielago, Rahia EI Ilaebal, Uf.5440"N, 85%3'50"W, 

20 Aug. 1994. Quesada 142 (OR, INB, MO); Liberia. P.N. 

Sanla Rosa, Sendero Carbonal. 10''43'N. 85"40'W. 100 m. 

17 July 1992, Fernandez 299 (CR, INR, MO); P.N. Santa 
Rosa, 30 km NW of Liberia. IO°SO'N, 85U5A\, i)-320 

Matelea elachyantha W. D. Stevens, sp. nov. 
TYPE: Nicaragua. Zelaya: along road from El 
Empalme lo Limbaika, 2.7 km E of Alimikam- 
ba road, 13°32'N, 84°14'W, 25 m, 7 Mar. 
1981, Steven^s 19446 (holotype, MO). Figure 4. 


No von 

5 cm 

2 mm 

0.5 mm 

Figure 4. Matcica elachyantha ^\ D. Stevens. — A. Flowering brancli. — B. Flower. — C. Pollinarium. Drawn from 
the ty{)e, Siarns 19446. 

Mdft'leae dwyeri maxime siniilis, sod internoiliis glabris 
foliis meinhranaceis lohis calyris viridibus. 

Vine, older stems woody and corky, base un- 
known, young stems with appressed hairs 0.2-0.4 
mm long at nodes, glal)rescent, internodes 4-13 cm 

tuse, round(»d or truncate, glabrous or sometimes 
puberulent at base above, memb 




Inflorescence coneested-racemiform 

long. Leaves opposite, blades elliptic to ovate, 4r- peduncle 1.2-2.5 mm long, glabrous or sparsely 
6.7 X 2.2-3.5 cm, apex acuminate, base acute, ob- puberulent, axis to 2.5 mm long, pedicel 4.7-7.7 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New Milkweeds 


mm long, glabrous or sparsely puhrnilent, bracts Inlcr species suhgt-neris l/a/e/eae siccitate nigrescente, 

0.6^1.4 X 0.3-0.4 mm, deltate; calyx tu!)c absent, "**'^'*^'' ^'''^'^ ^^ ^""^^'^^ '^^*'"""^^' ^^"'^"^^ disti.uia. 

Vine, older stems and base unknown, young 

1.6-2 X 0.8-1 mm, ai)ex acute to rounded, ereen, ♦ .. uu j r • i • r^ o 

. , „ 11. .1 11 stems with appressed, terrugmeous hairs ea. 0.3 

with 1 colleter per sinus, lobes deltate to ovate, 

with a few appressed hairs outside; corolla rotate- 

inm long, quickly glabrescent and becoming corky. 

reflexed, glabrous or with a few appressed hairs • . i /; io i *xu i ■. i t 

. ' , _ _ . - / * internodes 6-18 cm long; with white latex. Leaves 

outside, tube 0.7-0.9 mm long, lobes ovate, 2.8- 

opposite, blades elliptic, 5.1-10.1 X 1.9—4 cm. 

3.6 X 1.8-2.2 mm, apex rounded; corona of two 5- 1 1 *i • * » .* . u . . ' 

, . , ^ , 111- . . r ^P^^ bluntly acuminate to attenuatt^ base acute to 

lobed, rieshy, glabrous skirts covering stipe of ev- i . i i j • 1 1 i ■ i i 

^ 1 , obtuse or rounded, drying blackish, sparsely pu- 

nostegium, outer corona 0.2-0.5 mm loiiii;, lobes k i . -fU j r • u • i . i 

. 11- n berulent with appressed, terrugmeous hairs, lateral 

opposite anthers, somewhat overlapping corolla, in- 
ner corona 0.7-0.8 mm long, lobes alternate with 
anthers, somewhat overlapping outer corona, ter- 

veins 3 to 4 pairs, middle veins 50-65° to midrib, 
colleters 2; petiole 1.2-2.6 cm long, glabrous, be- 
coming corky. Inflorescence extra-axillary, congest- 

minal cippendagt^s appressed to marii;ln of style i _•/• i i o to i ' i i 

^^ !^ FK fe ci^ 1. ed-racemitorm, peduncle 2-13 mm long, glabrous 

apex, 0.2-0.25 X 1.3-1.4 mm; coq)usculum 0.15 

and becoming corky, axis 1-16 mm long, covered 

0.16 X 0.07-0.08 mm, sagittate, pale brown, trans- -fi ^ j- i i a • i *i, i i j 

1 n lo i^A 1 r I . ^^^^^^ pedicel scars and thicker than peduncle, ped- 

lators 0.12-0.15 mm long, 0.05-0.08 mm wide, 
pollinia 0.47-0.48 X 0.21-0.23 mm, obovoid, ster- 

icel 5.5-7.5 mm long, minutely puberulent, bracts 
0.3-0.6 X 0.2-0.4 mm, deltate; calyx tube absent. 

ile at attachment near center; gynostegium stipe „ -.i i , n . • i i * n o i '> J 

^-^ ^ ^ with 1 colleter per sinus, lobes ovate, 0.8-1.3 X 

0.9-1.1 mm long, style apex 2-2.2 mm wide, pen- q ^i 

tagonal, shallowly convex. Follicles and seeds un- 


mm, apex acute to rounded, apparently 
green, abaxially appressed-puberulent, adaxially 
glabrous; corolla rotate-reflexed with a prominent 

This species of Matelea subg. Matelea is close faucal annulus, cream to yellow, abaxially ap- 

to M. dwyeri Morillo, which was treated as M. me- pressed-pubendent, adaxially hispidulose, hairs 

diocris Woodson in the Flora of Panama (Spellman, translucent, unicellular, erect, ca. 0.05 mm long, 

1975). Matelea dwyeri is endemic to the area of tube 0.4—0.6 mm long, lobes lanceolate, 2.3-3 X 

Cerro Jefe, Panama, at about 800-1000 m eleva- 1.3-1.9 mm, apex rounded, annulus erect, 0.3-0.5 

lion, while this new species is found at low eleva- liim long, distally with 10 inconspicuous, rounded 

tions along the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua. Ma~ lobes; corona ± horizontal on stipe of gynostegium 

telea dwyeri has stems with two rows of hairs (a between annulus and gynostegium, glabrous, 10- 

mixture of long, reflexed hairs and short glandular lol)ed with each lobe bifid at tip, 0.4-0.6 mm wide, 

hairs), coriaceous leaves with 4 to 7 pairs of veins, lobes alternate with anthers deflexed and lobes op- 

and calyx lobes tinted puqile. Matelea elarhyantha posite anthers turned upward, anthers ellipsoid, 

has glabrescent stems with a few^ long, reflexed 0.4^0.5 X 0.7—0.8 mm, terminal appendages ap- 

hairs at the nodes, membranous leaves with 7 to 10 pressed to margin of style apex, 0.1-0.15 X 0.6- 

pairs of veins, and green calyx lobes. Both species 0.8 mm; corpusculum 0.15-0.16 X 0.07-0.09 mm, 

share the unusual character of an apiculum at the sagittate, pale brown, translators 0.07-0.08 X 

leiif tip, but in M. dwyeri the apiculum is usually 0.025 mm, pollinia 0.2-0.25 X ca. 0.175 nun, an- 

abaxially pubescent while in M. elachyantha it is gularly and asymmetrically obovoid, sterile at at- 

glabrous. Most collections of 4/. J«;>ea have flowers tachment near one edge; style apex 1.5-1.7 mm 

more than twice as large as those of M. elachyan- wide, nearly round, shallowly convex. Follicdes fu- 

tha, but three collections. Dressier 4315, Dwyer & siiorm, ca. 16 cm long, 1 cm wide, apex and base 

Gentry 4814, and Folsom ei al. 6807, have smaller long-attenuate, apparently smooth, appressed-pu- 

flowe^rs more in the range of M. elachyantha, 

Pdratypt's. NKLXfi \(iL A. Jinolrga: Sallo Kavaska, 

berulent, glabrescent; seeds obovate with long-at- 
tenuate base, ca. 13.2 X ca. 4.8 mm, pale red- 

HioHueay. i:5T>r\, ary22'W. 19{)-:iT()m/7 M ^^^^"^ margin 1.1-1.2 mm wide, irregularly 

Stevens et id. 76495 (MO). Zelaya: Cano Muiilecnblo, de- crenate distally, surface smooth and glossy, coma 

semhoeadura del Cano Kl Consuelo, ] t°:^5'N, 83°5rW, 3-3.5 cm long, tawny. 
10 m. 7 Feb. 1982, Morruo 15077 (MO). 

This is superficially most similar to Matelea sten- 

Matelea furvescens W. D. Stevens, sp. nov. opetala Sandwith, especially in habit, inflores- 

TYPE: Costa Rica. Alajuela: Reserva Biolo- eence, and flowers, but differs from all other spe- 

gica Monteverde, 10°20'N, 84"43'W, 900 m, cies o( Matelea subg. Matelea in drying black, in 

24 Apr. 1987, Ilaber & Bello 7041 (holotype, having very small flowers, and in having an erect 

MO; isotypes, INB, MO). Figure 5. 

faucal annulus that encloses the stipe of the gy- 


nostegium up to the coroiia. It seems to be rare In gynostegiuni stipe 0.4—0.5 inin long, style apex 1.8— 

midille-elevation cloud forests and apparently flow- 2 mm wide, rounded-pentagonal, flat, sometimes 

ers and fruits throughout the year. 

Paratypes. COSTA RICA. Alajiiela: Rt*s<'rva Biolo- 

with 5 radial ridges. Follieles and seeds unknown. 

now was 

This new speeics is most closely related to Ma- 

giea Monlcvenlt'. \\\u IVnas RIancas, Poco Sol, Fiiua Vo- telea piLsilUfioui T.. 0. Williams, from Mexico (Chia- 

lio, 10^20'N, 84^41 'W, 900 ni, 11 Dec. 1989, Bella 1612 ) Belize, and Guatemala, whicli until 

(I[\B, MO). INICARAGUA. Chonlales: Cerro Oliiina, . ^ , . , , ... 

12°I8'N. 8.r21'W, 750 ni, 4 Jan. 1984, d^ntry rt a!. 

43038 (MO). Jinotega: Kilamh^, Cerro San Pedro, 
i;n6'N, 8.r39'\\, 60()-8(H) m. 2.^ Mar. 1981, Moreno 

7541 (MO). Mala^alpa: Cerro Carlota, 12°58'N, 

85°52'W, 1250-13(K) in, 23 Oct. 1982, Moreno 18157 

Matelea ocellala W. D. Stevens, sp. nov. TYPE: 
Mexico. Oaxaca: M[)io. Tehuantepee, Dpto. Te- 
huantepec, Recorrido Hierha Santa a El Li- 

the only mainland representative of a small group 
of Caribbean species eharacterized by asymmetri- 
eal, nanowly S-winged follicles, a corona in the 
form of a fleshy disk at the base of llie gynostegiuni 
stipe, and a white, reflective eye at the ti[) of each 
corolla lobe. Matelea pusiUiJlora has broader corol- 
la lobes and a relatively broader and flatt(T corona 
that lacks the erect wings opposite the anthers, 

P(iral}pes. MKXICO. Miehoarnn: Mpio. Acjuila: 

moil (17 km al dc Tehuantepee), 24 July F,'"' ^^ C^'"l>os- 4 k.n al NK .le la ,a>.c-k',a IVro.twlr,- 

Ti^f^r /-f mjr . r> ot /i i »*^^ i-- I'lava Azul, runiiK) a Aquila, 24 Sep. 198.i, k. Martinez 

1^>H.S, C. Martinez K. 8/ (holotype, MO), rie;- q , , ^^r-y i^.^, -^ m ■ w m- i ri ■ 

' ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ >). et al. 445.1 (\l()j. Maxara: Mpio. han l\1i^n<M (.liniia- 

ure 6. 

la[)a. Cafiaiia de l-as Naranjas. ca. 2.5 km al SO dc l.a 

Coralilla (Dfa/ Onla/,), ca. 35 km en li'nea rccia al IN (It; 
Mateleae pusilli/lorae affinis sed lobis corollaruin an- ^.j,j p^d.-^ Tapanatcpcc. lr)'^42'N. 94nr\\, 1100 iii. 29 

July 1985, Maya 1933 (Cll APA, MO): Mpio. San Miguel 

Chimala[)a, Hio Kscondido (Arroyo l^aill), 0.1—1.0 km al 
de su union con el Rfo Porlamonedas v de Benilo Jihi- 

^usiioi Ibu.i (lI»;no.scen<la. 

Vine, older stems woody and corky, base un- 

known, young stems with 2 lines of spreading to lez, ca. 38 km en Imea recta al N de San IVdro Tapana- 

appressed, white to ferrugineous hairs 0.2-0.5 mm tepcc, im.rN, 94W\\. 900 m, 8 Od. 1985, Maya 2335 

long and brown to red-brown glandular hairs 0.02- l<^'|' ^1* ^ MO). NICARAGUA. Matagalpa: Canilno a Es- 

f^ r\r 1 11 .'. irtir qnipilas. Carretcra Norle cnlrando por Pucitas Vieias, 

kjAjo mm long, glaluescent, niternoues z-io cm ?,„! ...,^^ ^^ i\ , inoi r i *• q in-n t^ 

^ ^ , . . ;>00-l(KK) ni, 18 Oct. 1984, (^njalra tV Soza Kf.U) (, 

long. Leaves opposite, blades elliptic or ovate, 3.8- 

6.2(9.2) X 1.5-2.3(3.9) cm, apex acute to attenu- Matelea su^ala W. D. Stevens, sp. nov. TYPE 

ate, base rounded to truncate or shallowly lobate, 
sinus to 0.2 cm deep, lobes divergent, glabrous or 
puberulent on midrib and margin, lateral veins 3 
to 6 pairs, middle veins 35—50° to midrib, coUeters 
3 to 6; petiole 1-2.2 cm long, [)uberulent. Inflores- 
cence racemiform, peduncle 1—1(9) mm long, pu- 
berulent, axis to 3 mm long, pedicel 4—8(14) mm 

Mexico. Veracruz: Mpio. AtzaUin, La Calavera, 
1000 m, 12 Apr. 1973, Ventura 8158 (holo- 
type, MO). Figure 7. 

E\ arfinilate Mateleae p'utunitae vX spccicrum affmlum 
corolla hispidula dislinguciida. 

Vine, older stems slightly woody but not corky, 
long, pubt^rulcnl, bracts 0.7—2.3 X 0.1—0.5 mm, base u!iknown. young stems with 2 lines of spread- 
linear to deltate; calyx tulie 0.2-0.5 mm long, with ing, contorted, Avhite hairs 0.2-0.5 mm long and 
1 collctcr per sinus, lobes lanceolate, 1.1-1.9 X appressed, ferrugineous hairs 0.02-0.1 mm long, 
0.7—1.2 mm, apex acutt^ to obtuse, green, glabrous glabrescent, internodes 4—36 em long. Leaves op- 
inside, sparsely pubescent outside; corolla rotate, posite, blades elliptic or ovate, 9.1-17 X 4—12 cm, 
green to dull brown with darker green veins, with apex acuminate, base rounded, truncate, shallowly 
a dull to bright white spot at tip of each corolla lobate, or shallowly cordate, sinus to 0.5 cm deep, 

lobe within, ailaxially glabrous, abaxially sparsely lobes divergent, drying blue-black, glabrous above, 

pubenilt^rit to hispidulose, tube 0.8—2 nun long, sparsely aj)presRed ferrugineous-pubesct^nt below, 

lobes debate or slightly ovate, 2.7-3.5 X 2.1-2.2 especially on veins, lateral veins 3 to 5 pairs, mid- 

mm, apex acute to rounded; corona a shallowly 5- die veins 40—50° to midrib, colleters 4 to 6; petiole 

lobed disk, 0.5—1.2 mm wide, yellow to orange, gla- 2.9—8.5 cm long, sparsely appn^ssed ftTrugineous- 

brous, with 5 erect wings opposite and free from pubescent. Inflorescence racemiform to paniculi- 

antlu;rs, terminal appendages appressed to margin form, sparsely appressed ferrugineous-pubescent, 

of style apex, 0.15—0.25 X 0.9-1.2 mm; corpus- peduncle 19-96 mm long, axis to 30 mm long, ped- 

eulum 0.15-0.23 X 0.07-0.18 nun, rounded-sag- ieel 24-57 mm long, bracts 1.2-2 X 0.3-0.5 nun, 

iltate, pale brown, translators 0.15-0.2 X 0.07-0.1 lanceolate; calyx tube 0.3—0.5 mm long, with 1 to 

mm, pollinia 0.47-0.65 X 0.3-0.38 mm, asymmct- 2 colleters per sinus, lobes ovate to nearly deltate. 

rieally obovoid, sterile at attachment 

center; 2.8—5 X 1.8—2.5 mm, apex acute to rounded, green. 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New Milkweeds 


2 cm 



2 mm 

Figure 5. Matele<i furrrsccns W. D. Slcvrns. — A. Howrring branch. — B. Flower. — C. Pollinarinni. — I). Follicle. 
A. n drawn from the t\[>e, lUiher & Bella 7011, B tlrawii from Bfllo 1612, C drawn from Moreno 7541. 

adaxially glabrous, ahaxially appress(Ml fernigine- ly appressed ferrugineous-pubescent, lube 4—6.5 
ous-pubescenl; corolla rotate with an inconspicuous mm long, lobes ovale, 6.S— 15 X 6.3—11.1 mm, apex 

circular annulus, green to pale brown with dark 

rounded; corona a rounded-pentagonal disk sur- 

green veins, adaxially densely hispidulose with uni- rounding gynostegium, 0.6—1 mm wide, pale yellow, 
cellular hairs 0.07— 0.13 mm long, ahaxially sparse- glabrous, with low ridges opposite and ap])ressed 



0.5 mm 

Figure 6. 

2 mm 

Mnlelca ocellata W. D. Stevens. — A. Flnw<Ming branch. — B. Flower. — C. Pulliiiarluni. A, H drawn from 

llie holoivpe. Martinez R. 87, C drawn froni Mtna 2335. 


* to anthers and shallow concavities alternate with 0.17-0.2 X 0.1-0.13 mm, poUinia 0.57-0.68 X 

IV- 0.3—0.38 mm, obovoid, strongly asymmetrical, ster- 

m, ile at attachment near center; style apex 1.9-2.3 

18 mm wide, pentagonal, shallowly convex. Follicles 

5-0.9 X 0.8^1.2 n 
1.17-0.23 X 0.15-^ 

mm, rounded-sagittate, pale brown, translators and seeds unknown. 

Volume 10, Number 3 


New Milkweeds 

5 cm 

2 mm 

1 cm 

A. Flowering hrantli. — B. Flower. — C. Corona aiitl gyiioslegiuiTi. 

Figure 7. Matrlea sugilhila W. I). Stevens. — 

D. Pollinariiirn. A-C drawn from tlie holotype. Ventura 8158. D drawn from Slciens & Henrich 20529. 

The Mexican collections of this species have ic to Costa Rica and with the inner face of the 

been previously determined as Matelea picturata corolla entirely glabrous, and M. sylvicola L. 0. 

(Hemsley) Woodson, a species (including \L pittieri Williams, endemic to Guatemala and with the inner 

(Standley) Woodson and Vincetoxicum discolor face of the corolla villose but with the corolla lobes 

Woodson) known from Guatemala and Panama, narrower than the other species and much longer 

which has the inner face of the corolla densely vil- than the corolla tube. These four species are ob- 

lose. Also similar are M. tinctoria Woodson, endem- viously closely related and share the character of 


No von 

qiiirkly turning blue-black when bruised. I have Gtileotti 1541 probably represents the same species 
seen fruits of none of these species, and their re- but Wydler 76 almost certainly does not. 

lalionships within Matelea 

not clear. 

Metasteltna schlechtendalii Deci 

Paratypt's, MEXICO. Oaxaea: Mpio. Santa Marfa 
Cliimalapa, Filo ciitre Majipana y Kfo Blanco, ca. IS km 
al i:SE de Santa Marfa, 16°52'N. 94°34'30"W, 810 in, 27 
May 1087, Hernandez 2499 (MO). Querelaro: Mpio. 
Landa. 2 km al SE <le Rio Verdito, 10(X) m, i;3 Mar. I98<), 
Rubio 513 (MO). Veracruz: Mpio. Catemaco, Arroyo Cla- 
ro, V) km al SO de Tcbanca y 3 km de Batslomil, 21 Feb. 
H)8S, Ccdillo 3059 (MO); Mpio. Yecualla, Km 9, 650 in. 

, in A. DC, 

Prodr 8: 513. 1844. TYPE: Mexico. Veracruz: 
Hacienda de la Laguna, Aug. 1828, Schiede 
159 (lectotype, selected liere, P; isolectotypes, 

HAL, MO, W). 

Acknowledgments. I thank Alba Arbeliiez for 

lrf.i!:^„':r:i,'^f' 'T^r'"'"^,,^:^,.^'"^^ Ha,„™el for kindly checking spcci 

lega: T^gliiia Miraflores, ca. 52 km (by road) NE of Estelf, 

13"I5'N, 86n5'W. 1250-1300 m, Steveti^ & Henrich 
20529 (MO). 


MbJAPLEXis R. Bkow N 




Rica. Victoria Hollowell, Amy Pool, and Eric Sun- 
dell provided astute recommendations for improv- 
ing the manuscript. 

Eileraturo Cited 

Fonlclla FVreira, J. & E. de Araujo Srhwar/. 1982. Es- 
tudos em Ascl(']»iadacpae, XV. Chave para as esp^cies 
do gcncro Jobinia Founiier oconcntes no Rrasil. Bol. 

Mlis. Bol. Munic. 51: 1-17. 

1995), Metaplexis rostellata Turczaninow was 
pluc-ed in synonymy of M. henisleyana Oliver. Ex- 
amination of an isotype of M rostellata {R. Fortune Kimze, H. 1995. Floral morphology of some Gonolobcae 
A87, MO) and a review of the original description (Asclepiadaceae). Roi. Jalnb. Syst. 117: 211-238, 

\a Ping-lao, M. C. Gilbert vK W. D. Stevens. IW5. Asrle- 
piadaceae. In: Z.-Y. Wn & P. H. Haven (editors). Flora 
of China 16: 189-270. Science Press (Beijing) and Mis- 

•onfirms the opinion of previous authors that the 

name Is properly a synonym oi M, japonica (Thun- 

berg) Makino. 

Mfjastfjma R. Bkown 

Metdstehna schlechtendalii Decaisne 


soiiri Botanical (wirden FVcss (St. Louis). 
Spellman, D. F. 1975. Asele]Hadaceae. In: H.F. Woodson, 
Jr. et al.. Flora of Panama. Ann. Missouri Hot. Card. 

62: 103-156. 
Stevens, W. D. 1988 [1989]. A synopsis oi Maidea bubg. 

Dirtyanfhus (Apoeynaceae: Asclepiadoideae). Ann. 

Missonri Rot. Card. 75: 1533-1564. 

scribed with three syntypes, Schiede 159 and Gal- 

eotti 1541 from Veracruz, Mexico, and Wydler 76 SunJell E. 1981. The New World s\*ec\es of Cyrmnrhum 
from St. Thomas. To stabilize the usage of the name, subgenus Mellichampia (Ascle[>iadaeeae). Evol. Mon- 

I propose selecting a lectotype that matches the ^.**^^* " ^^^' , ,n.i m i * * . • . 

vvoodson. It. L., Jr. 1941. North American Aselepiadaceae 
I. Perspective of the genera. Ann. Missonri Bot. (Jard. 
28: 193-244. 

original di^scription and is well represented in her- 
baria, Schiede 159. Of the collections not selected, 

Una Nueva Especie de Rhynchosia (Leguminosae) de 

Jalisco, Mexico 

Oswaldo Tellez V, y Mario Sousa S, 

Hrrbario Nacional, Institute de Biologfa, UNAM, Apartado postal 70-367, 

04510, Mexico, D.R, Mexico 

Rksumkn. St' Jeticrihe una nueva especie de 

Herbaeea Irepadora; lallos lineados, puberu- 



Rhynchosid (Leguminosae) del ocridente de Mexi- lentos; peciolo 1.5— 5. S em de largo, hirsutuloso; 
CO, colectada en la Reserva de la Bioslera Cha- estipulas ca. 2 mm de largo, 1—2 mm de aneho, 
mela-Cuixmala, Jalisco, Mexico. Se trata de R. de- triangulares, agudas, castano— rojizas, pu])erulen- 

licatula, la cual es cercana a R. diffunnis (Elliot) tas. Hojas 5.5-16 cm de largo; loliolos 3, el ter- 
DC: de esta, R. delicatala se diferencia por la for- minal 2.5—9.5 cm de largo, 1.2—4 cm de ancho, 
ma y p<dosidad de sus foliolos; pedicelos mas cor- ovado-lanceolado a lanceolado, la base redon- 
tos; caliz mas corto que la corola; y el vexilo mas deada, el apice acuminado, mucronado, los la- 

terales 2.5—7.5 cm de largo, 1—3.5 cm de ancho, 
semifalcados, la base oblicua, el apice acumi- 
nado, todos con el haz estriguloso, el enves hir- 
sutuloso s6lo sobre las nervaduras, serfceo, den- 

samente cubierto por secreciones glandulares 
ambarinas. Inflorescencias racimos axilares 1.5— 

4 cm de largo, mas cortas que las hojas; bracteas 
lineares; pedicelos ca. 1 mm de largo. Flores 5— 
8 mm dc largo, amarillas a anaranjadas; caliz 5— 

7 mm de largo, campanulado, el lobulo vexilar 

ABSTfCAcr. A new species of Rhynchosia (Legu- 
minosae) collected in the Chamela-Cuixmala Bio- 
sphere Reserve in the state of Jalisco, western Mex- 
ico, is described. Rhynchosia deliculatii is similar 
to R. difformis but differs by the shape and pubes- 
cence of the hniflets, by the^ shorter pedicels, by the 
calyx shorter than the corolla, and by the smaller 
standard petal. 

Durante septiembre de 1997 y septiembre de ^-'^-^ mm de largo, unido 3/4 de su longitud o 

1998, el Herbario Nac-iotial (MEXU) del Institulo "^^'^^ ^^^^^ hibulos laterales 5.2-5.5 cm de largo, el 

de Biologia n>aliz6 colecciones como parte del 1*'^'*^1** ^^""^^^ 6-6.3 cm de largo, lanceolados, 

proyecto Flora de la Reserva de la Biostera Cha- ^g^^^^ ^ acuminados; vexilo 6-7 mm de largo, 

mela-Cuixmala, Jalisco, Mexico. En este periodo se ^-5 mm de ancho, la una 1 nun de largo; alas 4- 

recolectaron alrededor de 5000 niimeros. Estas co- 4.5 mm de largo, 1.5-2 mm de ancho, la una 1- 

lecciones incluyen varias especies nuevas para la 

1.5 mm de largo; carina 4,5-5 mm de largo, 2 

ciencia, una de las cuales es descrita aqui, de la 2.5 mm de ancho, la una 1-1.5 mm; tubo esta- 

cual se brindan datos acerca de su distribucion '''''^^^ ^-^ "^"^ ^'^^ l^^g^^ ^^" ^^ porcion uiiida; ovu- 

geografica, de sus preferencias ecologicas V se dis- ^^^^ ^^- 2- Legumbre inmadura ca. 1.8 cm de 

cuten las relaciones con las especies nuis cercanas. •^'"g^' ^'^- ^ mm de ancho; semiUas ca. 2, inmad- 


Rhynchosia delieatula O. Tellez & M. Sousa, sp. 
nov. TIPO: Mexico. Jalisco: Mpio. La Huerta; 
a 3 km de las oficinas de la Fundacion Eco- 

Pardlifjos. MEXICO. Jalisco: Mpio. I^ lliuria: km 
1 ..Vdi) del Kje Central, Kslacion de f^iologfa Clianiela, 
UNAM, 5 nov. 1<^88. S. U. BuUovk I90l (MKXll); a 6 km 

logica Cuixmala A. C. rumbo a El Mirador, a! NW de las oficinas de la Knndaeion Ec(tl6^ica Cuixmalii 

19°25'49"N, 104'58'41"0, alt. 200 nu 15 nov. AC, sohre el cainino mmbu a El Mirador. 19^26'49"N. 

104^57'55"(), 15 nov. 1997, J. Caldnico S., (). Tellez V. 

1997, I Caldnico S„ 0. Tellez V, A. Domin- 
guez M. y J, Martinez C. 56!i!i (liol6tij)o, 
MEXU; isotipo, MO). Figura 1. 

1. Dommguez M. y J. Martinez C. 57th (MKXl ). 

Rhynchosia delicatuJa pertenece a la seccion 

tterlja delicala. scandens. Folia 3-foliolata. S.5-16 cni Arcyphyllum Torrey & A. Gray, conjuntamente 

longa: slipiilis ca. 2 mni lon^is. 1-2 inni latis. lrlant:;u]ari- con IS especies mas, distribuidas desde el sur 

acutis, Inflotvscenliae axllla^c^ 1.5^ cm lon^ae. Flor_es ^]^ j^^ Estados Unidos y El Caribe hasta Argen- 

S-8 mm lon^i; caKce 5-7 mm loncro: lolmlo vexillari 5- . .^ irk-7o\ t • j > * 

_ _ 1 I " 11 - o - - I 1/ tma Orear, i9(0 . Las especies de esta seccion 

5.0 mm loni];o. iateralihus :>.z-.i..:) cm lon<i;is. carman (>~ ^ / r 

6.3 nnn longns. immatnmm ca. 1.8 cm Ionium, ^^ caracterizan por poseer un caliz foliaceo a su- 

ca. 6 nnn lalnm; seniiiiihiis immaUiris 2. bfoliaceo, con los lobulos libres o casi libres des- 

N()\()\ 10: 257-259. 2000. 



Figura 1. Rhynrhosia dclicalula 0. Tellez & M. Sousa. —A. Habito dc la |)laiila. — B. Caliz 
Ala. — K. Quilla. — F. Tuho eslaniinal niostrandn el estamlne vexilar. — G. (iineceo. 

C. Estandarlc. — T) 

Volume 10, Number 3 

Tellez V. & Sousa S. 
Rhynchosia delicatula de Mexico 


de la l)ase, lanceolados, casi tan largos roino cl 
estandarte o mas largos que estc. Rhynchosia de- 
licatula se eiicueiitra relacioiiada, por una parte, 
a un grupo dc espccies con inflorescencias mas 
cortas que las hojas y hojas sin estipelas, dislri- 
l)uidas en el sur de Eslados Unidos y el occidente 
de Mexieo, y por otra parte, se relaciona a un 
grupo de espccies sudaniericanas tjue poseen in- 
florescencias con las flores agrupadas y congestas 
hacia el apice; sin embargo, las relaciones mas 
estrechas parecen ser con R. tarphanta Standley 
y R. elisac 0. Tellez, las cuales poseen inflores- 
cencias rohustas, flores de mayor tamano v ha- 
bitan en bosques de Pinus-Quercus entre 6.50- 
1500 y en l)osques mt^sofilos a mas de 900 m de 
altitud, respectivamcntc, mientras que R. deli- 
catuld se distingue claramente por lo delicado de 
la planta y de las inflorescencias, el menor ta- 
mano de las flores y porque liabita en la selva 
baja caducilolia del nivel del mar a 200 m. 
Aparentemente las montafias del occidente de 

Mexic'o ban sido un centro secundario de diversi- 
ficacion para parte de la seccion Arcyphyllunh Las 
especies senaladas y rclacionadas entre si se dis- 
tribuyen en ellas, Rhynchosia tarphanta en por- 
ciones alias de la Sit;rra Madre ilel Sur eti los es- 
tados de Jalisco y Guerrero (McVaugh, 1987), R. 
elisae en la porcion occidental del Eje Volcanico 
Transversal en el estado de Nayarit (Tellez, 1995) 
y R. delicatula en las estribaciones de la Sierra 
Madre del Sur en la costa de Jalisco cerca del nivel 

A la clave de Grear (1978) se le agrega la es- 
pecie nueva a partir de la entra<la 33. dentro de la 
Seccion 11. Arcyphyllum, Serie 5, en la siguiente 



33. Kstfpulas caducas; legLinibrc 2.5-3.5 (.-in; setni- 
llas 5— () !iii7i; M('^\ic<) (Jalisco, (iiu'ircro, Oaxaca) 

R. tarp}\ant}}(i 

33. Ksti'piilas [)frsi.stcriles; le^iiiDbrcs 1—2 cm: scmi- 
llas 2^.5 inin. 

34, Kslipclas aiiscntes; tallos xoluhlcs (t pustra- 

35. Folfolos ^eneralrtii-nlc curiaceos. pi-Io- 
sitlad cintTe'a; vcxiht r>— H nini ilc arulio; 
Estatlo.-^ Unidos (Florida) .... H. cirierca 
35. Fdli'olos de MU'itibraiiaceos a sub^ori- 
ac(M)s. pclosidad canesccnte a aiiuiri- 
llerita: vexilo 3— () nirn de nnrho. 
36. Foli'olos gencralnu'iUe o\ad()s a 
(nado-romhico.s. c.stri^ulosu^; prdi- 
crlos 2-5 inrii: caliz mas lar^it a 
casi Ian largo conio la corola; xrxilo 
i\-\() X 5.6 mm; Kstados Unidos 
(\'ii|^iiiia a Texas) /?. diffornns 

36. loli'olos ovadodaiU'tM)lados a lan- 

(Tolaflos, pnlxrtdrnlos; |>rdicclos 

ea. I mm: cali/ mas cf)rlo que la 
c(>roIa; vexllo ()—7 X 3—5 mm; Mex- 
ico (losia dc Jalisct)) 

R. dvUcdlida 

AgradecimientiKs. A Elvia Esperanza por el ex- 
celente dibujo de la especie; a CONABIO por el 
apoyo economic*) para realizar el provecto L-289 
acerca d(^ la Flora de la Estacidn de Biologia Cha- 
mela VSAM, Jalisco, Mexico (jue fue en donde re- 
gistro esta nueva especie. 

Litcratiira Citada 

(i-rcar. J. W. 1978. A rc\ision of die New World s[)pcies 

o( Rhyruhosid (Fcguminosae— Fahoideae). Mem. New 
\ork Hot. Card. 31: 1-168. 

McVaiigli. R. 1 9J57. F(^guminosa<\ hJn: W. K. \nderson 

(editor). Y lora No\()-Caliciana. \ nescriptixc \ccoiint 
o( llic \'ascular Plants o( Western Mexico. \ol. .'>. I ni\. 
Michi<^an Press. Ann Arljor. 
Jellez v., (). P/A"). ^e\v species of F<^^umino.sac from the 
stale of Na\aiit, Mexico. Contr. LImi\. Michi^^an lierh. 
20: 231-2.37. 

A New Species of Justicia (Acanthaceae) from Venezuela 

Dieter C. Wasshaiisen 
Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural Hislor)', Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, D.C. 20560-0166, U.S.A. 

AnSTRACr. Current floristic research in Venezuela ppriore erecto, ovalo, hcuUk labio inferiore trilohalo, 

lltnl in tl; 

resuiUHi ui me recognition ot anotner new spe- 




cics of Justicia, This new species, Justicia ayrnar- 

dii, \nt 

tly known from the slopes of the eastern 

ovalis. meilio ohiusis, lateralil)us n^liisis: stamina exserta; 


lobis anlheraruin ()l>Ii(juis sii[)<'r|)<>silis. 

Shrub or undershrub, 0.8—2 m tall. Stems as- 

Andes, the Sierra Nevada de Merida, is described, cending, quachangular-ridged, conspicuously pi- 
illustraltd, and compared to its closest relative, lose, the trichomes erect and scattered and puqjlish 
Justicia LsrhnorhachLs Leonard, which is from Co- colored, 1-1.5 mm long. Leaves petiolate, petioles 
lombia. It alone among Justicia has the combina- 7-15 cm long, pubescence similar to thai of stem, 
tion of (1) a 4-parted calyx, (2) nmlticellular pur- blades narrowly ovate to lanceolate, 7.5-11 X 2.2- 
plisli colored trichomcs along the stem, peduncles, 4 cm, apically acute to acuminate, attenuate at 
and rachis, and (3) a conspicuous purplish to red- base, subcoriaceous, entire, dark green and spar- 
dish purple, long, somewhat curved, tubular corolla ingly pilose and pubendous above, the pil(»se tii- 
(20-28 mm long) with relatively short lips (8-9 nun chomes adpressed, somewhat lighter green and 

long). This new species does not appear to be close- moderately pilose below, the trichomt^s adpressed 
ly related to any of the known species of Justicia and purjilish colored, the costa and lateral veins 
from Venezuela. (7-9 pairs) pilose, the cystoliths often inconspicu- 

ous and scallered. Inflore;: 

of compact, ter- 

Justicia is the largest and taxonomically most minal and axillary spikes (Fig. 1), these barely ex- 
complex genus of Acanthaceae, with ca. 600 spe- ceeding the terminal leaves, the upj)ermost spike 
cics worldwide (Graham, 1088; Mal)berly, 1997). It sometimes forked or sparingly branched forming a 
is also the largest genus of the family in Venezuela, loose panicle, 3-5 cm long, the peduncles 8-25 
with about 45 species found there. Tlie genus is nun long, quadrangular, densely pilose, the tri- 
characterized by the gamopetalous and zygomor- chomes erect and purplish colored, the rachis sim- 
phic corollas with the tube divided above into 2 ilar to the peduncles; bracts narrrowly oval<% 3. 
lips, the upper lip erect, shallowly bilobed or, more 5.5 X 2-2.5 mm, apically acuminate, clasping 
rarely, entire, and the lowtT one usually somewhat basally, rather firm, moderately pubescent, espe- 
spreading and distinctly trilobed. Justicia also h 
an androecium of two 2-thecous stamens and ] 

ially along the costa, the trichomes erect, the mar- 

o gin ciliolate; bracteoles subulate, 3.5 X 0.5 mm, 

slaminodes, and 2-, 3- or 4-aperlurate pollen with sparingly hirtellous, especially along the costa, the 

a trema area usually transversed by 2 to 8 rows of margin ciliolate; calyx 8-12 mm long, deeply 4- 

up to 10 insulae (Fig. 2), and stipitate capsules with parted, lobes green, lance-subulate, 7-10 X 0.8- 

four (or fewer) seeds 

0.9 mm, the pubescence similar to that of the bracts 

and bracteoles; corolla purple to reddish purple, 

JuHlieia aymardii Wasshausen, sp. nov. TYPE: 20-28 mm long, externally sparingly pilose, tube 

Ve*nezu(da. Barinas: Otto. Bolivar, La Soledad, 1.5 mm at base, narrowed to 1.2 mm at 2 mm above 

20 km SW of Barinitas, 700 m, 20 June 1983, base, thence gradually enlarged to 3.25 mm at 

G. Aymard & F. Ortega 2281 (holotype, US; mouth, the lips subequal, 8-9 mm long, the upper 

isotype, PORT). Figures 1, 2. hp erect, ovate, 4 mm wide near the base, narrowed 

o rr . iM , , -, I r. ,. toward tip, apicallv acute, the lower lip somt^whal 

Sntlnilex, caulitnis (|iiadraii[];iilanlnis, j)il<)sis. hoiioriiiii i- ii ' 

lanniia atipiste ovata v*'l laruvolala. ariila vel acnminala, spreading, oblong, 4^5 mm wide, 3-lobed, the lobes 

basi aUeiiuata, siilu-oriacca, utriruiuc pilosa, costa el venis ovate, 1 mm long, tilt* middle lobe 1.5 mm wide, 

laleralil)iis pilosis; pctioli pilusi; spicae lerminales et a\- apically obtuse, the lateral 

illarrs, prdiinciilis <M racliidibus (jiiadrangiilarihiis, pilos- 
is; nrach'ac viridae, ati^iisU' ovalat*, juitienilae, cilialae; 
hraclcolae su!)ulalae. [)ari'c hirlcllae; talycis segiiH-nta 4, 
viriiiia, laru-o-sulnilala, iniiuitc pubenila; corolla [)urpii- 
rea, pan-r pilosa, luho an;);usle iiifunditniHformi, labio su- 

1 mm wide, api- 
cally retuse; stamens exserted 6—7 mm beyond 
mouth of corolla tube, glabrous, the filaments flat- 
tened, glabrous, the anthers 1.5 mm long, the the- 
cae 1.5 mm long, superposed at an angle to each 

N(>\()\ 10: 260-263. 2000. 

Volume 10, Number 3 


Justicia aymardii from Venezuela 


Figure I. Jitstiria aymardii Wasshausen {Aymanl ^K: Ortega 2281. liolotype). — A. Habit. — B. Bract. — C. FUacteoIes 
and calw Inlu's. — D. Cupula. o\ar\, and st\le. — K. (Corolla. — K. Capsule, relinaeula, and seeds. 



Figure 2. Scamiing eU'clron (SEM) photomirrogra[)hs of Justicia aymardii [xtllt-n {Aymard rl aL, 4272). — A. E(jua- 
Unial vit'w, X1400. — B. K(|iialorial view, XI4()(). — C. Equatorial view. X 1 700. 

otlit r, llie lower thecae talcarate; pollen 2-j)orate, exceeding the stamens, the stigma oblique. Capsule 

prolate to perprolate, 50 X 22 ^tm, the pores cir- clavate, 9-9.25 X 2.25 X 1.25 mm, apically acute; 

cular, the nieml)ranes reticulate, trema area stud- retinacula 2 mm long, slightly curved, erose; seeds 

Hed with 4 rows of S-7 ± circular insulate (Fig. 2A, 4, suhorbicular, brownish, 1.75 mm diam., 0.5 mm 

B, C); ovary pubescent, style filiform, pubescent, thick, tuberculate. 

Volume 10, Number 3 


Justicia aymardii Uom Venezuela 


Distribution. Endemic to Venezuela; plants oc- ("Type 7," fig. 5 in Graham, 568) like that found 
cur in cloud forests, coffee plantations, and mon- in fiw sections recognized by Graham. 

tane forest in the states of Portuguesa, Barinas, and 
Tachira at elevations between 700 and 1500 m. 

Panilypes. \'ENF7UKLA. Portu^esa: Dllo. Sucre, 
La Divisorial de la Concepcioiu 5 km NW uf Las Flores 

Justicia aymardii superficially resembles / is- settleinciit, ^^''IH'IN, 7()°6'W, L'iOO-L'SOO ni, L^i Oct. 1*W5, 

chnorhachis Leonard from Villavicencio, Meta. Co- 
lombia. In y. ischnorhachis the leaf blades are mod- 
erately firm, obtuse or rounded basally, apically 

G. Aymanl et al. 4272 (PORT, US). Barinas: Dtto. Boli- 
var. 30 km \X of Barinitas. road Barinitas-Sanio Donun^^o, 
Quehrada San Isidro. 8''I2'N, 7(f25'W. 1600 m, 19 Nov. 
1982. (L Aymard el al. 1653 (VOKW US); Duo. Pcdiaza, 
slenderly acuminate, the tip often curved, the pet- trail from Mesa dc ('anaj^^ua (ea. 8".'^2'!\, 7(r*i9'\\') to Alto 

ioles 3^ mm long, glabrous or sparingly puberu- ^'^ ''^ '^""^^''^^ ^^*''- ^^"^7'N. 70°10'W). ca. 23 km N\X of 

, , ., ^ ^.i' , . I ] 1 (airhali. 800-1100 m. 17 Ai.r. 1988. L J, Dorr e{ a/. 47:^4 

lous, the spikes o— Iz cm lone;, the peduncles slen- ;vv i'c\ -r' i • t^,. n i . u i i . • tt i 

' ^ fe^ r (yi\. US), iaclura: Dtlo. Unbante, Hydroelectric Uribaii- 

der, glal)rous, the calyx lobes stramineous, and the te-Ca|>aso Complex, sector Kl Cedral, vicinity Presa La 

corollas red, reddish straw-colored, dull crimson, Honda. 8°U\. 71°.'^7'W, 1 100-12r>() m, 15 Nov. 1988,/^. 

Riieroet al. 1882 iPOKT. US), 

or reddish orange, 26—30 mm long, with the lateral 

lobes of the lower lip obtuse. By contrast, in / Arhunvledgments. My special thanks to Cathy 

aymardii the leaf blades are coriaceous, attenuate Pasquale for skillfully preparing the line drawing, 

basally, apically acute to acuminate, the tip not and to the staff (»f the National Museum of Natural 

curved, the petioles 7-15 mm long, conspicuously History SEM Laboratory for their high-quidity pol- 

pilose with puqilish colonel trichomes, the spikes Icn photomicrographs. 
3—5 cm long, the peduncles firm, densely pilose 
with [)ur|ilish colored trichomes, the calyx lobes 

green, and the corollas purple to reddish purj)le, Graham. V, A. W. 1988, l)<'l!inilation and infra-generic 

with the lateral lobes of the lower lip retuse. classifiealion i}( Jusiirla (Aeandiaeeae). Kew Bnll. 43: 

y^Asncr'a armar^/u" is not reaihlv identifiable with ..V, , ,\ ,,,,_ ,,,, ,., ,, ■ * r> ii t^- ■ 

-^ " MahlxMb, D. 199i. Ihe Plant-Book: A Portable Dictio- 

any subgeneric taxa using the keys and descrij)- j^^,^ ;,f y\,^. \aseular Plants. Cambridge Lniv. Press, 

tions provided by Graham (1988). It has pollen Cambridge. 

Literatnre (]ited 

New Species of Lauraceae from Central Amazonia, Brazil 

Henk van der Werjf 

Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St, Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 

henk. vanderwerff@mol)ot. org 

Alberto Vicentini 

Bolsista do CNPq-Brasil, Biol<»gy Department University of Missouri-Sl. Louis, 

8001 Natural Bridge Rd., St. Louis, Missouri 63121, U.S.A. 


Abstract. Foutlfiii new species of L 

The habitat informal ion is bas(Ml on observations 

belonging to the genera Licaria, Ocotea, and Rho- made at the Ducke reserve, with the exception of 
dostemonodaphne and all occurring in or near tlie Ocotea Jigulata, where it is l)ased on label infor- 

a Florestal Ducke, near Maiiaus, Brazil, 


described. The new species are Licaria aureosericea 


In order to facilitate i<li'Ulilication of Ocotea coUec- 
van der Wt;rff, L hirsuta van der Werff, Ocotea ci- tions from central Amiizonia, we have included a key 
nerea van der Werff, 0. delicata Vicentini, (). im- to the Ocotea species known from the Ducke Reserve 
mersa van der Werff, 0. Ugulata van i!cr Werlf, 0. as well as a 
minor Vicentini, 0. nigrescent Vicentini, 0. ohliqua of the new i 
Vicentini, 0. pcrcurrens Vicentini, O. rhodophylla which they 



four otlier species with 
Mow details about the 
Vicentini, 0. scabrella van der Werff, 0. subtermin- Lauraceae from the Ducke Reserve will bi* Dul)lished 

alls van der Werff, and Rhodostemonodaphne re- 

Lauraceae treatment for the Florida of die 

carta van der Werff. A key to the 37 Ocotea sj^uitvs serva Florestal Ducke (in prep.), 
of tht' Rcserva Florestal Ducke is provided. 

During fieldwork by the second aullior In prep- 
aration ol a firld guide to the vascular plants of tlu^ 

Liearia aureosericea van der Werff, sp. nov. 

: Manaus, Reserva 

TYPE: Brazil. A 

Reserva Florestal Ducke (Ribeiro et al., 1999), ne* 

Florestal Ducke, 02'S3'S, 59"58'W, tree 1755- 
06, 22 July 1994 (fl), A. Vicentini et al 644 
(holotype, INPA; isotypes, IAN, INPA, K, MO, 

NY, RB, SP). Figure 1. 

Ijcariae oppositifoliae siniilis sort fnliis alternis, siihliis 
aurt'oserireis rainulisciuc lotiH-iilcUis receilil. 

Medium-sized trees, to 17 m. Twigs terete, solid, 
species are here described. A number of the new densely golden brown pubescent when young, the 
species had earlier been recognized as undescri- hairs erect, somewhat eurled, completely covering 
l)etl, but a description was postponed until more the surface, the indument wearing off on older 
complete material was available. Some of the new twigs; terminal buds densely pul>escent with as- 
species, such as Ocotea cinerea and O. nigrescens, cending hairs, the surface completely covered. 

Manaus, Briizil, a ruunber of Lauraceae were found 
that couhl not be identified. The proximity of the 
Reserva Ducke to Manaus made it possible to col- 
lect flowers and fruits from the same tagged trees 
and to search for, and find, staminate and pistillate 
trees of most dioecious species. Several of these 


e a wi(te < 

le <listribution throughout the Amazon 


lowlands. Others are only known from a few belter- taceous; the apex acuminate or at^ite, acumen to 1 
collected localities such as Salil in central French cm long; the base acute; upper surface moderately 

Guiana (for instance Ocotea scabrella) or the vicin- appressed pubescent wIumi young, becoming gla- 

ity of Iquitos in Peru (for instance Ocotea immersa), brous with age; lower surface densely golden seri- 

The fact that intensive collecting in a relatively ceous when young, the surface completely covered 

small patch of Amazonian rainforest has yielded so by the indument, this turning duller brown with 

many undt^s(TiI)ed species underscores our lack of age; midrib, lateral veins, and tertiary venation im- 

knowh^lge about Lauraceae in the Amazon low- mersed on the upper leaf surface, midrib raised, 

lands. Further collecting will no doubt lead to ihe lateral veins weakly raised and tertiary venation 

discovery of more unknown species. 

NovoN 10: 264-297. 2000. 

immersed on the lower surface, lateral veins 5 to 7 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazi 


1 mm 

2 mm 


Figaro 1. Luaria aureosericen van <l<'r \^erff. — A. Habit. — B. hiflon'sceiico. — C. Detail of inflonvsccnce. 


F 1 () w f 


^E. IrulutiR'iil of young twig. (All from Vicrndni ef al. 644, isolypr at MO.) Drawn hy Alha F. Arhclaez. 

on each side, arching upward and l)ecoming loop- rescences 2.5-6 cm, paniculate-cymose, the cymes 
connected in ihe distal half, sometimes with a sessile, one or several together and then the flowers 

in dense clusters, densely brown or golden brown 

er, ac 

hhtional string of loops on top of the first 


one; domatia absent; petioles 8-15 mm long, flat tomentellous, the surface completely covered, in 
above, with the same indument as the twigs. Inflo- the axils of bracts or rarely in the axils ol leaves. 



Flowers prrlect, cylindrical, 1.6^2.1 mm long, Licaria liirsula van derWcrff, sp. nov. TYPE; Bra- 
densely pu}>esrent outside, the surface completely 

zil. Amazonas: M 

s, Rescrva Florcstal 

covered liy the indument, brown or golden yellow, 
slightly constricted near the middle; tepals, mea- 
sured from the point of constriction, ca. 1 mm long, 
unittnl for most of their length, the free lobes 0.1- 
0.2 mm long, triangular, erect; stamens 3, 0.5-0.7 
mm Inng, 2-celled, the cells extrorse, opening to- 
ward the tip, anthers exserted at anlhesis, the fd- j 

Ducke, 02°53'S, S9T>8'W, 30 June 1993 (fl), 

/ E. L S. Riheiro et ai 950 (holotype, INPA; 
isotypes, MO, SP). Figure 2. 

Ad subgenus lAcamun |H'tliii('ns, a rougenrris foliis aller- 
nis, pinnaliiifnihus sublus pilis errctis jmu^litis nM-*Niit. 

Trees, to 15 m. Twigs terete or roundly 


ly tomentose-hirsute, the surface of the twigs 

aments dorsally almost entirely pubescent, the an- completely covered by the yellowish brown indu- 
thers glabrous, glands present at the base of the ^^ent, this turning darker with age; tenninal buds 
hlaments, sessile, flattened, only noticeable be- densely tomentose-hirsute. Leaves alternate, 7-18 

cause of their dark color, or lacking; staminodia not 
seen; pistil 1.8 nmi l<»ng, glabrous, the style twice 

X 3-6 cm, chartaceous, (narrowly) elliptic; apex 
(shortly) acuminate, the acumen 0.5-2 cm long; the 

as long as the slt^ndcT ovary; receptacle glabrous or base acute to angustate; the upper surface glabrous; 

|)ul)esetuit inside. Fmit and cupule unknown. 

the lower surface papillose, modt^rately erect pu- 
bescent, the surface largely visible, die imlument 

Phcnohigy. Flowers; Junt^ August, and Sep- denser along the major veins and midrib and cov- 
ering these completely; midrib and lattTal veins im- 


IhihitiiL Terra iirme forest on clay soil. 

Licaria aurcosericea is characterized by the com- 
bination of alternate leaves, densely tomentellous ^^^ lower, not visible on upper surface; lateral veins 

mersed or slightly impressed <m the upper surface, 
d on the lower surface; lertiarj' venation raised 

twigs, cylindrical flowtTs with the anthers exserted 5 to 7 on each side, arching upward nrar the mar- 
and a dense, golden sericeous indument on the low- S^" and becoming loop-connected; domatia absent; 
er surface of the young h aves. The flowers are quite P^^'^^^^ 6-12 mm long, canaliculate, with the same 


indument as the twigs. Inflorescences in the axils 

,„..,, , 1 ,.j ,1. , • I -* 1 V of bracts at the base of recent shoots or along leaf- 

mans, l)ul that species has opposite or sub(»pposite . ^ 

I 1 • 1 I . less short shoots. 4— 10 cm lorijr n;inifMil:itp-rvmn<f» 

leaves, an appressed nulunumt on the twigs, more 

pubescence on tin* u[)per leaf surface, and it lacks 

the golden sericeous indument on the leaves. Kurz 

(1983) only saw the Prance collection of L. aureo- 

serlcea and included il in L oppositifolia, noting 

that it difhTed in its alternate leaves. Additional ^^lls visible; 'stanien^'V2-cXdr^l^prese^^ 

recent CM>llections have shown that this combination ^^^^1 m, the filaments densely pubescent, the cell 

short shoots, 4^10 cm long, paniculate-cymose, 
densely pubescent. Flowers pt^rfect, about twice as 
long as the pedicels, densely pubescent, turbinate, 
ca. 2 X 2 mm; tepals much shorter than the floral 
tube, broadly triangular, erect or incurved; the sta- 
mens included with only their tips with the anther 

of alternate leaves, tomentellous twigs, and cylin- apical and opening toward the center of the flower; 

drical flowers with exserted anthers is consistent staminodes representing whorls I and II present, 

and not restricted to collections from the Ducke glabrous or pubescent, sometimes with a glandular 

Reserve, but also occurs elsewhere in Amazonian tip; glands present at the base of the stamens; pistil 

Brazil and in Guyana. The type s()e(iinen comes ca. 1.5 mm long, pubescent; the nn-eptacle deeply 

from a marked tree (1755-06), which hopefully will urceolate, densely pubescent inside. Fruit un- 

facilitate collecting fruiting material. The three col- known; cupule 1.5 X 2 cm, warty, deeply eup- 

lections from Guyana have a pubescent inner sur- shaped, with a double margin, the inner margin 

face of the reci-ptacles, wliile the Brazilian collec- ^hort, erect, without remnants of the stamens. 
lions have a glabrous receptacle. 

Piinil\i)i's. liKAZI!.. Aina/.unas: Marians, Reserva 

Phenology, Flowers: June and August. 
Habitat. Terra finne forest on clay soil. 
Licaria hirsuta can be readily recognized by the 

I- Icn-sial Duck*' (fll. Martins ri al. 16 (C^ [\PA. K. \IBM. erect indument on lower leal' surfaces and along the 

MC. MO. SP. L, L B), (fl). rmnrt' rl at. 9035 (IM>A, NY); 
Sau Gabriel da CacIuxMra, Morro dos Seis I.a^os. 0°20'>J. 
C>G%3'K \{){) III (H). \e!son rt al. 2346 (I^PA, MO). 
GUYANA. I , Takulu-ll. F]&he(|iiihn ri^^ion: Sipu River. 

Or2r>'N, 58°57'W((!), aarArr/a/. 7/^25(MO, US); Acar- ^^^^ reported only in L chrysophylla (Meisner) 
ai Mis., ()I°22'>J, 58°6{)'\\, 700 n. (II), r.VarAr w f//. 7242 Kostermans (which has opposite leaves), L doli 


Brazil has such a hirsute indument. The papillose 
lower leal surface is also a good cliarai*ter; it has 

(MO, US), ((I), Clarkr et al, 7602 (MO, LS). 


Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


1 mm 


1 cm 

1 mm 



1 mm 

Figure 2. Licaria hirsuta van der Werff. — A. Habit. — B. Details of the upper (at top) and lower leaf surface. — C 
Fruit cupule. — D. Flower, — E. Pistil. — F. Stamen. (C from Pires & Lima 66, otherwise from holotype, Ribeiro el al 
950) Drawn by Angelie Kat/ Nara. 

and L brasiliensis (Nees) Kostermans (which has van der Werff, which has small, tripliveined leaves. 

an appressed indument); these three species are all An unidentified Licaria specimen from Amazonas 

known from the Amazonian lowlands. Two species (Rio Maues-A9u), Hill 13106 (INPA), also has erect 

from Venezuelan Guayana also have an erect in- hairs on the lower leaf surface, but differs in having 

dument, L. tomentosa van der Werff, a poorly known somewhat tripliveined leaves, a sparser, shorter in- 

species that has opposite leaves, and L. trinervis dument on the leaves, a shorter indument on the 


No von 

5 cm 

1 mm 


1 cm 

1 mm 

1 mm 



Figure 3. O(otea cinerea van ihr Werff. — A. Habit. — B. Details of the upptn" (at top) and lower leaf surface. - 
Slauiiuat*' flower. — E. Stamen of whorls I and II. — K Stamen of whorl III. —G. Stauiinode of whorl IV. — 11. Fniit. (A, B 
fmm holotypi% Mitscimento ct al. 742; C-F from Vkenlini 826; H fn»in RllH-iro 1127.) Drawn by Angelic Katz Nara. 

C, D. 


inflorescences and flowers, and a raised reticulation Ocotea cinerea van der Werff, sp. nov. TYPE: 

on the upper leaf surface. It probably represents an 
undescribed species, but more material is needed 
for its description. 

Paratypes. ^I^\ZIF. Amazonas: Manaus-Cara( araf 
n>nil km 1 ir> (fl), Prance et al. 21638 (INPA, MO. NY); km 
137 (fr), Pircs & Imjui 66 (INPA); km 60 (st), Rodrigiies & 
Chagas 1752 (INPA); Distrito Agropecudiio da Suframa, Fa- 
zenda Fstei(), Ki-serva 1301 of the Projeto Dinamiea Biolo- 
giea de Fragmenlos Fl<m^slais (PDBFF), ()2°23'S, 59^5rW 
(fl), tree lOM, Martins et al. s.n. (IM'A, MO). 

s, Reserva Florestal 

Brazil. Amazonas: M 

Ducke, 02°53'S, 59^S8'W, 6 Feb. 1995 (fl), 



Ocoteae schomhurgkianae similis, sed reeeptaculo flo- 
nmi maseulorum inlus pubescenle, staminodiis j)arvis, pu- 
bcscenlibus, statura maiore el eupulis minus profundis re- 

Dioecious trees, to 40 m. Twigs angular, when 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


young with some minute appressed liairs, soon be- the specific epithet), the elliptie-obovate or elliptic 
coming glabrous; tenninal buds densely, whitish leaves with frequently an inrolled base and decur- 

appressed pubescent. Leaves 5—11 X 1.8—4 cm, rent on the petiole, the pubescent 

ptacle of the 

alternate, stiffly chartaceous, elliptic or elliptic-ob- staminate flowers, and the pubescent staminodia of 

ovate, glabrous or nearly so; the apex obtuse or whorl IV. In Rohwer's (1986) treatment it keys to 

acuminate, the acumen to 1 cm long; the base acute 0. schomburghiana (Nees) Mez, which differs in its 

or somewhat decurrent on the petiole; the margin roundish twigs, elliptic to elliptic-ovate leaves, gla- 

flat or incurved near the base; midrib (slightly) brous receptacle, and smaller size {0. schomburg- 

raised, lateral veins and reticulation immersed on kiana is a shrub or small tree, rarely exceeding 10 

the upper surface, midrib and lateral veins raised, m, while 0. cirierea, when fertile, ranges from 15 

reticulation immersed, but visible due to its lighter to 40 m). An additional difference is that the ter- 

color on the lower surface; lateral veins 5 to 7 on tiary venation tends to be slightly raised on the 

each side; domatia frequently, but not always pre- upper leaf surface of 0. schomburgkiana, while it 

sent, inconspicuous, consisting of a few hairs or a is immersed in 0. cinerea. Label data suggest that 

long, sparsely appressed pubescent, paniculate-cy- 
. Flowers unisexual. Male flowers glabrous or 

slight depression; petioles 5-7 mm long, not always O, schomhurgkiana predominantly occurs on white 
clearly distinct from the decurrent leaf bases. In- sand, while 0. cinerea is usually found on clay or 
florescences in the axils of nonnal leaves, 4—8 cm sandy-clay soil. 

Paralypes. BRAZIL. Aniapa: Mun. de Marapd, (^ii- 
pixi, 0";^2'N, 5r52'W (fl), Rahrlo el al 3226 (MG, MO, 
sparsely puberulous outside, ca. 5 mm diam.; tepals ^y); Mun. dc Mara|)a, Estrada Perinielral Norte, r2l'N, 

spreading, glabrous on the inner surface, ca. 2 mm 53°1S'W (buds), Mori & Cardoso 17577 (MG, MO, NY). 

long, broadly ovate-elliptic; stamens 9, all 4-celled, Aiiiaz«Mias: Manaus, iU-serva Florcslal Ducke, U2''53'S, 

the outer 6 with the anther cells in 2 pairs, intror.e, fr^S'W (H), Y;^" '' '^^Z^'i^^) ''''^' 

, , . , , ., (fl), Rotlngiies & Osmanno 6869 (INI'A, Nr), Rodngiies 

the anther about twice as long as the narrow iila- ^ asm««„o 6874 (INI'A, NY), (fl), Nasdmenio el al. 743 

ment, the inner three with free filaments, the cells (INPA, MO, SP), (fl), Nasclmenio ri al. 749 (INI'A, MO, 

extrorse-lateral, in 2 pairs; glands at the base of the SP). (fr), Ribeiro et al. 1127 (INPA. MO, iP), (fl). VUenlini 

inner stamens conspicuous, the two glands of each e' «^- ^'^'^ (l^^PA, MO, SP), (fl), Viceniini et al. 826 (INPA, 

,. , , r I 11 . • 1- MO, SP); Distrito Acroppniario (Iti Sufninia. Reserva l.)(II 

stamen slightly tused at the base; staminodia pre- ,, ,,/ ^ . onnvi- . n->oo^'c r-no^Tw n i \ 

'^ J ^ (km 41) ()( the PDHlr project, ()z 24 S. 59 4,1 \\ (biuls), 

sent, stipitiform, densely pubescent, about as long Oliveira el al. A 512 (INPA, MO, NY), (fl), Oliveiru et al. 

as or sliglitly longer than the glands; pistillode slcn- A191 7 (INPA, MO, NY), (fl), Mori 22864 (INPA, MO, NY), 

der, 2 mm long, glal)rous, the tip dark; receptacle (fr). Won & Mora Cardoso 20711 (INPA, MO, NY), (fr). 

Mori et al. 20542 (INPA, MO, NY); Dislrito Agroix-ciiario 

da Sufraina, Reserva IV.MH of the PDPKK proj^t. 2''22'S, 


rather deep, pubescent inside. Female flowers witl 

9 larger staminodia, representing the outer 3 l9%rW{ir\^^^ 

whorls, these glabrous; staminodia of whorl IV stip- CEPhAC, km 29, Manaus-Itacoaliara IM. (fl), Pennington 

itiform, small, pubescent; pistil glabrous, 1.5 mm et al. r22757 (INPA, MO. NY); km 154, Manaus-Cara- 

long, the ovaiy ca. 1.2 mm long; receptacle urce- -'"-'^^I^*'- (f^)/— ^^ «j ^f ^f ^ (^^^'"^^ ^lO, N Y). k.n 

, ,, ••iT-'-iir Moirv 26, Maiiaiis-Caracaraf Kd. (buds), Irance et at, M)69 
olate, glabrous mside. Fruits 1-1.5 X 0.8-1.0 cm, ^j^p^^ ^^^^ ^y); Mun. Presidente Figueiredo, UHK Hal- 
ellipsoid, largely exserted from the shallow, bowl- bina, (fl), Cid Ferreira et al. 6618 (INPA, MO). FHKNCH 
shaped cupule, this 6^ X 2-3 mm; the peduncle GUIANA. SaiU: Sentirr Botanique, S^-^Y'N, 53°12'W (fr), 

not or scarcely swollen and abruptly widened in the ^il^fl, ^'^„'t(' i^l^'^.i^:'^]: ^^^: ^'^Jl;i'i'!:w^1.f i'tJl^^? 

(CAY, MO, NY), (fr), Mori et al. 22712 (CAY, MO, NY), 
(fr), Mori et al. 24691 (MO, NY). VVAW, Depto. Loreto: 
^ Jenaro Herrcra, I Oct. P)8l (young fr), tree 2/216, .sine 

Vernacular, Peru: Moena negra. Brazd: Lou- ^^// ^^^ ^^,q)^ (^,^^^,„^ f^^^ ^^^^ g/227^ ^■,^. ^.^^ , „ (^C)), 

(fl), Enearnacidn 26151 (MO), (yonn^ fr.), Castillo 2 (MO). 



Phenology. Flowers: November, January, Feb- 
ruary, March, and April. Fruits: August, September, Ocolea delicata Vicentini, sp. nov. TYPE: Brazil. 

October, and November. Ocotea cinerea flowers ev- 
ery two years at the Reserva Florestal Ducke ac- 
cording to field observations by A. Vicentini and 
supported l)y the collection dates. 

Habitat. Terra firme forest on clay to sandy- 
clay soil. 

Ocotea cinerea is an inconspicuous species, best 
recogruzed by its almost glabrous, roundly angular 
twigs, which usually have a grayish color (hence 

Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Florestal Ducke, 
02"53'S, 59"58'W, 5 May 1995 (fl), tree 2534^ 

06, A. Vicentini et al 952 (holotype, INPA; 
isotypes, K, MG, MO, SP). Figure 4. 

Oroleae laxae el 0. tarapotanae foliis subtriplinervibus. 
ner\is panmi impressis similis, foliis edomatialis ramul- 
isque tit'nse tomenlellis recedil. 

Small tree, to 10 m. Branching presents contin- 


No von 


1 mm 

1 mm 

5 mm 

1 cm 



1 mm 




1 mm 

1 mm 

Figure 4. Ocotea delicata Vicentini. — A. Habit. — 

Detail of llir druse indumeiU on the pcliole. — D. Staniinale flower. — E. Slainen of whorl III with lateral glands (up[)er 

B, Delailis of the upper (at top) and lower leaf surfaces. — L. 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


uous growth. Twigs subcylindrical, 1—1.5 mm diam. than anthers, glabrous, anthers triangular, lower 
5 cm below the terminal bud, completely covered cells extrorse-latrorse, upper ones clearly latrorse, 
by short light brown (grayish) erect hairs, slowly opening toward the connective, with two flattened 
becoming sparse with age; terminal buds ca. 2 mm glands at the base, shorter than filaments; whorl IV 
long, covered by the same erect indument. Leaves variable in flowers of the same inflorescence, corn- 
alternate, pseudo-distichous, evenly distributed in pletely absent, or stipitiform, sterile and pubescent, 
± pendulous branches (field observation), 5—14 X or fertile with only two anther cells, or with a glan- 

2—5.5 cm, chartaceous, elliptic; the apex caudate dular head, and sometimes also presenting glands 

(acumen 7—18 mm long), rarely acute; the base at the base; pistillode glabrous with a conspicuous 

acute with recurved margins; margins otherwise stigma, as high as inner stamens; the receptacle 

flat; lamina not clearly gland-dotted, usually dr)'ing shallow, almost flat, and densely pubescent inside, 

dull green, the lower surface with short erect hairs Pistillate flowers with 9 stamlnodes, these ca. 0.2 

on the venation, denser on the midrib and sparse mm long, filaments glabrous, with small flattened 

to absent on the surface, persisting on mature glands at the base of the inner 3; the pistil glabrous, 

leaves; midrib and secondary veins also pubescent ca. 1 mm long, the style shorter and almost indis- 

on the upper surface of mature leaves, at least on tinct from ovary, these half inside a pubescent re- 

the lamina base, midrib and secondary veins prom- ceptacle, the stigma triangular. Fruits globose, ca. 

inent on both surfaces; secondary veins 4 to 5 pairs, 1 cm diam.; cupule small, ca. 7 mm diam., shallow 

basal veins distinct, more acute arching and longer and with persistent tepals; pedicel claviform and 

than rest, forming a sub-tripliveined venation, es- ca. 1.5 cm long. 

sentially all veins clearly loop-connected, but 
sometimes the basal ones free; tertiary veins slight- 
ly prominent beneath and inconspicuous above, ± 
perpendicular to midvein in the inner and lower 
half, elsewhere reticulate, or completely reticulate, 
the reticulation coarse; domatia absent; petiole 0.7— 
1.4 cm long, slender (ca. 1 mm thick), subcylindr- 

ical and completely covered by the same indument 

as twigs. Inflorescence in the axils of normal leaves, 
4^10 cm long, paniculate-cymose, 2 or 3 orders of 
branching; branches ± perpendicular to the main 
branch; pedicels and distal intemodes of cymes 
well developed, individual flowers clearly separate 
at the tips of inflorescence branches, pedicels with 
same short erect hairs as twigs, the indument dense 
and becoming sparser toward the flowers; bracts 
and bracteoles caducous at anthesis. Flowers uni- 
sexual, ca. 2 mm diam.; pedicels longer than flow- 
ers, 2—2.5 mm long, with erect hairs, sparse or 
dense but not completely covering the surface; all 
tepals equal, yellow, erect at anthesis, ovate, ca. 1.5 
mm long, hyaline, pubescent on outer surface and 
almost glabrous inside. Staminate flowers with 9, 4- 

celled stamens (sometimes whorl IV also fertile, if 
so with 2 anther cells); outer 6 stamens ca. 0.8 mm 
long, filament ca. 0.4 mm long, glabrous, as wide 
as the anther's base, the cells introrse in two rows, 
completely filling the anther, upper ones smaller 
than the lower ones; inner 3 stamens ca. 0.8 mm 
long, the filaments as long as and slightly narrower 

Phenology, Flowers: May and June. Fruits: Au- 

Habitat. Terra firme forest on clay soil. 

Ocotea delicata is a small tree that can be easily 
recognized by its tripliveined leaves, slightly im- 
pressed major veins, and the densely tomentellous 
twigs and inflorescences. It shares with Ocotea laxa 
(Nees) Mez and Ocotea tarapotana (Meisner) Mez, 

both members of the Ocotea cernua group (sensu 

Rohwer, 1986), tripliveined leaves with slightly im- 
pressed major veins. However, these two species 
have glabrous or sparsely appressed pubescent 
twigs (the indument not obscuring the surface as in 
0. delicata)^ glabrous or almost glabrous flowers 
and inflorescence branches, and domatia in the ax- 
ils of the lowermost lateral veins. These vegetative 
characters alone allow an easy distinction of these 
species. In addition, in staminate flowers of 0. laxa 
and 0. tarapotana the pistillode is reduced to ab- 
sent or at least without a conspicuous stigma, and 
the glands of inner stamens are globose, not flat- 
tened as in 0. delicata. The fruits and cupules of 
Ocotea tarapotana are not yet known; 0. laxa has 
a fruit and cupule (with persistent tepals) similar 
to those of 0. delicata, Ocotea delicata is only 
known from the vicinity of Manaus and toward the 
east until the Rio Trombetas, on the north side of 
the Amazon Casin. 

Paratypes. BRAZIL. AniazoiiuH: Manaus, Rosena 

view). — F. Stanien of vvhurl I. — G. Slanu-n (left) and staniinode of whorl IV. — H. Pistillate (lower. — I. Pistil. — J. 
Staminodes of whorls I and III (right, note llatlened glands). — K. Fruit. (A-C from hololype, Vicentini ct al. 952; 11- 
J from Rodrigurs & Osmarino 6935; K from Vicentini 658.) Drawn by Angelie Katz Nara. 


Floreslal Dui4^e, 02^53'S, 5<r58'W, Santos & Lima^ 939 Jong, the stigma distinct, papillose; receptacle shal- 

.,. low, glabrous inside. Fruits ellipsoid, 2 X 1.4 cm; 


tini el ill 1186 (INPA, K, MG, MO, SP), (fl), Rodrigues & cupule a small plate (ca. 6 mm diam,) on a thick- 

Osmarino 6935 (MO, NY), (Q), Ramos & Oliveira 730 ened pedicel. 

(INPA), Para: Orixiiniiid, Porto Trombctas, km 60 Hoad 
Minc-ra^ao do Norte (fr), Cid et al. 1888 (INPA). 

Vernacular, Peru: "Palta moena." 

Phenology, Flowers: July, November, and De- 

Ocotea iininersa van der Werff, sp. nov. TYPE: cember. Fruits: December. 

Peru. Depto. Loreto: Prov. Requena, Arbore- 
tum Jenaro Herrera, tree 4/36, A. Castillo s,n, 
(holotype, MO). Figure 5. 

Habitat, Campi 

forest on white-sand 


Ocotea immersa belongs to the 0. niinarum 
group of Rohwer (1986) because of its small, plai^- 
Ad |rrepmi Ocv/cacwum^^^^^ like cupule and thickened pedicel in fruit, its 

seemingly hermaphrodite and pistillate flowers, and 

bus foliis cdomatiatis, latnibus, apice rotundatis differt. 

Trees, to 25 m. Twigs with rounded ridges, the ^^ ^^"8' slender terminal buds with dense, ap- 
apices densely and finely appressed pubescent, the pressed pubescence. Within this group it stands 

indumenl light brown and covering the distal few ^P^'^ ^Y '^^ leaves witli a rounded or obtuse apex, 

cm completely but the twigs quickly glabrescent ^^^ absence of domatia, and its immersed venation, 

with age; terminal buds densely and finely ap- ^^^X ^"^ ^^^^^ species, 0. ohovata (Ruiz & Pavon) 

pressed t)ubescent. Leaves 13-25 X 4.5-7 cm, al- ^^^' ^^^ ^ rounded leaf apex and lacks domatia, 

temate, evenly distributed along the twigs, (narrow- ^^^ ^^at species occurs in the Peruvian Andes and 

ly) obovate, finnly chartaceous; the apex obtuse or ^^^ clearly raised venation (in the original descrip- 

rounded; the base gradually narrowed and decur- *^^*^ ^*^ leaves are described as venosissima). Other 

rent on the petiole; the margins frequently inroUed; useful characters for 0, immersa are its glabrous 

very young 1 

with some appressed hairs, but leaves, the finely appressed pubescence on the 

soon glabrous on both surfaces; upper surface with y^^^S ^^^g^' ^^^ ^^"«^ pubescence on the inner 
midrib, lateral veins, and tertiary venation im- surface of the tepals, and the pubescent receptacle 

mersea or 



d* lower surface with midrib ^^ ^^^ hermaphrodite flowers, while pistillate flow- 

raised, lateral veins and tertiary venation immersed 
or nearly so; lateral veins 5 to 8 on each side; dom- 


a glabrous receptacle. 


In describing this species as having both her- 

atia lacking; petioles not distinct from the decurrent maphrodite and pistillate flowers I follow Rohwer 
leaf bases, flat on the upper side, appressed pu- (1986). Whether the flowers with functional sta- 

bescent when young, glabrescent with age. Inflo- ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ hermaphrodite is still not clear, 
rescences in the axils of normal leaves, 10-20 cm These flowers possess a pistil with a clearly swollen 
long, paniculate-cymose, minutely puberulous, the b^^^' suggesting the pistil is functional. In most 

indument becoming denser toward the flowers. 

Ocotea species with unisexual flowers the staminale 

Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, 4.0-4.5 mm Aowers either lack a pistillode or the pistillode is 
diam.; the tepals spreading at anthesis, elliptic- ^*^^ slender to thread-like and does not have a 
ovate, ca. 2 mm long, very sparsely puberulous out- swollen base. The two collections with young fruits 
side, inner 3 tepals densely pubescent inside, outer ^ave a few staminodia attached to the cupule, and 
3 moderately pubescent inside. Hermaphrodite ^^^^^ t^*^ inside of the receptacle glabrous, indicat- 
flowers with 9, 4-celled stamens; the outer 6 ca. 1 i"g ^^^^^ ^uits developed from pistillate flowers, 
mm long, the filament ca. 0.2 mm long, pubescent. Therefore, it remains to be demonstrated that fruits 
the anther rectangular, glabrous, with the introrse develop from the flowers which I describe here as 
cells in two rows; the inner 3 stamens ca. 1.2 mm hermaphrodite. The fruiting collection from the Re- 
long, the filament ca. 0.4 mm long, with a few hairs, ^^^'^ Florestal Ducke {Vicentini et al 784) has ir- 
the anther glabrous, the cells lateral-extrorse, in 2 regularly swollen, corky pedicels, which are partly 
rows; the inner 3 stamens with 2 small glands at hollow. This seems to be a result of a fungal infec- 
the base; staminodia not seen; pistil 1.5 mm long, *"'"• The collection Vasquez et al. 1012 has non- 

with a few small, appressed hairs and a distinctly diseased fruits and pedicels; it was used in making 

swollen base; receptacle shallow, densely pubes- ^"e description, 
cent inside. Pistillate flowers with 9 staminodia, 

as^^^ rr, fi c: „,„, !„„„ «u„ „„ii., „„. CI Paratypes. BRAZIL. Aiiiazonas: Manaus, Fieserva 

lese ca. U.b mm long, ttie cells not opening, hla- ,,, , (S^ , nnorn^a moro'w/ ic \ w ■ ■ , 

. , °, , 1 1 r Horestal Ducke, 02 53 S, 59 58 W (fr), VicenUm el al. 

ments ± pubescent, glands present at the base of 734 (INPA, MO, SP), (fl), l^iccnlini et al. 798 (INPA, MO, 

the inner 3 stamens; pistil glabrous, ca. 1.5 mm SP), (fl), Virmtini et al. 1225 (INPA, MO, SP). PKHU. 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


5 cm 

1 mm 

1 cm 



1 mm 

Figure 5. Ocotea immersa van der Werff. — A. Habil. — B. Details of the u[)per (at top) and lower leaf surfaees. 
— C. Ix)tigitudina] section of a pistillate flower. — D. Pistil. — E. Fruit. (A— D from Vicentini 798; E from Vazquez 1012.) 
Drawn by Angelic Katz Nara. 

Deplo. Loreto: Prov. Requena, Arboretum Jenaro Her- Ocotea ligulata van der Werff, sp. nov. TYPE: 

rera, 4^50'S, 73M5'W, without date (fr), tree 5/43, sine 
coll., s.n, (MO), (buds), sine coll., s.n. (MO), (fl), tree 4/36, 
A. Castillo s.n. (MO), (fr), Grdndez & Aguilar 6041 (MO), 
(fr), Vasqiiez et al. 1012 (MO), (young fr), van der Werff et 
aL 9965 (MO), (young fr), van der Werff et al. 10041 (MO), 
(n & young fr), van der Werff et al. 10097 (MO). 

Brazil. Amazonas: Distr. Agropecuario, Reser- 
va 1501 (km 41) of the WWF/INPA MCS Pro- 
ject, 6 Dec. 1988 (fl), S. Mori et al. 20190 
(holotype, MO; isotypes, INPA, NY). Figure 6. 



Fi^ur*' 6. Ocotea li^ndata van der Werff. — A. Habit. — B. Inflorescences near tip of twig. — C. Flower. — D. Stamen 
of whorl 111 with large glands. — E. Cupule with fruit. (A-D from Mori 20190; E from Mori 20574.) Drawn by Alba L. 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


Ocoteae <ymbarum affinis sed floribiis dense i>idiesc-en- guemis (Meisner) Mez from Central America and 

tibus, cupula profunda, simplici-marginata receilit. 

0. cymbarum HBK from the lowlands of Venezuela, 

Trees, to 35 m. Twigs angular-ridged, the very Colombia, and Brazil. A few species are rarely col- 
tip sparsely appressed pubescent, but very soon be- ^^''^''^^ ^- fiagrantLssima Ducke from Amazonian 
coming glabrous, solid; terminal buds rather ^^^2^^' ^- ?"^'^«^ (Lamarck) Kostermans from east- 

sparsely appressed pubescent. Leaves 8—13 X 3 

ern Ecuador, 0. staminea (Grisebach) Mez from Ja- 

4.5 cm, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, alternate, stiffly "^^^c^' ^"^ ^^^ recently described 0. morae Gomez- 
chartaceous; apex acute or somewhat acuminate; ^aurito from Costa Rica. Vegetatively, 0. ligulata 
base acute to obtuse; leaves glabrous; midrib weak- ™«^t resembles 0. cymbarum and 0. quixos. The 
ly raised on upper surface, raised on lower surface; l^"^'" ^^^ species differ in having sparsely pubes- 
lateral veins and tertiary venation immersed on ^^"^ Howers with part of the outer surface of the 
both surfaces, tertiary venation forming a fine re- ^^P^^^ ^^"^^^ ^i^'^^*^ ^"^ i" t^^''" different cupules. 
ticulum, this and the lateral veins lighter in color ^^"'*^" cymbarum has a shallow, funnel-shaped cu- 
than the laminae; lateral veins 6 to 8 on each side, P"l^' ^^is becoming plate-like at maturity with a 
poorly visible; domatia lacking; petioles 1-L5 cm ^""^^«= '"^'"g^" (^he inner and outer margin have the 
long, darker than the twigs, canaliculate, glabrous. ^^^^^ length), while 0. quixos has a funnel-shaped 
Inflorescences to 5 cm long, paniculate-cymose, in ^"P"^^ ^^^h the outer margin up to 1 cm longer 
the axils of bracts near the tips of the branches, ^^^" ^^^ '""^^'^ margin. Twigs and leaves of 0. quix- 
moderately pubescent near the base, more densely "' ^^""^ ^ ^t>"«"g ^'"''ll "f cinnamon, which is lack- 
so toward the flowers, the hairs ascending. Flowers ^"g ^" ^- cymbarum and 0. ligulata. Ocotea cym- 
hermaphrodite, 7-9 mm diam., greenish yellow; te- ^"'"""^ frequently has hollow twigs (especially older 
pals ca. 3.5 mm long, elliptic-ovate, spreading to ^^^g^) ^"^ "^c"'"^ i" ^^o^ed forest, whereas 0. lig- 
reflexed at anthesis, the outside completely covered "^"'" ^^^ ^^^^^ t^^g^ a"'^ '''^ ""^X ^^""W" f™"^ terra 
by a gray-brown indument, the inside moderately ^™*^ f°''*^^t- ^^^'^'^ rhynchophylla (Meisner) Mez 
papillose but the very base pubescent; stamens 9, ^^^ ^ ^'"all sterile tip of the stamens and can be 
4-celled; the outer 6 ca. 2 mm long, tongue-shaped, confused with 0. ligulata, but differs in having gla- 
somewhat narrowed near the base but without a dis- ^'"O"^ stamens (papillose in 0. ligulata), a smaller 
tinct filament, the sterile tip ca. 0.5 mm long, pa- ^"P"^^ (^"^ ^ '^■^ c'" ^^- 2-5 X 2.5 cm), and 
piUose and with some hairs near the base, the cells spreading to half-erect (vs. reflexed) tepals. Ocotea 
introrse and arranged in 2 pairs; the inner 3 sta- %"^«<« '^ only known from the vicinity of Manaus. 

mens slender, ± columnar, ca. 2 mm long, the an- ^he two Mori collections were previously deter- 

thers ca. 0.8 mm long, papillose, the cells lateral "^i"*^^ ^^ ^"^^'^ rosaeodora Ducke and Ocotea aci- 

in 2 pairs, the filament covered by the large (1.2 /'M^" (Nees) Mez and may have been distributed 

mm long) glands; staminodia 3, stipitiform, ca. 0.6 under those names. 

mm long, densely pubescent; pistil ca. 2.5 mm p„,^,,..,., nr>\7Ti * n , . \ 

o' J f ^ f raratypes. t)l\AZ,lL. Aiiiuzoiias: Uislnto Agropecu- 

long, glabrous; receptacle deeply cup-shaped, gla- ario, Reserva 1501 (km 41) of the I'UBFF project, 2°24'S, 

brous inside. Fruits ellipsoid, ca. 2 X 1.5 cm, pur- 59°43'W (fr), Mori et al. 20574 (MO, NY), Fazenda Porto 

pie at maturity; cupule deeply cup-shaped, 2.5 X 
2.5 cm, with a single margin, enclosing half or more 
of the fruit. 

Alegre, Reserva 3402, tree 637 (fr). Dirk 133 (MO, NY). 

Phenology. Flowers: December. Fruits: July. 

Habitat. Terra firme forest on clay soil. 

The ligulate stamens with a sterile tip place Oco- 
tea ligulata in the subgenus Dendrodaphne (B 
ling) Mez, a small group of less than 10 known 

Ocotea minor Vicentini, sp. nov. TYPE: Brazil. 
Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Florestal Ducke, 

02°53'S, 59°58'W, 3 Apr. 1997 (fl), tree 1211- 

06, P. A. C. L. Assun^do et al. 485 (holotype, 
INPA; isotypes, MO, SP). Figure 7. 

Ad gregem Ocolcac cerrutac pcrtitieiis et Ocoteae pan- 

species. Additional characters ofthis subgenus, not ^'>™f. .^''^ni^: .««' inflorescentiis multifloris foHisque 

present in all species, are the position of the inflo- 
rescences in the axils of bracts, the presence of a 

domatiis praeditis recedit. 

Dioecious trees to 20 m. Branching presents con- 

cupule with a double margin, the papillose indu- tinuous growth. Twigs initially angular, soon becom- 

ment on the stamens and inner surface of the te- ing cylindrical, 1.5-2 mm diam. 5 cm below ter- 

pals, and the dark color of the petioles in dried minal bud, with extremely short appressed hairs, 

specimens, usually darker than the twigs. Three of indument light brown, moderate, becoming sparse 

the species belonging to this subgenus are relative- with age; terminal buds completely covered by lon- 

ly common, O. dendrodaphne Mez and 0. vera- get appressed hairs. Leaves alternate, evenly dis- 



1 mm 

1 mm 

1 mm 



1 cm 



1 mm 



1 mm 

A, Habit. — H. Details of llic upper (at lop) aiul lower leaf surfaees 


Fij!;ure 7. Orotra minor Viceiilini, — 
Slariiitiate flower. — I). Stamen of whorl I. — E. Stamen of whorl III (l<'fl, with glands removed). — F. Staminode of 
whorl IV. — C. Pistillate flower. — 11. Pistil. — T. Staminodes of whorls I and III. — J. Fniil. (A-F from hololype, 
Assurii^ao 485; (»-l from Loureiro el a!, s.n.; J from Assun^do 662.) Drawn hy Atij^elie Katz Nara. 

tributed along hraiirhes, 4-9 X 1.2-2.7 cm, firmly the lower surfaces, not waxy; midrib prominent on 

chartareoiis, usually obovate; the apex caudate both surfaces, 

clearly on the upper one; sec- 

(acumen 7-17 nun); the base narrowly attenuate ondary veins 5 to 7 pairs, all veins loop-t:onnected 

and flat beneath; the margins fiat; lamina not clear- at ca. 2 mm from margins, essentially straight but 

ly gland-dotted, glabrous or nearly so, usually dry- most basal ones evenly arching and more acute, 

ing dull grayish on the upper and light brown im slightly prominent on both surfaces; tertiary vena- 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


tion randomly reticulate, slightly raised beneath Ocotea minor shares with the 0. cernua group (sen- 

and almost inconspicuous above, the reticulation su Rohwer, 1986) filaments of the outer 6 stamens 

coarse; domatia consisting of small depressions, that are partly fused with the tepals. Although spe- 

these sometimes with a hairy margin; petiole 0.6— cies delimitation within the 0. cernua group is 

0.7 cm long, sulcate, same color as stem, with problematic (Rohwer, 1986), 0. minor most closely 

sparse appressed hairs. Inflorescences in the axils resembles 0, paucijiora (Nees) Mez of the species 

of normal leaves, 1-5 cm long, 3 orders of branch- in this group. Ocotea paucijiora differs from O. mi- 

ing; peduncle and lateral branches with patent nor in its few-flowered inflorescences, somewhat 

hairs, the indument dense but leaving surface vis- nodding flowers, and the absence of domatia. Oco- 

ible and becoming sparser toward flowers; bracts tea minor is known from the central and eastern 

and bracteoles caducous at anthesis. Flowers uni- Amazon basin in Brazil. 
sexual, ca. 2—3 mm diam.; pedicels as long as flow- 

ers, ca. 1-1.5 mm long, with sparse appressed 

Paratxpes. BRAZIL. Amazonas: Marians, l{t*serva 

Florestai Durke. 02°53'S, 50^58' W (fr). tree 821-06, As- 

hairs; tepals equal, cream, erect at anthesis, nar- ^^^^^^,^ ^^ ^/ ^^2 (INPa/mO, SP), (fl),' tree 821-06.' Ri- 

rowly ovate, ca. 1 mm long, glabrous on both sur- beiro el al. 1889 (IMV\, MO, SP), (fl), Rodrigucs & Os- 

faces. Staminate flowers with 9, 4-celled stamens; marino 6887 (INPA, NY), (st), Gentry & Nelson 69094 

the outer 6 ca. 0.7 mm long, filament ca. 0.2 mm ('^''^^^ ^1^)- Manaus-Iiacoalira road, km 145 (fl), Lmreiro 

el al s.n. (INPA 35H46) (INPA). Maranhfio: Sta. i.ui/a. 
Bum Jesus on BK 222, Kazenda Baluta, km 2 (fl), Taylor 

long, glabrous, distinctly narrower than anthers, 

and partially fused with tepals, anthers widely e/ a/."/?/ 78/ (M(;, M()i NY); Fa/rnda Agriprc- (Varig Air- 
ovate, glabrous, with introrse cells in two rows, the lines), 7 km W of Buriticiipu on BR222 (buds), Taylor el 
connectives flat, not extended beyond cells; inner ^'/- El 140 (MG. MO. N\). 
3 stamens ca. 0.7 mm long, filaments as long as 
and slightly narrower than anthers, with a few hairs Ocotea nigrescens Vicentini, sp. nov. TYPE: Bra- 

at the base, anthers rectangular, glabrous, lower 
cells introrse, upper ones latrorse or ± apical, then 
opening toward the connective, the connectives flat, 
not extended beyond c:ells, with two reniform 
glands at the base, these as long as filaments; stam- 
inodes of whorl IV absent, pistillode pubescent with 

a blackish but not well developed stigma; recep- 
tacle shallow, densely haiiy inside. Pistillate flow- 

s with 9 staminodes (those of whorl IV sometimes 

zil. Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Florestai 

Ducke, 02°53'S, 59°58'W, 2 Dec. 1964 (fl), W, 

Rodrigues & Osmarino 6767 (holotype, INPA; 
isotype, NY). Figure 8. 

Ocoteae bofo et O. nibrinends similis, sed foliis ^lahris, 
non ^landulo-puuclatis, te|)alis post aulhesin (leciduis re- 

Tree up to 30 m tall. Twigs angular, soon l>ecom- 

also present, stipitiform and hairy), these ca. 0.5 ing cylindrical, ca. 2 mm diam. 5 cm below ter- 

mm long, filaments glabrous, inner ones with two minal bud, with extremely short erect hairs (minute, 

glands at the base; pistil glabrous, ca. 1 mm long, the orientation not evident), the indument moderate 

style shorter and almost indistinct from ovary, these to sparse, minute, leaving surface visible and gla- 

half inside a pubescent receptacle, stigma distinct, brescent, the surface smooth and usually drying 

3-lobed, and papillose. Fruit ellipsoid, ca. 1 X 0.6 blackish; tenninal bud completely covered by ap- 

cm; the cupule shallowly cup-shaped, smooth, with pressed hairs. Leaves alternate, evenly distributed 
a single margin, ca. 5 mm high X 6 mm wide. 

along twigs, 7-16 X 2.5—6.5 cm, ca. 2 times longer 
than wide, rigid chartaceous, broadly elliptic to 
Phenology. Flowers: March and April. Fruits: ovate; the apex acuminate, ca. 1-1.6 cm long; the 


base obtuse, rounded to cuneate; the margin flat or 

Habitat Terra firme forest on sandy-clay soil. only at the base slightly recurved; lamina not clear- 
Ocotea minor is similar to Ocotea cinerea, and ly gland-dotted, glabrous or nearly so, the upper 
the two species can be separated in the following surface usually drying dull blackish with whitish 
way: O, minor has a pubescent pistillode, erect te- reticulation and veins; midrib above slighlly prom- 
pals at anthesis, small flowers (up to 3 mm diam.), inent, becoming flat toward the base, strongly prom- 

and the filaments of the outer 6 stamens partly inent beneath; secondary veins 4 to 7 pairs, pen- 
fused with the tepals; on the other hand, 0. cinerea ninerved, evenly arching, the basal pairs longer. 

has a glabrous pistillode, spreading tepals at an- diverging more acutely from midrib than rest, all 

thesis, larger flowers (4.5 mm diam.), and the fila- loop-connected in the distal part of lamina, the two 

ments of the outer 6 stamens free. Ocotea cinerea most basal pairs closer together than rest, above 

also often has slightly obovate leaves, which are a slightly raised and strongly prominent beneath; ter- 

little larger than the elliptic leaves of 0. minor. tiary venation reticulate and slightly raised be- 



1 mm 

1 cm 

1 mm 


1 mm 




1 mm 

Figure 8. Uiotea nlgresceris Vicenlini. — A. Ilabil. — R. Details of the npper (at top) anri lower leaf surfaces. — C. 
Staminate (lowers. — D. Stamen of wliorl I. — E, Stamen of whorl III. — G. I'islil. — H. Slaminode of a pistillate flower. 
— T. Fruit. (A, B, and C, H from Assun^ao 418; C-F from Aluiso 237: 1 from Assuni^ao 52(1) Drawn hy Angelic Kat7 


neath, but more coiit^plcuous above; doinatia con- but leaving surface visible; bracts and bracteoles 
sisting of tufts of whitish hairs, present in the axils caducous at anthcsis. Flowers unisexual, ca. 2-3 
of most secondary veins, rarely absent; petiole 0.6- mm diam.; pedicels as long as or shorter than flow- 
1 cm long, deeply canaliculate to infolded, with the ers, ca. 1-1.5 mm long, with sparse minute erect 

minute indument as twigs, sparser and soon hairs; tepals equal, white, erect at anthesis, ca. 1.2 

mm long, glabrous or nearly so on both surfaces. 

Inflorescences 1.5-7 cm long, borne 
the axils of normal leaves, 2 to 3 orders of branch- Staminate flowers with 9, 4-celled stamens; the out- 

ing; peduncles and branches with minute erect (or er 6 ca. 0.8 mm long, filament ca. 0.2 mm long, 

crisped) whitish to yellowish hairs, indument d 

glabrous, narrower and shorter than anthers, these 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


glabrous and with introrse cells in two rows, the 
connective not extended, flat or shortly apiculate; 
the inner 3 stamens ca. 0.8 mm long, filaments gla- 
brous, narrower and shorter (ca. 1/2) than anthers, 
these rectangular, upper cells latrorse, lower ones 
extrorse-latrorse, connectives not extended, flat or 
emarginate, glands reniform as high as filaments; 
staminodes of whorl IV not seen; pistillode gla- 
brous, without a stigma or only with a discolored 
style apex (rarely enlarged), shorter than inner sta- 
mens and in a shallow receptacle, which is glabrous ^!I?h]!l^**i..^T.'^ ^'*' ^'''''™'' ^^'^' ^''''' * ^''"^''' 

, . . , r.- -n n • , ^ . 219S (MG, MO, N\ . Para: Sanlarem, km 70 da estrada 

or nearly so inside, ristillate rlowers with V stami- i n n ^ \ \ r ^ v /a\ ci p c or^^ i\fir- 

^ do raJhao, ramal do Caetetu (fi), Suva & Sauza 2546 (MG, 

nodes, these ca. 0.5 mm long, filaments glabrous, MO, NY); km 1131, Cuiaba-Santarem Highway, Tgarape 

narrower and shorter than anthers, glands of inner Natal (fl), Prance et aL P2544S (MG, MO, NY); km 1 115, 

three stamens larger than filaments; pistil glabrous, Cuiaba-Santarem Highway, 6°50'S, 55"30'W (fr), Amaral 

^ p/ aL 792 (MO). Rondonia: Porto Velho, estrada Bel- 

monte (fl), Mota & Coelho 92 (INPA); Porto Velho. hwy. 
BR 364, 20 km ENE of junction with hwy. BR 325, 

(INPA, MO, SP); Distrito Agropecuario, Reserva 1501 (km 
41) of the WWF/INPA MCS Project, 02°24'S, 59^^43'%^ 
(fl), Boom et aL 8698 (MO, NY), (buds), Boonj et aL 8528 
(INPA, MO, NY), (fl), Mori et aL 20203 (INPA, MO, NY); 
Distrito Agropecuario, Fazenda Porto Alegre, Reserva 

3304 of die WWE/INPA MCS Project, 02"22'S, 59^57'W 

(young fr), tree 159, Mars et aL s.n. (MO, NY), Reserva 
1302 of the INPA/W WF MCS Project (buds), tree 2430, 
sine colL s,n., INPA 191109 (INPA); Novo Airao, Area 
Tndigena Waimiri-Atroari, Aldeia Mare, Or45'S, 6ri5'W 
(young fr), tree 1699, Miller et aL 666 (INPA, MO); Rio 
Negro, 120 km above Barcelos (fl), Madison et aL 6173 

ca. 1.5 mm long, style less tban 1/2 the length of 
ovary, the ovary almost entirely enclosed in the re- 
ceptacle, which is glabrous inside, stigma large, 9°43'S, 65°10'W (st), Nee 34940 (MO, NY). 
discoid, at anthesis included in the flower. Fruits 

ovoid, ca. 10 X 5 mm; the cupule deeply cup- Ocotea obUqua Vicentini, sp. nov. TYPE: Brazil. 

shaped, warty (not lenticellate), with a single mar- 
gin, ca. 5 mm high X 8 mm wide. 

Vernacular. Brazil: "Louro-preto." 
Phenology. Flowers: September, October, No- 
vember, and December. Fruits: April and June. 
Habitat. Terra firme forest on clay soil. 

Amazonas: Manaus, Manaus-Itacoatiara road, 
km 135, 5 Dec. 1966 (fl), W. Rodrigues & Os- 
marino 8284 (holotype, INPA; isotypes, MO, 
NY). Figure 9. 

A ceteris speciebus Amazoniae ramiilis dense ferrugi- 
neo-puberulis, foliis majoribus, subtus secus nerviis dense 

Ocotea nigrescens is easy to recognize by its puberulis et cupula parva discifontie recedit. 

leaves that are blackish when dry (hence the epi- 
thet) and have conspicuous whitish reticulation and 
veins on the upper surface, and by the secondary 
veins acutely arching, strongly prominent and dis- 
tinctly loop-connected beneath, with the basal pairs 

Tree to 30 m. Branching presents sylleptic 
growth, i.e., initial growth without producing leaves, 
which are evenly distributed on upper half of flush- 
es. Twigs cylindrical and strongly ridged, ca. 3—4 

1 ^ »u *u *u * ] 11 -^u I rn"^ diam. 5 cm below terminal bud, the apices and 

closer together than the rest, and usually with dom- • i i i i i i . 

atia on their axils. Ocotea bofo HBK and Ocotea 
rubrinervis Mez, the latter probably a synonym of 
the former (H. van der Werff, pers. comm.), have 
very similar leaves, which also present domatia. 

terminal buds completely covered by short crisped 
ferrugineous hairs, the indument becoming light 
brown and diminishing with age. Leaves alternate, 
9—18 X 4—9 cm, coriaceous, broadly elliptic; the 

XT 1 ^1 11 * 1 ^ ^u X 1 apex acuminate (acumen ca. 1.5 cm lone); the base 

However, both are shrubs or treelets that have "^ , . , ^ , . ^ , . , , 

leaves clearly gland-dotted on the upper surface, 

rounded to obtuse; the margins flat; lamina glabrous 

.11^ * u • xu 1 1 xi above, usually drying gray with reddish veins, fine- 

with short erect hairs on the lower one, and the . , , , , i , ^ , . \ ,. , 

fruits present a shallow cupule and persistent te- 

ly gland-dotted, on the lower surface drying reddish 

1 WT\.'A i-i . • ^ J .1 brown, with short erect and crisped hairs, the in- 

pals. While Ucotea nigrescens occurs toward the i i . r - -i i i 

east of Manaus, apparently limited on the west by 
the Rio Negro and Rio Madeira, 0, bofo (including 

dument dense but leaving surface visible, decreas- 
ing with age, but persisting on the veins (indument 

n L • ■ \ • I 1 r xu X \ very hard to see, even with a microscope); midrib 

(J. rubrinervis) is known only Irom the western Am- ^ . in i-ii-i 

azon (Peru, Colombia, Ecuador), Venezuela (Ori- 
noco basin), and Panama. Ocotea nigrescens is 

strongly prominent beneath, flat or slightly raised 
above; secondary veins 7 to 8 pairs, strongly prom- 

I r ^ T> ^ ^n . r- r>i-- iuent beneath, almost flat above, equally archine, 

known trom eastern rara, Mato Grosso, nondonia, • n r i • i i 

essentially free, but most apical ones loop-con- 
nected; tertiary venation distinctly oblique (scalar- 
iform), slightly raised on the lower surface; domatia 
absent; petiole 1.5—2.5 cm long, flat above, with 

7s^n!^oZ allTs alvPA,'MO."sP),' (fi)', Tree ITSl-oS ^^"'^ indument as twigs, glabrescent with age. In- 
Assungao et al. 520 (INPA, MO, SP). ( Prance et al. florescences in the axils of normal leaves, 7-14 cm 
2622 (A306) (INPA), (young fr), Vicentini et al. 823 long, 4 orders of branching; peduncle and lateral 

and Amazonas states in Brazil. 

Paratypes. BRAZIL. Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva 
Florestal Ducke, 02°53'S. 59°58'W (fl), Aluisio 237 
(INPA), (fl). Ahmio 240 (INPA, MO), (fl), tree 1731-06, 



1 cm 


1 mm 




Figure 0. Ototea obliqua VI(;eiilini. — 

Slamltiair flower. — D. Stamen of whorl L 

1 mm 

A. Hahit. — R. Details of ihc upper (at lop) and lower leaf surfaces. — C, 

¥j. Stamen of whorl III, hiteral view. — F. Slaniinode of whorl IV, lateral 

view. — G, Fruit. (A-F from Rodrigiies 8984; G from Rodrlgucs 7220.) Drawn by Angelic Katz Nara. 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


branches covered by a dense indument of short and 
crisped ferrugineous liairs; bracts and })racteoles 
caducous at anthesis. Flowers unisexual, 1.5-2 nun 
diam.; pedicels shorter than flowers, < 1 nun long. 

Ocotrac amazouicac similis, st-d loliis (loiiialiis prae- 
ditis, receplaculo flonim masculinonini intus pubescente 

Trees to 35 m tall and up to 40 cm DBH. 

pubescent, indument sparser than on inflorescence Branching presents sylleptic growth, i.e., branch- 

branches; tepals equal, white, erect at anthesis, ca. 

lets initially grow without producing leaves, which 

1 nun long, glabrous or nearly so on both surfaces. are alternate and evenly distributed on the distal 
Staminate flowers with 9, 4-celled stamens; the out- part of flushes. Twigs initially angular soon becom- 
er6ca. 1.5 mm long, hlaments sparsely pubescent, ing cylindrical, 2.5-4 mm diam. 5 cm below the 

longer and distinctly narrower than anthers, these terminal bud 

1 by a ferrugineous indument 

rectangular, glabrous, upper cells introrse and of erect and crisped hairs, these becoming grayish 
smaller than the lower ones, which are introrse- ^ith age, and persisting so for at least two flushes; 
latrorse; the inner 3 stamens ca. 1.5 mm long, fil- terminal buds covered by the same indument. 
aments glabrous or nearly so, longer and distinctly Leaves 4.8-13.7 X 2.3-5.1 cm, ca. 2-3 times Ion- 
narrower than anthers, lower cells extrorse-latrorse g^^ than wide, coriaceous, elliptic; the apex acu- 
and upper ones mtrorse-latrorse, glands reniform ^j^^^^ ^o attenuate (acumen 0.7-2.1 cm long); the 
and shorter than filaments; stammodes of whorl IV, j^^^^ ^^.^^^ ^^ ^^y^^^^. ^^e margin slightly recurved; 

ca. 0.5 mm loni;;, stipitiform and pubesce^nt or ab- i • _f j • • i. * i i 

. .^^ ^ . y . V , lamma upper surface drymg grayish, not clearly 

sent; pistnlode without a stierma, elabrous or nearly i i j *» i -a u ^ * i • 

^ 1 1 II 111 1 . gtand-dotled, with short erect hairs on veins, at 

so; receptacle shallow and densely pubescent in- 
side. Pistillate flowers unknown. Fruits elli{>soid, 
ca. 3X2 cm; cupule plate-like, ca. 1.3 cm wide 
X 2 mm high; the pedicels swollen, 2-3 cm long. 



least on midrib, lower surface brownish, with short 
erect or patent hairs, dense but leaving surface vis- 
ible, indument decreasing with age, and eventually 
leaving upper surface glabrous, but at least persis- 
tent on the veins beneath; midrib raised on both 
lenology. Flowers: October and December. g^rf^^es; secondary veins 4 to 7 pairs, penninerved. 






Faiits: October and May. 

Habitat. Terra firme forest on clay soil. 

evenly arching, the most basal pair longer and more 
acutely diverging from midrib than most apical. 

Ocotea obliqua is easy to recoenize vegetativelv a i » j * »u j- » i _* r i 

^ -^ 111 / \n\x^ loop-connected at the distal part ol leaves, 

by its densely puberulous twigs, and the large el- 
liptical leaves with distinct oblique tertiary vena- 
tion (hence the epithet), that usually dry reddish, 
with short erect hairs below. The dense, reddish 
brown indument on the twigs is reminiscent of such 
species as 0. amazonica (Meisner) Mez. O. rhodo- 

slightly raised above, prominent beneath; tertiary 
venation scalariform, i.e., tertiaries parallel and 

perpendicular to midrib, flat above, slightly raised 
beneath; domatia consisting of wliitish erect hairs, 
present in the axils of most secondary veins; peti- 

? /; 1 io u ^ »i -1 ol^s 0.5-1.2 cm lone;, flat above or with lateral ridi^- 

pnytla, and U, percurrerus^ but these species have i- i ■ i 

_ n 1 J ^L ■ 1 * lU • * * • *^*^ but not canaliculate, with same pubescence as 

smaller leaves and the indument on their twigs is ^ 

longer. The hairs on the twigs of 0. obliqua are so ^"^'^^^ persisting dense on the petiole of old leaves, 

short that one can scarcely see their orientation, in Inflorescences 4-7.2 cm long, borne in the axils of 

contrast to the other species where the hairs are "^^"'^^ ^^^^^^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^^ of branching; peduncle 

erect. Relationships of O. obliqua are not known to ^"^ ^^^^^^^ branches completely covered by short 

me. The small, plate-like cupules are also found in ^^^ ferrugineous erect and crisped hairs, indument 

the 0. minarum group, but species of that group >^ecoming shorter and sparser toward the flowers; 

have different flowers and slender, long terminal tracts and bracteoles caducous at anthesis. Flowers 

buds, which are lacking in (I obliqua. For the lime unisexual, 2.5-3 mm diam.; pedicels shorter than 

being the new species has to be considered an iso- flowers, ca. 1 mm long, minutely puberulous; tepals 

lated species without obvious close relatives. Geo- equal, cream, spreading at anthesis, ca. 1.5 cm 

long, outside minutely puberulous, inside glabrous 

tea obliqua is known only from the type locality. 

Paralypes. BRAZIL. Aniazonas: Estrada Matuiiis- 
llacoatiara, km 131 (fl). Rodngues 8984 (IM'A, MO). 
(buds). Rodrigues 9867 (MO), km 135 (fr). Rodrigues 7220 
(INPA), (fr), Osmarino s.n,. /A7M 27370 (LNPA). 

or nearly so. Staminate flowers with 9, 4-celled sta- 
mens; outer 6 ca. 0.8 mm long, filaments glabrous, 
and narrower and shorter than anthers (ca. half 
their length), anthers ca. 0.5 mm long, cells in two 

Ocotea percurrens Vicentini, sp. nov. TYPE: rows, upper pair introrse, lower one latrorse-in- 
Brazil. Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Florestal trorse, connectives not extended beyond them, flat 

Ducke, 2°53'S, r)9°58'W, 12 Jan. 1965 (fl), W. to emarginate; 

3 stamens ca. 0.5 mm long. 

Rodrigues & Osmarino 6835 (holotype, INPA). filaments glabrous or hairy inside, narrower and 

Figure 10. 

shorter than anthers, upper anther cells latrorse- 





1 mm 

5 mm 




1 mm 

1 mm 


1 mm 


1 mm 

10. Ocotea percurrens Vicentini. — A. Hal>it. — H. Dclails of the upper (al top) and lower leaf surfaces. — C. 

Detail of biancli and petiole induinent. — 
Stamen of wliorl III. — G. Pistillate flower. 

D. Staminate flower. — K. Stamens of whorl 1 (lateral and inner views). — F. 
H. Pistil. — I. Fmit. (A-F' from Prance et al. 3846 except lower surface 

on B, from Prance et al. 3784; G, H from Rodrigues & Rosmarino 6826; I from Rodrigues & iMureiro 709 L) Drawn 
by Angelic Katz Nara. 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


apical, lower pair exlrorse-latrorse, connectives not and with patent hairs, hut I did not find any other 
extended, usually emarginate, glands renifonn and differences that would lead me to treat it as a dil- 
sessile, as long as filaments; staminodes of whorl ferent species. 
IV stipitiform, pubescent or glabrous; pistillode 
with a stigma or sometimes with only a discolored 
and not enlarged apex, glabrous or nearly so, ovary 
almost entirely enclosed by the receptaele, which 
is pubescent inside. Pistillate flowers with 12 (rare- 
ly 9) staminodes, the outer 9 ca. 0.3 mm long, gla- 
brous, those of whorl III with globose glands at the 59043 ^ ^' "(fr)" f^iM, 2) (MO. ^Y)! (ymn/- fr|. Jrpsch da 
base, and those of whorl IV stipitiform and pubes- Cimha et ah 237 (MO, NY), (bufls). Paihvco et al. 98 
cent; pistil glabrous or nearly so, almost entirely (IM'A, MO, NY), (H). Pacheco et al. 113 (MO, NY); Fa- 
enclosed by the receptacle, this glabrous inside, the ^^'^^^'^ I*^>'l*> -^^^'^^^^ ^^^^^""^^ '^^^"^ fj]'^ ';'*'*'''' P^^J^^^'^^ 

J. . , ^ .f „- • J AO 1 ^ ^ nr HQ 2"22'N, ;V;°57'% vourig fr). tree 13.T1, Mars el al, s.n. 

Stigma discoid. Fruit elhpsoid, 0.9-1.5 X O.0-O.8 , ^j^p^ ^^^y 

Paral^pes. BRAZIL. Amapa: Hl{ 156, 53 km WINVX' 
of Calvoene, 2°33'N, 5nf)'\X^ (fl), Mori et al 17328 (MO, 

MO, NV); HK 156, km 109 SSE of Oiapnque, 3"0'\, 
5r3()'\V (fr). (MO. MO. \Y); BR 156, 50 km SSE of 
Oia]M.(iiu', 3°21'N, 5]'4rW (H). Rabelo et al. 2852 (M(;. 
MO, NY). Aniazoiias: Dislrito AgroiK-cuario tia Suframa, 
Reserva 1501 ('^km ^1") of the PDBFF project. 2°24'N, 

cm; cupule cup-shaped, smooth outside, with single 

Reserva 3402 of tlir PDBFF project (fr). tree 677.2. Soth- 

margin, ca. 4 mm high X 6 mm wide, pedicel ca. ers et al. s.u. (L\P\, MO): luw. Manaus-liaeuatiara. km 


6 mm long. 

Vernacular. Surinam: "witte pisi. 

Phenology. Flowers: December and January. 
Fruits: September, November, and December. 

Habitat. Terra firme forest on clay or sandy- 
clay soils. 

Ocotea percurrens is a conspicuous species, eas- 
ly recognized by its ferrugineous pubescent twigs 


201 (buds). Prance et al. 3784 (MO, \\)\ Manaus, \{e- 
serva Florestal Diieke, 02"5;VS, 59^5H'\\ (st). Gentry & 
Nelson 69204 (INPA, MO), (dl. Prame et ai 3846 (INPA, 

MO, NY), (buds), Rodri^ues & Osmarino 6813 (INPA, 
NY), (huds), Rodrlgues ^K: Osmarino 6820 (NY), (fl), Ro- 
drigiies & Osmarino 6826 (NY), (hiuls). In'.- 862-06. 17- 

centini et al. 768 (IM'A, MO, SP); Mim. de Novo Airao. 
Area Indfgena ^aitJilri-Atroari. Aldeia Mare, 1°45'S, 
6ri5'W (fr). Miller ef al. 742 (INPA. MO). Bahia: Re- 
serva Florestal de Porto Sej^uro da C:\ RD/HA (fl), Folli 
882 (MO). Para: llailiiha, Jaeareaean<;a. I^aniue Naeional 
do Tapajos (buds). Silva & Rosdrio 3727 (MG, MO). 
FRENCH GUIANA. Dorliii. ;r45'N. 5;VM'rW (youn^ fr). 

and petiole, elliptical acuminate leaves witb erect 
hairs beneath and show7 tufts of hairs in the axils 

of most secondary veins (4 to 7 pairs only, acutely Sabailrr & Bm>baum 1450 (CAY. MO); H^u^ e Appi^ 

, . , / X 1 1 1 r . ouague, Riv. Aralaye, haiits Pararc (st). Harrier M)i9 

arching toward the apex), and the scalanlorm ter- ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^-^^ -^^^^ ^^^j, ^^^y f^^^^-^,^ -j-^ ,^0), 70 

liary venation, perpendicular to the midrib. Three j^^i SW Regina (st), l'/7//Vr.s * Fe^//7/e/ 2057 (MO). SU- 

other Amazonian species have similar densely RINAM. Jodensavatmr-Mapane kreek area, (fl), Scliulz- 

brown or ferrugineous pubescent twigs: 0. amazon- f^« ^'^^^^j^'?" .^)?:J"):/:-!!^'^7/!' T^^'inl'^l^-^'^'^'V"'; 
ica, 0. matogros.sensis Vattimo, and 0. rhodophylla. 

her- (st), Kanhai-LHH 13252 (MO. I), (fl), Vreden-lJili 
13707 (MO, U). (fl). tree 1284. Bosehwezen iBWf 6766 
Ocotea matogrossensis is the only species in this ^^Qy Brokopondo Fake. 20 km from Brown^vveg (st), ran 

group with an appressed indument on twigs and Donselaar 1880 (MO); Coesewijne (st), Pmas-LBB 9529 
leaves; the other species have an erect or crisped (MO); Fallawatra (fr), Jimcnez-Saa 1617 (MO, U), (dis- 

. 1 . r\ . • .u 1 • • eased fruit). Jimenez-Saa 1695 (MO); Mapatie Cr. Area 

indument. Ocotea percurrens is the only species in , v .. , , rnon^^ ^\^f\. c •• n / .\ L i j a- /\u^ 

^ 111-1 (^0- Schulz-LBB 9332 (MO): Sectie O (st). Stahe! 6/ (MO, 

this group with domatia and can thus be readily jj^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^.^^^ -74 I 1„.,1, ,,^ 290r> (MO, U). (fl), 

distinguished from the others. Additional differenc- tree 574, U herb. no. 230*^ (MO, L ). 

es between these species are presented in Table 1. 

Kostermans (1936) used the name 0. petalanthera Qeolea rhodophylla Vicentini, sp. nov. TYPE: 

(Meisner) Mez for specimens of 0. percurrens from 
Surinam. However, the type of 0. petalanthera has 
sparsely to moderately pubescent twigs, with the 
surface largely or partially visible. The hairs are 
appressed and rather pale, and these pubescence 
characters clearly separate 0, petalanthera from the 
group of 0. amazonica, 0. percurrens, and O. rho- 
dophylla. Ocotea percurrens is distributed in the 
northeastern part of the Amazon Basin, not known 

Brazil. Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Florestal 

Ducke, 2°53'S, 59"58'W, 23 Jan. 1995 (fl), .4, 

Vicentini et al 888 (holotype, INPA; isotypes, 
MO, SP). Figure 11. 

Ovoteae amazonieae similis, sed reeeptaculo intus pu- 
bescente. foliis elliplieis subtus ceraccis. pistilludio ^lip- 

itifoniu' sine stigmale diflerl. 

Trees to 20 111. Branching presents continuous 

to the west of Manaus and to the south of the Am- growth, the leaves alternate and evenly distril)Uted 

azon River, occurring in Surinam and presenting a along twigs. Twigs initially angular soon becoming 

disjunct distribution in the Atlantic Forest in Ba- cylindrical, 3^ mm diam. 5 cm I)elow terminal 

hia. The only known collection from this area, Folli bud, covered by ferrugineous indument of erect and 

882, presents smaller leaves, which are waxy below crisped hairs, these becoming grayish with age, and 































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Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 
























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persisting so for at least two lluslies; terminal buds 
densely erect pubescent. Leaves S.8— 16 X 2.8-7.4 
cm, ca. 1.7—3 times longer than wide, coriaceous, 
elliptic to ovate; the apex acuminate; the base ob- 
tuse or oblique; the margins flat or at the base re- 
curved; lamina upper surface not gland-dotted, gla- 
brous, midrib sometimes pubescent at the base, 
lower surface reddish, waxy, with erect and crisjjed 
hairs, the indument dense, but leaving surface vis- 
ible and decreasing with age; midrib above prom- 

inent in an impression 







strongly prominent beneath; secondar)^ veins S to 7 
pairs, penninerved, veins essentially free, but most 
apical loop-connected, evenly arching, above flat, 
below prominent; lertiar)^ venation reticulate, but 
with some well developed obli(}ue tertiary vt*ins, 
these not forming a uniform pattern, flat al)ov(% 
slightly prominent beneath; reticulation fine and 
usually more conspicuous on the upper surface; ve- 
nation frequently with dark dots (resinous) on the 
lower surface; domatia absent; petioles 0.8—1.5 cm 
long, flat above, pubescent as twigs, indument d(^- 
creasing with age, but rarely surfaces becoming 
completely glabrous. Infloresc-ences 1.5—5.8 cm 
long, borne in the axils of normal leaves, 1 to 2 
orders of bran<liing; peduncle and lateral branches 
covered by erect and crisped hairs, indument be- 
coming sparser toward the flowers. Flowers unisex- 
ual, ca. 3 mm diam., pedicels shorter than flowt^rs, 
0.6-1.2 mm long, with short ascending hairs; tepals 
equal, white, spreading at anthi^sis, ca. 1.5 mm 
long, outside glabrous or nearly so. Staminate flow- 
ers with 9, 4-celled stamens; the outer 6 ca. 0.7 
nun long, filament ca. 0.3 mm long, narrower than 
and as long as anthers, these with introrse cells in 
two rows, connective flat, not extended b«'yotid 
cells; inner 3 stamens ca. 0.7 nun long, filaments 
narrower than and as long as anthers, introrstdy 
pubescent, upper cells introrse-latrorse, lower otu's 
latrorse to extrorse-latrorse, glands renifonn and as 
high as filaments; staminodes of whorl IV stipiti- 
lorm and pubescent; pistillode absent or reduced 
without stigma and pubescent; receptacle pubes- 
cent inside. Pistillate flowers with 12 staminodes, 
outer 9 ca. 0.5 mm long, glabrous, those of whorl 
III with small renifonn glands at the base; stami- 
nodes of whorl IV stipitiform and {)ubescent; pistil 
glabrous, ovary positioned almost hall inside the 
receptacle, which is pubescent inside, stigma dis- 
coid. Fruit globose, ca. 1 cm diam., cupule plate- 
like, with single margin, ca. 1-2 mm high X 4-5 

mm wi 


Vernacular, Venezuela: "laurel bianco," "alu- 






1 mm 

1 mm 


1 mm 

Pigiire 11. Ocutca rhoduphylla Vicenlini. —A. Habit. — B. Details of tlie upprr (at top) ari.l lower leaf surfaces. 
— C. Slaminate flower. — U. Stamen of whorl 1. — E. Stamen of whorl ITT (outer and lateral views). — F. Pistillate flower 
G. Pistil. — H. Frnit. (A, 15 from Viccntini ct al. 889; C-E from Iiololype. Vurntini el al. R88; F, G from Vicentini e't 
(tl. 891; II from Rudngitcs S: Imireiro 5756.) Drawn bj Angelic Katz Nara. 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


Phenology. Flowers: January, February, May, ^^ ^^^fia de Nanay. 3''52'S, 73°3()'W (fl). Gentry et al. 
July, and September. Fruits: February, April, and ffl^^ ^^llHl ^1;"*^ ^^'^ ^^^"^>- <")^ J^"^' ^^'' ^'''fff «'• 


10189 (MO); Rcqueria, Sapuena. J. Herrera, 4"50'S, 
73"45'W (fl), Vdsqurz 10439 (MO), liio Ucayali, arbore- 
tum (fr). Gentry et <iL 21168 (MO). \ KNKZUELA. Ania- 

HabitaL Campinarana forest on white-sand soil. 

Collections of Ocotea rhodophylla have been zona;^: San Carlos de Rio Negro, 3°56'N, 67''03'^X' (fl, 
identified as 0, amazomca or 0. rubrinenis Mez, y«""^ •''')• ^^'''^ ^ Maquirino 7360 (MO), (fl), Clark 7282 
mainly because these three, possibly closely related 
species, present erect or crisped hairs on the lower 
leaf surface. However, it clearly differs from the 
types of both species: Ocotea amazonicn is a small 
tree with usually obovate leaves, flowers with re- ^' 

(MO); Casiquiare, 12 km SE of Saii Kernando de Alabapo, 
3"5(yS, 67"47'W (fl), Aymard et al 6420 (MO, POIt'O. 

Bolivar: Ijasin of ri(» Caura. eano Maskaiii (fr), Slergios 
& Delgado 12814 (MO, PORT); Serrania dc Maigualida, 
6°9'S, 65°54'W (fr), Slergios & Delgado 13805 (MO, 

flexed tepals at anthesis, the pistillode glabrous and 
usually with a well-developed stigma, the recepta- 
cle glabrous in both sexes, lacking staminodes of 
whorl IV, while 0. rhodophylla is a canopy tree, 
with elliptical leaves, these waxy below, flowers 
with spreading tepals at anthesis, the pistillode is 
absent or reduced without a stigma and pubescent, 
the receptacle pubescent in both pistillate and .>ta- 
minate flowers, these bearing staminodes of whorl 

Ocotea scabrella van der Werff, sp. nov. TYPE: 
Brazil. Para: Municipio de Almerim, Rio Jari, 
:^rva florestal da SEMA, 12 Oct. 1987 (fl), 
A. S. Tavares 194 (holotype, MO). Figure 12. 

Ocoleae bofo affinis, sed indumeiilo hrevissimo ramii- 
lorum, lepalis per aiithesin pateiitibus et domatiis absen- 
tibus differt. 

Small tree or shrub, to 10 m. Twigs terete, solid, 

I\. The fruits of these two species are very similar with a (rather) dense indumcnt of short (up to 0.1 
(globose, ca. 1 cm diam. on a shallow cupule), sug- mm long), erect, brown or whitish hairs; terminal 
gesting that these are closely related taxa. Ocotea buds densely and minutely whitish pubescent. 
rhodophylla also resembles 0. rubrinervLs; the latter Leaves 11-24 X 4.5-11 cm, chartaceous, narrowly 
species has a sparse, erect indument on the lower to broadly elliptic, alternate; the base acute to rare- 
leaf surface, domatia in the fonn of axillary tufts of ly obtuse; the apex acute or acuminate, the acumen 
hairs, a clearly gland-dotted upper leaf surfcice, to 2 cm long; the upper surface glabrous or with 
persistent tepals on the cupule, and a sparser in- some minute, erect hairs along the midvein and 
dument consisting of ascending, pale hairs on the lateral veins; the lower surface sparsely to moder- 
twigs with the surface always partially visible. Oco- ately puberulous with minute, erect, whitish hairs, 
tea rubrinervis does not have a waxy lower leaf sur- these denser along the major veins; the upper sur- 
face. Ocotea rhodophylla is also similar to 0. ma- face with the midrib and lateral veins slightly im- 

is not found east of the Manaus area 

togrossensis, both presenting a waxy lower leaf pressed or immersed, and the tertiary venation 

surface, but the indument on the latter is distinctly somewhat raised; the lower surface with midrib and 

appressed and the leaves are obovate with an at- lateral veins (prominently) raised and the tertiary 

tenuate and decurrent base. Ocotea rhodophylla is venation (weakly) raised; domatia lacking; petioles 

distributed in the western portion of the Amazon 0.7-1.3 cm long, with the same indument as the 

Basin in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil; it twigs, flat on the upper side. Inflorescences in the 

axils of leaves, S— 12 cm long, paniculate-cymose, 

moderately puberulous with minute, erect, whitish 

Paratypcs, BRAZIL. Aniazonas: Manaus, R(^ser\a hairs; the flowers almost sessile and arranged in 

Florestal Dueke,2T.3'S, 59^58'W(fr),/?or/ng//^.sct/^H/r- j^^^^ glomerules. Flowers white, unisexual, 3^ 

eiro:^756{^\),{^).Viceutimetal.889[\\\\\,\\{).<^?). j- *u . l * .u • r / wi 

/HN I" r • , 1 om /ivTi\ wri co\ ic\\ i ■ .■ • . ^^"^ diam.; the tepals at anthesis spreading (pistil- 

(II), Xicentini el al, 891 (IM A, MO. hF), (tl). iicentini W ' r r g vr 

al. 892 (INPA, MO, SP); Mun, de Maues, basin of Rio l^te flowers) to reflexed (staminate flowers). Stami- 

Maues, Rio Urupadi, 3''t3'S, 57''16'W (fl), Z(/n/f(/j/e/ a/. nate flowers with tepals ca. 2 mm long, sparsely 

3078 (INPA, MO, NY). Roraiina: Esta^ao Eeolo^iea I Ilia 

de Maraca, 3°19'N, GTSS'W (fl). MUliken et al. 624 (MO). 
COLOMBIA. AiiiazoiiaH: Rio Caqueta, Araraeiiara (fl). 
Vestrr261 (MO). PERU. Madre de Dios: Rio D'Orbipiy 

pubescent on both surfaces; fertile stamens 9, all 
4-celled; the outer 6 with the cells introrse, or the 
lower pair lateral, glabrous, the filaments slender, 

ru'arjunctiori with Rio l.aTon-e,12^55'S,69°2()'W (buds), ^^- 1 ™n long, the anthers ca. 0.6 mm long; the 

Gentry & Jaramillo 5780 1 (MO); Tamhopata, 12''49'S, inner 3 the same size, but with 2 large glands at 

6<n<S'\^ (fr), tree 3002, Q^ntry et al. 45914 (MO), (fr), the base of the filaments; staminodes not seen; pis- 
tree 3093, Gentry et al. 46011 (MO). LoreU>: Ma^^^^^^^^ ^^j^^j^ j^j^^^^^^^ stipitiform, not 
Ihstrilo rernando Lores, v.aseno beraliii, 4 Oo ^. *Z bo \\ 
(fr), Grdndez et al. 2543 (MO), hiiiitos, Rio Nanay, Puerto 

surpassing an 


largely hidden by the glands, without a stigma or 

Almendras, 3°48'S, 73°25'W (fl), Vdsquez & jaramillo pistiUode about twice as long as the glands and 
I078I (MO), Rio Nanay halfway between Iquiios and San- with a small stigma; receptacle shallow, pubescent 


No von 

1 mm 


1 mm 

Kigun- 12. 

Stainitialt' flowt'r. 

Ocotra srabrella van tier Werff. — A. Hahit. - — B. DtMails nf llie iipp*T (at lop) and lower snrfa<-(*s. 

D. Slainrn of whorl I aiul II. — E. Stamen of whorl 111. — F. Pistillate flower. — G. Pistil. 


Fniit. (A, B from Rodrigiu's 559; C-K from Assuti{(lo 574; F, (i from Vircniini 606: M from Sothcr.s 675.) Drawn I)\ 

Angelic Kalz \ara. 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


inside. Pistillate flowers with tepals as in staminate *^>'^ Jamari, 8°47'S, 6:^25' W (fl), Thomas et ai 5185 (MO, 

NY). FRENCH GUIANA. Gobaya Soula: Rassin du Ma- 
roni, 3°37'N, 53°58'W (fr), de Granville et at. 10388 (R, 

flowers; staminodia 9, glabrous, ca. 0.6 mm, the 

inner 3 with 2 glands at the base; staminodia of cAY,¥oVp,^ US)rSauirvicinit7o7 

whorl IV threadlike, pubescent, 0.4 mm long; pistil Rotanique, 3^37'S, 53°12'W (fr), Mori et al. 22H21 (MO, 

1.5-1.8 mm long, glabrous, stigma swollen; recep- NY), (young fr), Mori et al. 22822 (MO, NY), (st), Mori et 

tacle shallow, glabrous inside. Fruits ellipsoid, ra. ^ ^Wto (MU, W), 

13 X 8 mm; cupule shallowly cup-shaped to almost 

plate-like, with persistent tepals on the margin; the Ocotea subterminalis van der Werff, sp. nov. 

pedicel thickened. 

Phenology. Flowers: January, June, July, Au- 
gust, September, and October. Fruits: September, 
November, and January. 

Habitat. Terra firme forest on clay soil. 

Ocotea scabrella resembles 0. bofo and 0. rub- 
rinervis in having cupules with persistent tepals, 
but differs in the absence of domatia, in the very 
short, erect indument of the twigs, in the spreading 

tepals at anthesis, in the clustered flowers, and in 

the very small pistillode without a stigma in the 
stamijiate flowers. The pubescent receptacle of the 
staminate flowers is also a useful character. Ocotea 
amazonica differs from 0. scabrella in the longer, 

TYPE: Brazil. Amapd: Mun. de Mazagao, 
0°08'S, 51°48'W, 19 Dec. 1984 (fl), S. Mori & 

Cardoso 17453 (holotype, MO). Figure 13. 

Ocoteae schomburgkianae affinis sed raniulls minute 
puberulis, cupulis foliisque majoribus recedit. 

Trees, to 20 m. Twigs roundish, moderately or 
sparsely minutely puberulous, the hairs straight 
and erect, glabrescent with age, solid; terminal 
buds densely white puberulous. Leaves 11-20 X 
4.5—7 cm, alternate, firmly chartaceous, elliptic to 

ovate-elliptic; base acute; apex acuminate with the 
acumen to 2 cm long or acute; upper surface gla- 
brous; lower surface glabrous or with some minute 
whitish hairs; margin frequently thickened, flat; 

reddish hairs on the twie;s, in the cupule without • i i i . i • i . ^• 

^ ^ 1 1 ■ n midrib, lateral veins, and tertiary venation im- 

persistent tepals, and in the less branched inflores- 
cence. Although gland dots are visible on the upper 

mersed on the upper surface, the midrib and lateral 
veins lighter in color than the leaf tissue; midrib 

leaf surface of O. scabrella, they are not as con- ii.i • 'i*^- ^- ii 

, .. 1 r 1 ^^ J • ^^"^ lateral veins raised, tertiary venation weakly 

spicuous and black as in 0, bofo and 0. rubrinenm. 

My concept of 0. rubrinervis is based on the syn- 

type {Poeppig 4580, B), that of O. bofo on a type 

photo, and of 0. amazonica on a type {Poeppig 

3037B, B). One of the characters used by Mez 

(1889) in the delimitation of these species is the j n 
relative length of the filaments of the stamens. I 
found that in young flowers the filaments can be 
shorter than the anthers, while in older flowers they 

d or immersed on the lower surface; lateral 
veins 4 to 6 on each side; domatia consisting of 
axillary tufts of hairs present, small, or lacking; pet- 
ioles 0.8—1.6 cm, flat to weakly canaliculate on the 
upper side, with the same indument as the twigs, 
orescences 5—12 cm, paniculate-cymose, 
sparsely to moderately and minutely puberulous, in 
the axils of bracts near the tips of the branches and 
appearing terminal or, less frequently, in the axils 

are clearly longer than the anthers, and this char- r i i tti ■ i o i 

. "^^ , , „ . , . ol normal leaves, r lowers unisexual, J— 1 mm 

acter should therefore be used with care. Ocotea 

diam., the tepals somewhat spreading at anthesis. 

commutata (Nees) Mez, another shrubby species o. - . n ..l * i u ji ^ i c 

. ^ ^ 11 btaminate nowers with tepals broadly ovate, 1.5 mm 

with persistent tepals on the shallow, almost plate- 

long, sparsely puberulous outside, glabrous inside; 

like cupules and known only from French Guiana, . iC * i i i u an 

^ 1 I I n II outer 6 stamens ca. 1 mm long, glabrous, the cells 

differs in its abruptly rounded leaf bases and in the j • o • ■ . *u ^i * u ir 

J ^. ^ 1 . . 1 . .1 . • arranged in 1 pairs, introrse, the filament hall as 

as long 
as the outer 6, the cells extrorse-lateral, the fila- 

absence of the very short, erect hairs on the twiefs; i ^i ^i .r ■ ^i 

-^ . ^ long as the anther; the inner three stamens 


no nowers 

of thi 

IS species i. 

known to me. 

Paratypes. RRAZIL. Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva ments with 2 globose glands at the base; staminodia 

Florestai Ducke, 2°53'S, 59''58'W (fl), Assun^ao & Silva not seen; pistillode ca. 2 mm long, stipitiform, gla- 

574 (INPA, MO, SP), (fr), Assun^do et al 609A (INPA, brous, stigma small but present; receptacle deep, 

MO, SP) (St) Gentry & Nelson 69037 (INPA MO), (st) ^ ^^^^j j^^^^^^^ j„^jj^ pj^^iH^,^ fl^^^^^ ^-.^ ,^, 

Gentry & Nelson 69053 (INPA, MO), (fl), Ribeiro et al , . . n ^ • i- ri z- 

962 (INI>A, MO, SP), (fr), Ribeiro et al 1719 (INR\, MO, P^^^ ^s in staminate flowers; outer 6 staminodia 0.6 

SP), (fl), Rodrigues & Osmarino 7030 (INPA, NY), (fr), mm long, glabrous; inner 3 staminodes as long as 

Rodrigues & Emygdio 8950 (INPA, MO), (fr), Sothers & outer 6, with 2 glands at the base; pistil ca. 2 mm 

Silva 675 (INPA, MO, SP), (fl). tn-e 1281-06. Vicentini & ^^^^ glabrous, the stigma peltate; receptacle deep- 

Assuncao 606 (INPA, MO, SP), (buds), \icentini et al. , , i i i • ■ i t- •. t y- v^ i n>/iMr»* ^/f/\ cr»\ Alt I ivi A- - * T 1' ly cup-shaped, elabrous inside, rruits i.o X i.i 

1222 (INPA, MO, SP); Mun. He Novo Airao. Area Indigcna / ^ ^ * & 

Waimiri-Atroari, RioCamanau. l°45'S,6ri5'W(fl).,W//- cm, ovoid, largely enclosed in the deeply cup- 

er 685 (MO). Rondonia: Porto VeUio, Represa Sanuit'l, shaped cupule, this usually lenticellate, with a sin- 



5 mm 


1 mm 

Figure 13. 
removed. - 

Orote(2 suhterminalis van der Werff. — A. Habit. — ^B. Inflorescence. — C. Fl 
E. Stamens of whorl I and II (below) and whorl Til (above). — F. Indument on Iwig. 


D. Flower with tepals 
G. Domalium in axil 

of lateral vein on lower leaf surface. — H. Cupule and fniils. (A-G from Rahelo el al 304I\ U from Lrpsch da Ciinha 
& Assun^do 2 J 5a.) Drawn by Alba L. Arl)elaez. 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


gle margin, 1.6 X 1.2 cm, the pedicel not or scarce- face completely covered by gray ascending to ap- 
ly thickened. 

Phenology. Flowers: September, November, 
December, and January. Fruits: June, August, Sep- 
tember, and November. 

HabitaL Terra firme forest on clay or sandy- 
clay soils. 

The relatively large cupulas, the ovoid fruits, the 
frequently terminal-appearing inflorescences, and the 
small domatia, which sometimes may be lacking, sug- 
gest a relationship of 0. subterminalis with 0. schom- 
burghiana. The latter species differs in having smaller 
cupulas and fruits, smaller leaves and inflorescences, 
and in the lack of the very short, erect indument on 
the twigs. Various labels mention that the slash is 
orange and the wood fragrant. 

Paratypes. BRAZIL. Aniapa: Macapd, liwy. Cupixi— 
rio Vila Nova, 0°32'S, 5r52'W (fl), Mori & Cardoso 
1 7703 (MO); Mazagao, hwy. BR156 (fl), Rahclo et a!. 3041 
(MO). Amazonas: Distr. Agropecu^rio da Suframa, Re- 

pressed hairs, these hairs turning darker with age; 
terminal buds densely pubescent. Leaves 5-10 X 
2—4 cm, alternate, firmly chartaceous, obovate-el- 
liptic to elliptic; the apex obtuse or bluntly acute; 
the base angustate, gradually narrowed into the pet- 
iole; the margin recurved over most of its length, 
but more strongly so toward the base; the upper 
surface appressed pubescent when young, becom- 
ing quickly glabrous with age; the lower surface 
moderately densely appressed pubescent, glaucous; 
midrib, lateral veins, and tertiary venation im- 
mersed on the upper surface; midrib raised, lateral 
veins and tertiary venation weakly raised on the 
lower surface; lateral veins 3^; domatia lacking; 
petioles 1.7-2.5 cm, with the same indument as the 
twigs. Inflorescences axillary, 3-8 cm long (pistil- 
late inflorescences shorter than staminate), densely 
pubescent, the hairs appressed or ascending, pa- 
niculate-cymose. Flowers unisexual, densely pu- 

sena 1501 ("km 41") of the PDBFF project, 2°24'S, l>^«^e"t outside, 4-5 mm diam.; tepals spreading, 
59°43'W (fr). fA>psch da Cunha & A^^sun^ao 2I5a (MO). greenish; stamens red. Staminate flowers with te- 
(fl), Boom et al, 8651 (MO), (fl), Oliveira el al. 277 (MO), pals pubescent on the inner surface, ca. 2 mm long. 

(st). Nee 42630 (MO, NY), (fr), Pessoal do PDBFF s,n. 
(=INPA 191123) (INPA); Manaus, Reserva Florestal 
Ducke, 2°53'S, 59"58'W (fr), Marlirvi it" Pereira 10 (INPA. 

broadly ovate; stamens 9; the outer 6 sessile, 2- 
celled, ca. 1.5 mm broad, 1 mm high, the anther 

MO, SP), (fr), Loureiro s.n, ( = INPA 16565) (INPA, NY), cells filling only a small part, introrse; stamens of 

(fl), Rodrigues & Osmarino 8287 (INPA), (fl), tree 1353- whorl II narrower than those of whorl I, ca. 1 X 1 

06, Sothers & Sdva 182 (INPA, MO, SP). MaranhSo: |„m, 2-celled, introrse; the stamens of whorl I and 

onyao. asino no una^u, a apor ^y^^ ^^^^f^^^' II laminar; inner 3 stamens triangular-columnar, ca. 

Bal^e 331 (MO, Ni). Para: Onximind, Kio Trombetas, , >i n i i n • 

estradadaMineravaodoNorte,km60(fr),CiJef a/. 1968 ^ ^^ ^^^^ 4-celled, the cells m two pairs, the 

(INPA, MO); Rio Trombetas, vicinity of Cachoeira Porteira lower pair extrorse, the upper pair lateral-extrorse; 

(fr), Prance et ai 22229 (MO, NY). FRKNCH GUIANA. glands present at the base of the inner 3 stamens, 

Sinnaxnary R-;-^; ^^^^^^^^^ 5' "!' w7"" ^; ^}"t, 6^^^^^^' staminodia not seen; pistillode ca. 1 mm 

and Cr. ligre, 5 00 N, 53 01 v\ (buds), Mori et al. 23:^62 i i i i i i 

(MO, NY), (buds), Mori et ai 23394 (MO, NY), (st), Mori '^"g' glabrous; receptacle urceolate, pubescent m- 

et al. 23512 (MO, NY), (st), Mori et al. 23667 (MO, NY), side. Pistillate flowers with tepals as in male flow- 

(st), Mori et al. 23650 (MO, NY). Saiil: 3^37'N. 53"12'W, ers; staminodia 9; the outer 3 slightly broader than 

those of whorl II, but not as dissimilar as in male 
flowers, inner 3 columnar, all staminodes a little 
smaller than the stamens; remnants of anther cells 

vicinity of Eaux Claires, Sentier Botanicjue (fr), Mori et al. 

22777 (MO. NY), (fl), Mori et al. 23312 (MO, NY). Sta- 
tion des Nouragues: basin de l\\rataye, 4°3'N, 52°42'W 

(fr), Sabatier & Prevost 2980 (CAY, MO). Placed in 0. 

subterminalis with some hesitation are the following three same number as anther cells in stamens; glands 

collections: FRENCH GUIANA. SaiU: (fr), Mori & Ishi- small, globose; pistil glabrous, ca. 2 mm long; re- 

kawa 20838 (MO, NY), (fr), Mori & Grade 23932 (MO, , i , , , ♦ • • i v c : 

^rv^^ n / -j/^r-o /»«^ m\/\ ^rt • ceptaclc urceolatc, pubescent niside. Young iruits 

N\), Prance et al. 30652 (MO, NY). Fhese specimens /, i i i ii i 

differ in having slightly recurved leaf bases and a dense ^^^^ enclosed m the receptacle. Fruit ellipsoid, ca. 

3 cm long; cupules deeply cup-sha})( d, 2X1 cm; 
pedicels ca. 1 cm long, thickened, abruptly wid- 

induiuent on the young twigs. 

Rhodo8temonodaphne recurva van der Werff, ened in the cupule. 

Phenology. Flowers: August. Fruits: April. 
Habitat. Terra firme forest on clay soil. 


IS new spec 

straddles the fence between 

sp. nov. TYPE: Brazil. Amazonas: Manaus, 

Reserva Florestal Ducke, 2°53'S, 59°58'W, 5 

Aug. 1994 (fl), A. Vicentini et aL 653 (holo- 

type, INPA; isotypes, MO, SP). Figure 14. 

Endlicheria and Rho do steniono daphne. These two 

«/70f/o5/emono6?ap/uiepenerae siniilis, sed 6 slaminibus genera differ only in their stamens, which are 2- 
exterioribus 2-locellatis ramulisque indumento obtectis ii j * r ;;■ l ■ a a u a ■ ui i * 

,. ^ ceiled m tndlicnena and 4-cellea in Wwdostemon- 

recedit. . i i .. i- • 

oaapnne, a character oi questionai)le validity in 
Dioecious trees, to 20 m. Twigs ridged, the sur- recognizing genera (Rohwer et al., 1991; van der 


No von 

1 mm 

1 cm| 


1 mm 


1 mm 

1 mm 

Figure 14. Rhodostcmonodaphnc recurva van tier Werff. — A. Habit. — B. Details of the uj>i)er (at top) anil lower leaf 
surfaces. — C. Slaminate flowers. — D. Stamen of whorl I. — E. Stamen of uliorl IT, — F. Stamen of wliorl III. — G. 
Pistillate flower. — H, Pistil. —1. Fmit. (A-F from holotype Vicentini el al. 653; G, H from sine coll., PDBFF Resen^a 
3304, tree 3094; I from Rodrigues 6903.) Drawn by Angelic Katz Nara. 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentini 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


Wt'rff & Rirhter, 1996). The 2-(:elle(l outer 6 sta- 
mens point to Endlicheria, while the 4-cene(I inner 
3 stamens indicate Rho do ste mono daphne. Indeed, 
both E. anomala (Nees) M<*z and R. revolutijolia 
Madrinan have six 2-relled and three 4-celled sta- 
mens. However, broad, sessde stamens occur fre- 
quently in Rhodostemonodiiphne and not or rarely 
in Endlicheria; broad, sessile stamens are fountl in 
E. ruhrijlora Mez, a species only placed in Endli- 
cheria because oi its 2-eelled stamens. The indu- 
ment ol twigs and leaves and the leaf venation of 
R. recurva resemble species of Rhudostemonoda- 
phne such as /?. grandis (Mez) Rohwer and relat*^! 
species and R. capixabcnsis Baitcllo & Coe Teix- 
eira. This similarity led me to place the new spet:ies 
in Rhodostemonodaphne. Possibly the closest rela- 
tionship is with R. revolutijolia Madrinan, which 
has the same stamen configuration, but which dif- 
fers in having erect hairs on the lower leaf surface 
and larger leaves. Vegetatively, R. recurva is quite 
similar to R. peneia Madrinan, and both species 
occur near Manaus. They can be separated as fol- 
lows: R. recurt'a has recurved leaf margins, densely 
pubescent twigs (with the surface completely cov- 
ered by the indument), and 3 or 4 lateral veins, 
wliile R. peneia has flat leaf margins, spars(dy pu- 
bescent twigs with the surface largely visible, and for lliis species could he entered in TahK: 1. W liclher (), 

U) the field guide of llu* vascular plants of Dut ke Reserve; 
(Vicentini et al., I *)9*)). l)escri[)tions of the species not 
de.scri])ed in this article will Ik* jiuhlisficd in tlie Laura- 
ceae treatment of llic Florida of die Reserva Dm ke (in 

Iilcnlif)ing Lauracea*- to species is ver) dillicull willmul 
flowering specimens. e\ce|)l for a few striking species. The 
!tiait>ritv of the s[)ccics of (hotea in the area under sludv 
are tJioecious, and th<' kc\ i.-> hased on star7iiMatc flowers, 
althou*:;li it may he possiiile to identify specimens with 
pistillate ones. For fruiting sj)ecimens rcf«M' to the above- 
mentioned fiehl gni(l<% which inchides photogra[)hs of tin* 
fruits of some s[)ecies and may narrow the decision-mak- 
ing process. To use the h>llovving key a gooil dissecting 
microscope is needed; some floral or puhesctMicc charac- 
ters (for instance, the indument on O. srohrcllo) are not 
visihle to the unaided eye. 

\egetative characters, such as indument of twigs and 
leaves, as well as charact*Ts of the pistillodc and cupule, 
can greatly helj) in the identification. Because llu\se char- 
a<ters are not always mentioned in the k(*\, we j>resent 
them in Table 1 (pp. 284, 2MS) for nine of thi' new Ocotea 
species anti four earlier described species with which llie 
new spiM'ies hav(^ been confused. Not included iii labh* 1 
are Ocotea ligulata and (). irumcrsa; these species are so 
distinct that confusion with other spt^cies setmis unlikely. 
Ty[)e material of f A aaiazonica (Poeppig .'iO.iTB. B) and (). 
jH'ialanthera {Pocppig 2426, B) has been used in making 
[al)le 1. \^ hile w** found several collections matching the 
t)p<' ol 0. amazouica closely, we did not find other col- 
lections of (). prudanthrra, and tfiat species is to us ordy 
known from tfie type. TluMcfore, not all charact<'r slates 

usually 5 to 7 lateral veins (rarely fewer). 

Parol yprs, BR A/M.. Aiiia/oiias: Manaus, Estrada 

AM-IO, km 120 (fl), Rodrigucs &• hmrciro 7178 (\\\\\): 

Re'serva Mon^stal Ducke, 2°5.'VS, 59°5H'W (fr), Rodrigucs 
& Osfnarino 6903 (INPA): Oistrito Agro[)ecuario da Suf- 
rama, Fa/<MuIa Esteio. Ht;serva 1202 of the PDBFE pro- 
ject, 2°2'I'S, 59'^52'W ((I), tree 5767, Santos ct uL s.n. fit^l<l g^J'de for the vascular [)lants of the l)uck<' Reserve 

hofo and 0. ruhrincnds arc distinct s(x'cies is not clear. 
One of us (H\\ ) assumes that the two arc conspecific. Tvpe 
material o{ (). ruhrincrris [Pocppig 45H(f. B) has Ixhmi stud- 
ied ui preparuig Tahle 1, hut the name 0. Ih)Jo. the older 
nam(\ has been used. 

Two unidentified species were included in kc) as Oco- 
tea s[>. E and O. sp. (i, fi>llowing the names nsr^l in the 

(1[NI*A, MO), (fl), tree 5707, sine coll. s.n. (IINBA, MO), 

Reserva 3304 (fl), tree 309 1, sine coll. s.n. (I NBA. MO): 

Eazenda Dimona. Reserva 2 1 OB of the PDBFF. 2°I9'S, 

6(n)5'\\ (fl), tree 35, Mackenzie ct ai s.n, (INPA, MO), 

(Vicentini et al.. 1909). Roth are prol>al)l\ new sjwx'ies, 

but good fertile material was not availal)le. 0<()te<t s|>. E 
(e.g., Assun^ao 576, SHI and Mccntini IIH9^ 9S(), 959, 

96(1: INPA. MO. SP) is afiparently related to the Oc(ftea 
cernua complex (Rolnver. lOBf)). because the filaments of 

the outer stamens are as in this complex partlv fused with 

Kky n. TMK Si'KciKs OK OcorH^ OF Tilt; Dlckk Rkskiu k \^l'- "■f'^'""- T^'"' '"'''^ ^";" ^''^" 'Y^ '';""". '" "■,""• '*' 'I"' 

(}. cernua group (eupule euf>-sriapeci and enelosuig the 
\)cvv\ n[) to ca. 1/3 ol its lengtli: refer to Vicentini et ah, 
1999). However. t<"iininal buds on O, s|). E are t'om|)letcly 

llie key to the Ocotea species presented here iticludes 
all species of Ocotea known from the Ducke Reserve (or 
which flowering material was available, |>lus two new spe- glal:)rous, which is rwtt die case in the Ocotea cernua com- 

eies, O, ligulata and 0. ohlicjua, which occur in the sur- 
rounding area, but which Ik ve not been found in the 

plcx, or in the majority of Lauracea(\ Ocotea sp. O (e.g., 
Assun^'ao 528 and Riheiro 905, 927\ 1NP\. MO, SP) k.7s 

Ducke Reserve. For a brief description and photographs out to 0, sclio/nhurgkiana in Rohwcr's (1986) treatment. 

(especiall) of vegetati\e characters) of all die s[)ecies in- 
cluded in th(^ key (plus additional Ocotea specit^s), rcfi-r 

but 0. sp. (] is not, as the latter, a shrub (fr tre<*lel uilh 
domatia in the axils of lateral \(Mns. 

la. Power leaf surfact^ completely covered by a silvery or golden appressed indument, i.e., lamina surfaci; not 
2a. Leaves with a vernation line almost parallel to the midrib; secondar)' veins hidden by indument; leaves 

sessile or nearly so ([xMiolc < 0.5 cm) 0. guianensis AnhltH 

2b. I,eaves witliout vernation line; secondar} veins prominent and not hidden by indument: petiole ^ 1 

em 0. urgyrophyUa Diuke 

lb. F.ower leaf surface glabrous, (*rect pubescent or witli a|)pr(*ssed hairs, but then surface of lamina still visil)h\ 

3a. Domatia. i.e.. cavities or tufts of hairs, in tlie axils of seeondarv y<Mns (check carefully on several 


No von 

4a. Dtjiualia a glahrous cavity. pnnuineiU on the upper leaf surface, usually present only on the 

most basal pair of secondar)' veins 0, duuraJensis Vatlimo-Gil 

4b. Donialia liairy, or if glabrous inconspicuous on the up|»er surface. 

5a. Twigs anti petioles covered by a rusty <lense indument of erect hairs, these also on 

llie lower leaf surface, at least on the rnidril) 0. percurrens Viccntini 

5b. Indunu'ut of twigs and petioles absent or consisting of sparse% appressed or very short 
hairs, but surface always visible. 
6a. Flowers ea. 5 nitn diam.: pistillode glabrous; receplacle pubescent in staniinate 

and glabrous in pistillate flowers 0. cinrrea van der Werff 

6h. Flowers ea. 3 mm diam.; both pistillode ami receptacle either glabrous or pu- 

7a. PislilKnlc glabrous; receptacle glabrous or nearly so in both staminale aiul 
pistillate flowers. 

8a. Heli<'ulati(>n coarse and (usually) wliite and very conspicuous due to 

the contrasting dull blackish lamina when dried 

0. nigrcscens Vicentini 

8b. Keticulation hne, not white or differentlv colored from the lamina, 


the leaves usual!} drying green 0. subterminalis van der Werff 

7b. Pistillode [)ubescent; receptacle pubescent in both staminate and pistillate 

flowers 0. minor Vicentini 

IM). Domatia absent. 

9a. Lower h^af surface with a moderate to dense indunient of erect (or crisped) hairs, usually 
also on the petiole and branchlets. 

10a. Leaves chartaceous; usually also pubescent on the veins above; the hairs long and 
conspicuous and soft to the touch. 

I la. Shmb or treelet: p<4iolcs short (ea. 5 mm); leaf base cordate or rounded; branch- 
lets slender (< '3 mm diam.) 

0. boissieriana (Mcisner) Mez 

1 lb. Tree: p<'lioles hmger (> 10 mm); leaf base acute or obtuse; branchlets stout (ea. 

5 mm diam.) 0. tahacifolia Rohwer 

10b. Leaves coriaceous; glabrous on the veins above; indunient short or very short, 

12a. Leaves usually waxy IxMieath; pistilhtdc absent or reduced to a tuft of hairs; 
rece|)tacle [)ubescent inside; staminodes present, stipiliform and pul)escenl . . 

0. rhodophyUa Vicentini 

12b. Leaves nol waxy; pistillode present, glabrous, with or without a stigma; receptacle 

glabrous inside; staminodes absent 0. amazonlca (Meisner) Me/ 

9b. Lower leaf surface glabrous, or with ap(>ressed hairs, or with sparse and extremely short 
erect hairs, these not visible to the naked eye. 

13a. Terminal bud glal>rous or hair}- only on th<' inner surface of the bud scales (externally 

14a. Twigs angular or winged; receplacle glabrous in staniinate flowers. 

15a. Leaf apex attenuate to acuminate; hnnina narrowly elliptic, usually > 15 

cm long and 3-4.5 times longer than wide 0. oliraced A. C. Smith 

15b. Leaf apex rounded to short acuminate; lamina broadly elliptic, usually 

15 cm long and ca. 2 limes longer than wide 0. neblinac C. K. Allen 

14b. Twigs cylindrical or soon becoming so; receplacle [)ubescent in staminale flowers. 
16a. Bud scales free, revealing the [)ube9cent iimer surface (and margin), leav- 
ing clusters of scars on the twigs (at the end of each growth unit); filaments 
of outer stamens ca. half as long as anlh«»rs and free 

0. myriautha (Meisner) Mez 

lob. Buds comf)lelely glabrous (bud scales closed, not showing the inner surface 
and not leaving conspii'uous scars on twigs); anthers of outer stamens ses- 

sil(\ the filaments partially fused to the le[)als (7. sp. K 

13b. Terminal buds pubescent, usually completely covered by indunient. 

17a. FIow*Ms hermaphroditic, i.e., ovar\' well defined an<l distinct from stvlc, bearing 
an ()\ide inside (some species present hermaphroditic and [)istillate flowers). 
18a. Tepals papillose on the inner surface; staminodes of whorl IV present. 

10a. Comiectives of outer stamens extetuh'd above thecae, forming sterile 
tips: heaves glabrous or nearly so. 
20a. Stamens papillose, ca. 2 mm long .... 0. ligulala van der Werff 

20b. Stamens glabrous, ca. I mm long '. . . 

0. rhynchophrlla (Meisner) Mez 

10b. Connectives without sterile tips; leaves with ap|)ressed hairs bencalh 

0. aciphylla (Nees) Mez 

18b. Tepals not papillose; staminodes of whorl IV absent. 

21a. Leaf apex obtuse or rounded: base narrowed and dccurrenl on the 

petiole; leaves glabrous or nearly so 0. immcrsa van der Werff 

211). Leaf apex acuminate; base a<'ule and nol decurrent on the petiole; 
lower leaf surface with moderate to dens<^ indunient of ap[>ressed 
hairs 0. oblonga (Meisner) Mez 

Volume 10, Number 3 van der Werff & Vicentini 295 


Lauraceae from Brazil 

171). Flowers unisrxual, i.e., wlifti pislillode evident with a conspicuous stigma, then 
ovary without an ovule inside. 

22a. Whorl III of stamens close together fonniuji a luhe surrounding llu^ pistil- 
lode; these fdaments fused, at least at the base; pistillode as high as sta- 
mens and stigma positioned between the anllier apices. 
23a. Pistillode pubescent, at least on the style; twigs usually with persis- 
tent bracts and covered bv an erect rustv in(humMit 

0. cujumari Martins 

23b. Pistillode ghibrous; twigs without ptM'sistent bracts, glabrous or with 
appressed whitish hairs. 

24a. Twigs strongly angular to winged, not Icntieellate; leaves large 
(> l.") cm) witli raised reticidation and a[)pressed hairs; fda- 
ments ca. half as long as anthers 0. longifolia HHK 

24b. Twigs angular. scKtn terele, densely le]ili< cllate; leaves smaller 
with in(M)nspi('uoirs reticulation and glabrous; lilaments as long 

as anthers O. uitida (Meisner) Hohwer 

22b. Whorl HI of stamens not forming a lube surrounding tlie pistillode, or if 
so. then filaments free and pistillode shorter than stamens and included in 
the tube. 

25a. Filaments of outer stamens ca. half as long as anllu-rs or shorter, free 
or partl\ fu>c(l to the tepals. 

26a. Leaf base cordate or rounded and petiole < 0.8 cm long; pis- 
tillode reduced without a stigma 0, adrnofnichelium (Nees) Mez 
26b. Leaf base not cordate or rounded, or if so, then petiole > 1.5 
cm long or [)istill<Kle with a conspicuous stigma. 
27a. Filamenls of outer 6 stamens [)arl]\ fused with llie tepals; 
pistillode without or with a stigma. 
2Ha. Pistillode [)resent, sti[)itiform and [>ubeseent; petiole 

< 1 cm long: leaves < 9 X 2.5 cm 0. minor Vic<»n- 

2H1). Pistillode absent or present but glabrous; petiole 

1.5 cm long; leaves > 6 X 2.H cm. 
29a. Lower thecae of outer >tamens introrse .... 

0. cernua (Meisner) Mez 

29b. Lower thecae of outer stamens latrorse to la- 

trorse-introrse O, p<iuciflora (Nees) M*^/ 

27b. Filaments of outer 6 stamens free; pistillode well devel- 
oped with a stigma. 
30a. Staminodes of whorl IV present, sfipitiform and pu- 

bcsc(^nt 0. cinerea van der Werff 

3(lb. Staminodes of whorl IV absent. 

3 1 ;i. Leaves, inflorescene(*s. and twigs w ilh ap- 
pressed hairs; Inflorescence branches densely 
appressed pubescent, obscuring surface; pis- 
lillode pubescent or glabrous. 

32a. Pislillode pubescent 

(). splendrn.s (Meisner) Bail Ion 

32b. Pislillotle glabrous or nearly so ... 

0. IcuLoxyion (Swartz) Mez s.l. 

31b. Leaves, inflorescences, and twigs glabrous or 
wUh short erect hairs, the pubescence mod- 
erate to sparse; pistilh)dc glabrous or nearly 


33a. Reticulation coarse and (usually) white 
and very conspicuous due to contrasting 
dull blackish hnnina when dried . . . 
0. nigrescens Vicentini 

33b. Reticulation fuie, tujl white or differently 
colored than lamina (drying reddish, 
brown, or greenish). 

34a. Leaves usually drying green; inflo- 
rescence branches and flowers ex- 
ternally moderately covered with 

short erect hairs 

(), suhtrrr7iina!is van der WVrff 

34b. Leaves usualb drying red-brown; 
inflorescence branches and flowers 
glabrous or only with a few and ex- 
tremely shori. miruite. erect hairs 
0. sp. C 





KilariKMils of ouUt slariirns clearly longer than or as long as the 

anthers and conipletely free. 

Tvvij^s with <Tect or crisped hairs, sometimes exiremel) sliorl 
and sparse (use a mieroseope and look closely al the lenninal 

.'U)a. Indntnent on Iw igs ferrngiiieous. grayish, or brownish, 
dense, ihe surfa<e scarci^lv visibh\ 
37a. Lca\ es sub-!rl[)]i\ eiiied; glands of iinier slatnens Hat 

0. dvHidtii Vicenlini 

371). \a\ 



V ve 

ined; glands of inner slarnens 


3Ha. Reeeplacle glabrous in bodi slaniinate and 

pistillal<* (lo\\(Ts . . 0. (iniazonica (M<Msner) Mez 
3Hl>. l{ece[)lach* pubescent in both staminale and 
pistillate flowi^rs. 

39a. Pi^ldliKle reduced to a lufl of hairs or 
al)s<*nt: slaminodes of whorl l\ j)res(Mit 

0. rliodophyllu Vieentini 

39b. Pislillodc present, glabrous, without stig- 
ma; slaminodes usually absent .... 

0. obliqua Vieentini 

36b. indument on twigs whitish or miimte and leaving surface 
largidy visible. 
4()a. Flov\ers exlernallv gla[)rous or nearly so; li^|>als at 

anthesis erect O. puhrrula (Uiehard) i\ees 

401). Flowers externally pul)cscent; tepals at anthesis 
s[)reading to rcflexed. 

41a. Small tree or shrub, to 10 m. Inflorescences in 
the axils of leaves, flowers almost sessile and 
arranged in dense glomerules; tepals |)ul>es- 

eent on botli surfae(^s 

0. scahrvUa van der Wei-ff 

Tree to 20 m. Inflorescences in the axils of 
bracts near tlu* ti{)s of the branches and ap- 
pearing leiuiinal (rarely in the axil of normal 
leaves); flowers p(^dicellate and not anangf^l 
in d(*rise glomerules; tepals pul)eseenl ordy on 

outside 0, subiviniuudis \an der Werff 

35b. Twigs with appressed hairs, or completely glabrous. 

42a. Leaf apex obtuse or roiuidcd ... 0. ituniersti van der Werff 
42b. Leaf apex acuminate or acute. 

43a. 1wigs completely covered by appressinl hairs, in- 
dument usually dens<' lo mo<lerate on the lowt^r sur- 
face of mature leavers, rarely sparse. 
44a. Leaves strongly coriaceous, > IS cm loi»g, 
with firu* reticulation; slaminodes of whorl IV 

present O. mdtogrosscusis Valtimo 

44b. Leaves ehartaccous. usually < 10 cm long, 
with coarse reticulation; staiuinodes of uliorl 


IV absent 0. oblonga (\leisner) Mez 

43b. Twigs and the lower surface of mature leaves gla- 
l)rous or nearly so, 

45a. Flowers larger (> 4.5 mm diam. at anthesis); 
pistillode <*rUirely pubescent 

(). Jlorihunda (Swartz) Mez 

45b. Flowers smalh-r (< 4 mm diam. al anthesis); 
pistillode glabrous or nearly so 

(). ceanothifolid (Nees) Mez 

Acknowledgments. We tbank the British Dv- ject team, especially to Paulo C. L. Assun^'ao, 

partment for Intt^rnalional Development (DFID) Everaldo da C. Pereira, and Cosmo F. da Silva 

and the Ttistitulo Nacional de Pesquisas da Ama- for gathering excellent material of the species 

zonia (INPA) which supported the "Flora da Re- here described by monitoring tagged trees in the 

serva Ducke" project. DFID sponsored the visits field. We thank Mike Hopkins for his l)rillant 

of the second author to St. Louis in 1997 and of work in coordinating this project an<l the curators 

the first author to Manaus in 1998. We are grate- of INPA, B, and NY for loans of their specimens, 

ful to the entire ''Flora da Reserva Ducke*' pro- The fine illustrations were drawn by Angelic Katz 

Volume 10, Number 3 

van der Werff & Vicentin 
Lauraceae from Brazil 


(Figs. 2-5, 7-12, 14) and Alba L. Arbelaez 


(Figs. 1, 6, 13). 

de Terra Firme na Amazonia Central. INPA/DFID, Ma- 

Lileraturc* Cited 

Kostemians, A, J. (i. H. 1936. Lauraceae. In: A. Pulle 
(editor), Flora of Surinam, vol. II: 244—336. Kon. Ver. 
Koloniaal Insliluut, Amsterdam. 

Kur/, H. 1983. Fortpflanzungsbiologie '»iniger Catturigen 
neotropischer Lauraeeen und Revision der Cattiing UrarUi 
(Lauraceae). I^h.D. Thesis, University of Hanil)urg. 

Mez, C. M. 1889. lauraceae Americanae. Jalirb. Konigl. 
F^ot. (^art. Berlin 5: 1-556. 

Ribiero, J. E. L. S., M. J. C. Hopkins, A. Vicentini, C. A. 
Solhers, M. A. S. Costa, J. M. de Brito, M. A. D. de 
Souza, L. H. Martins, L. G. Lohmann, P. A, C. L. As- 

sun^^ao, E. da C. Pereira, C. F. da Silva, M. Mesquita 
& I.. Proc6[)io. 19W. Flora da Reserva Ducke — Guia 
de Tdentificayao das Plantas Vasculares de uma Floresta 


Rohwer, J. G. 1986. Prodromns einer Monographic der 
Gattung Ocotea Aubl. (I.anraceae) sensu lalo. Milt. Inst. 
Allg. Hot. Hamburg 20: 1-278. 

, H, G. Richter & H. van der Werff. IWl. Two 

new genera of neotropical Lauraceae and critical re- 
marks on the generic delimilation. Ann. Missouri Bot. 
Card. 78: 388-400. 

Van d(*r Werff, H. & H. G. Richter. 1996. Toward an im- 
proved classification of Lauraceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. 
Gard. 83: 409^18. 

Vicentini, A., H. van der Werff & S. Nicolau, 1999. laur- 
aceae. Pp. 150-179 in J. K. L. S. Ribeiro, M. J. G. 
Hopkins, A. Vicentini. C. A. Sothers, M. A. S. Cosia, 
J. M. de Brito, M. A. D. de Souza, L. H. Martins, L. G. 

Lohmann, P. A. C. L. Assunyao, E. da G. Pereira, C. F. 

da Silva, M. Mesquita & L. Procopio, Flora da Reserva 
Duckc — Guia de Identificayao das Plantas Vasculares 
tic uma Floresta de Terra Firnu; na Amazonia Central. 
INPA/DFID, Manaus. 

Volume 10, Number 3, pp. 187-298 of NOVON was published on 12 September 2000. 






A Synopsis of the Genus Blakea (Melastomataceae) in Mexico and 

Central America 

Frank Almeda 

Department of Botany, California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, 

California 94118-4599, U.S.A. 

Abstract. A regional synopsis of the genus B/a/:- students until recently. The genus has not been 

ea is presented that recognizes 33 species in Mex- treated in its entirety since Cogniauxs (1891) fa- 

ico and Central America. This summary includes a milial monograph. Even the most recent florislic 

key, distributional and phenological information, treatments of the family Melastomataceae for the 

notes on morphological variation, and discussions Mesoamerican region appeared over 30 years ago 

that provide rationale for relegating six binomials (Gleason, 1958; Standley, 1924, 1938; Standley & 

to synonymy Descriptions and diagnoses are pre- Williams, 1963; Winkler, 1965) when many areas 

sented for four new species of Blakea {B. colora- were still little-explored and poorly known l)otani- 

and B. imlsoniorum from southern Costa Rica and 


The account presented here is a precursor to the 
Panama). Analysis of the type specimens and re- treatment that will appear in Flora Mesoamericana. 
cently collected flowering material of Topobea stor- Four new species and one new generic transfer are 
kii necessitates its transfer to Blakea, Three other proposed in the context of a regional synopsis. Tiiis 
species (B. cuatrecasii, B. repens, and B, subcon- summary also includes a key to the 33 recognized 
nata var. obtusa), all of which were previously species, distributional and phenological informa- 
known from Andean South America, are reported tion, notes on variation, and discussions that pro- 
vide rationale for relegating previously recognized 
species to synonymy. 

from Panama for the first time. 

Blakea, with approximately 100 species, is one 


Taxonomic Treatmknt 

neotropical tribe Bhikeeae (Almeda, 1990). It is „, , ^ ^ 

best represented in wet montane regions from ^^^^^\ ?• J^^wne, Civ. Nat. Hi.t. Jamaica 323. 

1756. TYPE: Blakea trinervia P. Browne. 
Trees, shrubs, or woody vines, often epiphytic 

southern Mexico and the West Indies to Bolivia and 
Brazil. Ahhough northwestern South America is un- 
doubtedly the center of species richness for BMea with glabrous or variously pubescent, terete 
(Wurdack, 1973), southern Central America is quadrate branchlets. Leaves thick and coriat^eous 
clearly the area of focal importance for unusual di- or chartaceous, 3- to 5-nerved or -plinerved with 
versity in floral morphology. This floral diversity re- the transverse secondary veins (when evident) 
fleets adaptations to a broad array of important pol- closely spaced, straight, and parallel. Flowers 6- 
linators in the region, including rodents, buzzing merous, axillary, solitary or fascicled, typically pe- 
bees, and hummingbirds (Almeda, 1990; Lumer, dunculate in the upper leaf axils and subtended by 
1981; Lumer &l Schoer, 1986). For a woody genus two pairs of decussate, free or variously fused, co- 
with showy, often spectacular, flowers, it is surpris- riaceous or foliaceous, sessile bracts inserted at the 

* ^ ---------- ^ ^- -^-r ^ » *« -w 

ing that Blakea has escaped the attention of serious base of the hypanthium. Hypanthia campanulate or 

NovoN 10: 299-319. 2000. 



hemispheric; calyx persistent or deciduous, rarely erally, bluntly obtuse or broadly rounded apically 

calyptrate, truncate or 2- to 6-lobate. Petals 6, with two typically well-separated (typically minute) 

white, pink, magenta, red, or some combination of pores. In Topobea the flowers also commonly have 

these colors, glabrous but often marginally ciliolate. 12 stamens, aUhough several hexantlrous and one 

Stamens 12, isomorphic and glabrous; anthers oval, octandrous species occur in Costa Rica and Pana- 

oblong, or elliptic, laterally compressed, bluntly ob- ma; the anthers of Topobea, in contrast to those of 

tuse, obconic, or broadly rounded at the summit, Blakea, are uniporose or biporose, linear-oblong to 

free or laterally connate with two typically well- oblong-subulate or rostrate, usually not compressed 

separated apical pores; connective thickened and laterally, and with approximate or confluent dorsal- 

unappendaged or dilated basally into a dorsal de- ly inclined broad pores. 

flexed, horizontal, or upturned spur. Stigma punc- 

The posture and orientation of stamens and the 

tiform to capitate. Ovary inferior, usually 6-locular. shape, length, and degree of fusion of floral bracts 

Fruit baccate; seeds ovoid, clavale, or narrowly pyr- are important diagnostic characters in Blakea, 

iform, testa smooth. Pressing and drying often conceal these features, 

frequently necessitating a dissection of hydrated 

Blakea and the closely related genus Topobea are material. This is especially important when analyz- 

the only two genera comprising the tribe Biakeeae. jng the species with large enveloping foliaceous flo- 

This tribe is characterized by axillary flowers that ral bracts. Because of the prevalence of epiphytism 

are individually subtended by two pairs of decus- in Blakea, coupled with the local distribution of 

sate bracts, baccate fruits, ovoid to pyramidal, many taxa, it 

likely that additional species 

smooth seeds, and wood with multiseriate rays and will be discovered as forest canopies and remote 

the frequent occurrence of druses (Almeda, 1990). areas are explorcil. Inadequate material of several 

Flowering material is essential for the unequivocal collections from Costa Rica and Panama probably 

generic placement of species in this tribe. In Blak- represent additional species for the area covered 

fa» each flower has 12 stamens; the anthers are by this study. Their identity will require evaluation 
biporose, oval, oblong, or elliptic, compressed lat- when better material is collected. 

Kfy to iiik Species of Blxkfa in Mfafco and Cfntraf Amfhica 

la. Flowers always pendent, pe*tals imbricate or convolute when fully expanded to form a sulxylindric lube-like 
corolla concealing the stamens, which form a ring around the straight style. 


Petals uniformly pink or magenta: floral brarls and ralyx lobes red in color 14. B. fuchsioides 

Petals green or green flushed with purple or reddish at the base; floral bracts and calyx lobes not red 
in color. 

3a. Leaf blades modified adaxially at the petiole-laminar junction into flap-like saccale pouches, the 

basal and lateral margins of which are free from but conspicuously deeurrent on the ])etioIe. 

4a. Pubescence of up[)ermost internodes consisting of hairs 1—2 mm long; leaf blailcs bluntly 
denticulate; outer floral bracts linear-lanceolate, 15-21 mm long, equaling or exceeding the 
calyx lobes at anthesis; Costa Rica (Cerro Chompipc,Volcdn Barva, and Vulcan Irazu) . . . 
2. B. austin-smithii 

4b. Pubescence of uppermost internodes consisting of hairs mostly less than O.S nun long; leaf 
blades entire; outer floral l)raets ovate to elliptic-ovate. 5.S-9 mm long, corisplcuously sliort- 
er than the calyx lobes at anthesis; Costa Rica (Cordilh^a de Tilaran, Cordillera de Guan- 

acaste) 5. /^. chlorantha 

3b. Leaf blades not modified adaxially at the petiole-laminar junction into flap-like saccate pouches. 

5a. Older petioles, floral peduncles, and bracts essentially glabrous, outer floral brai-ts 13-17 

mm wide on fruiting hypanlliia; Costa Rica (Coidillera de Talamanca and Volcan l^arva) 


23. B. pcndulijlora 

01d(T jxMioles, floral j>eduncles, and bracts modt^ately to copiously covered with oppressed 
or spreading brown hairs; outer flitral bracts 5—9 nmi wide on fruiting hypanlliia. 
6a. Uppermost internodes and elevated [)rimary nerves on abaxial leaf surfa<'es moderately 
to densely covered with s[)readlng brown Iialrs less than 0.5 nun long; floral peduncles 

(2.()-)2J5-3.8 cm long; outer floral brads 1.3-2.0 cm long; Mexico (Chiapas) and 

western Guatemala (Quezaltenango and San Marcos) 25. B. pnrpusii 

6b. Up[)ermost internodes and elevated primary nerves on abaxial leaf surfaces densely 

covered with appressed brown hairs 1-2.5 mm long; floral peduncles 1.2—2.0 mm 

long; outer floral bracts 0.7-0.8 cm long; western Panama (Chiriquf) ..... 17. Z^. grcgii 

lb. Klowers erect or antrorsely divergent but never truly pend<'nt, petals white, pink, magenta, red, or some 

combination of these colors, the petals well separatenl from one another or connivent when fully expanded 

but never forming a tube-like corolla that conceals the slanu*ns. 

Volume 10, Number 4 Almeda 



Blakea in Mexico and Central America 

7a. Calyx lobe apex elaborated into a deflexed ovate to cordate foliaceous appendage; style glandular- 

puberulent; cauline nodes lacking stipulifomi setose flaps. 

8a. Leaf blades (12.2-)19-35 X (10-)17-35.5 cm, cordate to ovate-orbicular; petioles 4.5-11.2 cm 
long; floral peduncles 0,7-1.6 cm long; anther sacs free from one another but connivent in a ring 
around the style 31, fi. luherculata 

8b. Leaf blades (6.3-)10.3-20.7 X 5.2-10.3 cm, elliptic to elliptic-ovate; petioles 1.5-3.7 cm long; 
floral peduncles 0.4—0.9 cm long; anther sacs laterally connate in a ring around the style .... 

4. B. calycosa 

7b. Calyx lobe apex not elaborated into a foliaceous appendage; style glabrous, or if glandular-puberulent, 
then uppermost cauline nodes bearing stipuliform setose flaps. 
9a. Inner and outer floral bracts essentially free to the base. 

10a. Adaxial leaf surface copiously covered with smooth or gland-tipped hairs; calyx lobes filiform 

10b. Adaxial leaf surface essentially glabrous; calyx lobes not filiform. 
11a. Leaves at a node strongly dimorphic in size. 

32. B. wilburiana 

12a. Leaf blades subpeltate at the base, lacking inconspicuous domatia in the angles 
between the median vein and each of the two innermost veins on the abaxial 

surface 18. B. guatemalemis 

12b. Leaf blades not subpeltate at the base, inconspicuous domatia (these often mp- 
tured) typically formed in the angles between the median vein and each of the 

two innermost veins on the abaxial surface 13. B. foliacea 

lib. Leaves at a node not strongly dimorphic in size. 

13a. Leaves sessile, auriculate to cordate-clasping at the base 12. S. elliptica 

13b. Leaves petiolate, not auiiculate or cordate-clasping at the base. 
14a. Outer floral bracts distinctly shorter than the hypanthium. 

15a. Calyx fused and concealing petals in bud but rupturing at anthesis 

into 3^ persistent or tardily deciduous lobes \. B. anomala 

15b. Calyx lobes not fused and concealing petals in bud. 

16a. Leaf blades bearing irregularly rupturing domatia in the angles 

between the median vein and each of the two proximal lateral 

veins on the abaxial surface; floral peduncles 1.3^.8 cm long. 

17a. Calyx lobes obsolete or evident only as depressed deltoid 

undulations; anther thecae laterally connate 

22. B. pauciflora 

17b. Calyx lobes broadly ovate, 1-1.5 mm long and 2.5-3.5 

mm wide basally; anther thecae free . . . , 19. B. hammelii 
16b. Leaf blades lacking irregularly rupturing domatia in the angles 
between the median vein and each of the two proximal lateral 
veins on the abaxial surface; floral peduncles 0.5-1.2 cm long 

20. B. herrerae 

14b. Outer floral bracts equaling or exceeding the hypanthium in length. 

18a. Calyx consisting of a truncate flange, the lobes obsolete or merely 
low undulations. 

19a. Floral peduncles 0.9-1.2 cm long; anther thecae free 

11. B. darcyana^ sp. nov, 

19b. Floral peduncles 2.1^.2 cm long; anther thecae laterally con- 

20a. Petals white with a flush of pink on the abaxial margins; 
anthers yellow, the apex rounded; hypanthium somewhat 
to markedly costulate in posl-anthesis 15. B. gracilis 

20b. Petals pink throughout; anthers pink or pale yellow-white, 
the apex bluntly obconic; hypanthium terete and smooth 

in post-anthesis 21. fi. litoraUs 

18b. Calyx consisting of well-defined lobes. 

21a. Uppermost branchlet nodes bearing setose stipuliform flaps 1- 

2 X ^-6 mm; style glandular-puberulent 26. B. repens 

21b. Uppermost branchlet nodes lacking setose stipuliform flaps; 
style glabrous. 

22a. Uppermost internodes quadrangular with carinate angles 
and interpetiolar ridges created by the basally vaginate 
petioles; leaf base acute to obtuse with the innermost pair 
of primary veins usually poculate-coalesced with the me- 
dian vein on the abaxial surface 

29. B. suhconnata van obtusa 

22b. Uppermost internodes essentially terete; leaf base obtuse 
to rounded with inconspicuous domatia (these often rup- 
tured) typically formed in the angles between the median 


No von 

vein and each of the two innermost primary veins and 

sometimes in the angle of the outermost lateral veins as 

well oil the abaxial surface 13. U. foliacea 

9b. Inner and/or outer floral bracts partially fused to completely fused for their entire length. 

23a. Leaves sessile, auriculate to cordate-clasping at the base 12. B. elliptica 

23b. reaves petiolate, neilhrr auriculate nor cordate-clasping at tlie base. 

24a. Nodes of up|>er l)ranehlets swollen and often bearing small holes 1-2 mm diam. on 

the leaf scars that lead to domatia presumably occupied by ants 

24. B. perforata, sp. nov. 

24b. Nodes of u|)per l)ranehlets not as above. 

25a. Calyx fused and concealing petals in bud, the calyptra or lobes ultimately de- 

26a. Calyx calyplrate and falling away as a unit; the [>rominently lobcd {\i\rd\ 

bracts superficially resembling the calyx; anthers 9.5-10 X 6-7 mm . . . 

1 . B, costariccfisis 

26b. Calyx nipturing at anthesis into two to six ovate-oblong deciduous lobes, 
ultimately leaving a truncate flange or tube on fruiting hvpanthia; anthers 

5-7 X 2-A mm. 

27a. Flowers essentially sessile; petals 2-2.2 X 1.^1—1.8 cm; anthers lat- 
erally connat*', 5X2 mm 8. W. crinila 

271>. Horal peduncles 0.9-3 cm long; petals 3.5-5.3 X 3^ cm; anthers 

free, 7 X 3.5-4 mm 3. R hrunuca 

25b. Calyx not fused and not concealing petals in bud, or if calyx is fused in bud, 
then the lobes rupturing regularly and [)ersl^llng on fruiting h)[)anthia. 
28a. Inner floral bracts free to the base; anther thecac laterally connate for at 

least half of their length 9. /i. ruatrecasii 

28b. Inner floral bracts fused basally for at least half <»f their length; anther 
ihccac free. 

2*^a. Petals brilliant red with a small while band at the base; anther ton- 
nective prolonged ilorsally into an upturned spur 3-5 mm long . . . 

27. B, scarlatina 

29b. r<'tals white, pink, or some cond)ination of these colors; anther con- 
nective not prolonged dorsally into an acute spur. 
,30a. Inner floral bracts connate for essentially their entire length to 

form a cujndate truncate collar that closely envelops the hy- 


31a. Outer floral bracts fused for half i)r more of their length 
antl closely enveloping inner floral bracts and flic hypan- 
thium; fmiting hypanthia 1,5-2 cm long. 
32a. Outer floral bracts exceeding the inner fl(tral bracts 
in length and typically concealing them on flowering 
and fruiting hypanthia; |>cduncles on fmiting hy- 
panthia 1.2-2 cm long . . . 33. B. wilsoniorum^ sp. nov. 
32b. Outer floral bracts somewhat shorter than the inner 
fl(iral bracts, the distal portion of inner bracts visible 
on flowering and fruiting hypanthia; peduncles on 

fruiting hy[)antliia 2.5-5 cm long 28. B. storkii 

31b. Outer floral bracts fused for less than half of their h^iglh, 
the lobes spreading and not closely enveloi)ing inner floral 
bracts or the hypanlhinm; fruiting hyi)anthium 0.5-0.7 cm 

long 6. B. coloradeiisis^ sp. nov. 

3()b, Inner floral bracts connate for only a portion of their length to 
form a 2-lobed collar that only partialh envelops the hyi)an- 

33a. Floral peduncles (1.5-)2.7-^l cm long; petals 2.8-3.8 X 
2-3.2 cm, white oidy flushed witli |>ink a|)ieally and along 
the margins 16. B. gramlijlora 

33b. Floral peduncles 0.4-1.2 cm long; petals 1.5-2.5 X 0.7- 
1.8 cm. entirely pink or white. 

34a. Uppemiosl n<><les beset with an interpeliolar lufl of 
coarse hairs that falls away to leave a distinct in- 
terpetiolar ridge or line; leaf blades not white-pune- 
ticulale adaxially when dry; outer floral bracts fused 
basally for .3-C) nun; petals white; Costa Rica .... 

30. B, tapantiana 

34b. Uppermost nod<'s not beset with an inlerpetiolar tuft 
of coarse hairs that falls away to leave a distinct 

Volume 10, Number 4 


Blakea in Mexico and Central America 


interpetiolar ridge or line; leaf blades white piinc- 
liculate adaxially when dry; outer floral bracts fused 
basally for 7-10 mm; petals pink; Belize, Guate- 
mala, and Honduras 10. fi. cuneaUi 

1. Blakea anoinala Donnell Smith, Bot. Gaz. 42 

Distribution and phenology. Endemic to Costa 

297. 1906. TYPE: Costa Rica. San Jose: In Rica where it is largely restricted to cloud forests 

truncis putridis ad La Palma, 1450-1550 m, on slopes of the Cordillera Central at 1500-2400 

Sep. 1896, Pittier 10165 (syntype, US; isosyn- m. Collected in flower from November through 

types, BR, CR, NY); Costa Rica. San Jose: In March, in fruit from February through April. 

truncis putridis ad La Palma, 1450-1550 m. 

Among the species oi Blakea with pendent green 

Sep. 1896, Tonduz 12521 (syntype, US; iso- flowers, B. austin-smithii is distinguished by its 

syntype, NY) 

saccate pouches at the petiole-laminar junction. 

Distribution and phenology. Endemic to Costa bluntly denticulate leaf blades, and linear-lanceo- 

Rica where it can be locally common in cloud for- ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^*^ *^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^xce^d the ca- 

ests of the Cordillera Central and Cordillera de Tal- ^^^ ^'^^*^^ ^* anthesis. 
amanca at 700-1800(-2400) m. Collected in flower 

from September through April, fmiting into August. ^- Blakea brunnea Gleason, in Woodson & 

Blakea anoniala is readily recognized by its ir- 
regularly rupturing calyx, small scalelike floral 
bracts, and laterally connate anthers. This species 
exhibits two modal tendencies with respect to pu- 
bescence and shape of the leaf base. The syntypes 

Schery, Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 28: 435. 
1941. TYPE: Panama. Chiriqui: vicinity of 
Bajo Chorro, 1900 m, 20-22 July 1940, Wood- 
son & Schery 618 (holotype, NY; isotype, MO). 

Distribution and phenology. Endemic to th 

{Pittier 10165 and Tonduz 12521) have copiously cloud forests of western Panama at 900-2300 m. 

setose-furfuraceous upper internodes with leaves Flowering collections have been made in January, 

that also have varyingly persistent pubescence March, and August, fruiting collections in July and 

abaxially, and leaf bases that are subcordate to December. 

rounded. This form varies through a series of less 

The flowers of this species, which measure 13.5 

pubescent intermediates to individuals that are cm across when fresh, are the largest of any known 

nearly glabrous or at most scurfy puberulent on member of the Melastomataceae in the Mesoamer- 

vegetative buds with leaves that are mostly basally ican region. The large flowers, rupturing calyx, and 

acute. The glabrous populations also have conspic- mixture of stout conic and flattened hairs on floral 

uous elevated interpetiolar ridges on the uppermost peduncles and young vegetative organs readily dis- 

twigs, but these are lacking or not readily evident tinffuish this species, 
in the pubescent populations represented by the 

syntype material cited herein. Judging from avail- 4. Blakea calycosa Gleason, Phytologia 1: 342. 

able collections examined for this study, the gla- 
brous variant is the more widespread form. The dif- 
ferences exhibited by these two extremes do not 
seem to correlate with other characters, nor do they 
appear to be correlated with geographic or eleva- 

1939. TYPE: Panama. Code: vicinity of El 
Valle, 600-1000 m, 14 May 1939, Allen 1788 
(holotype, NY; isotypes, F, MO, US). 

Distribution and phenology. Local and uncom- 

tional differences. The extremes when compared ^^^ ^^ ^^^"^ forests of Costa Rica and Panama at 
side by side are impressive, but they are bridged 600-1400 m. Flowering and fruiting collections 
by many intermediates that make formal taxonomic ^^"^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ f^«^ August through March. 

recognition pointless and arbitrary. Therefore, the 

Blakea calycosa is most similar to B. tuberculata 

species as recognized here is considered variable ^^^h which it shares several diagnostic characters 

and polymorphic. Perhaps the observed differences ^^^^ ^^ tuberculate petals, glandular-puberulent 

are the resuU of repeated hybridization between two styles, reflexed foliaceous appendages at the tip of 

formerly distinct entities. each calyx lobe, and similar anther appendages. 

They share a similar indument on young vegetative 

2. Blakea austin-smithii Standley, Field Mus. buds that consists of variously roughened subulate 

Nat. Hist., Bot. Sen 18: 1561. 1938. TYPE: hairs. After examining types and numerous collec- 

Costa Rica. Alajuela: Palmira, 2200 m. Mar. tions of both taxa, I have concluded that these two 

1938, A. Smith H382 (holotype, F; isotype, species are closely related but distinct and worthy 


of continued recognition. Diagnostic character dif- 



ferences include foliar shape and size (shorter and bra, 5-ncrvata, nervis secunclariis 1.5-2 nun inter se 

in B. calycosa), petiole and petal length distantibus. Flores 6-meri in quoque nodo superiore 1-2, 

» n f J \ r in pedunculans Z—^.o cm longis; bracteae exteriores 4— o X 

(longer in B, tuberculata), free vs. laterally connate g^^^ „^„, ^^^t^^ ^^ l,^^i„, ^^^i^ (j 5.2 ,,,„,) .-oalilae; 

anther sacs (in B. calycosa), and staminal append- bracleac iiUeriores 6-7 tnin retusae vel subcinaigiiialae 

age posture (deflexed in B. calycosa vs. upturned omnino coalitae. Hypaiitliium (ad torum) 5-7 mm longum; 

in fi. tuberculata). The taxonomy of this species ^^'y*^'^ *^^^^^ ^^- ^ "^'^. '«"P^; '^^'^ 3-4x4^ mm ro- 

. . i< 1 1 1 • r lunnalis usque tnmcatis, Petala 1.7-1.9 X 1.6-1.8 cm 

pair is coiiiphcated, however, by a series ol some . . . »j* a»u ^cvii^ u 

^ ' -^ obovala a|)ire rotunnato. Antherae 4—5 X 1-1. t> mm ob- 

25 anomalous collections from Costa Rica and Pan- i^ngae inter se lalcralilcr noii cohaerentes apice miriule 

ama that do not fit comfortably into either laxon, A bipuro^ae; conneclivum ail basim dursaliler paulo eleva- 

collection from the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica, turn. Ovarium 6-loculare, cono glabro (collo non evolulo). 

for example {de Nevers et ah 7797^ CAS), has leaf t- • 1 • 

111 ,14 u J 11 D 1 u * Epiphytic shrub 2-3 m tall. Upper branchlets 

blades that are shaped like B, calycosa but ap- 1 i , • 1 1 • n i- • 

in*.L 7.' 1!" T^ • fflabrous and sparini*;ly leniicellate, distinctly quad- 

proach B. tuberculata in overall size. In Hower size ^ t- ^ j ' j ^ 

this collection is intermediate between the two taxa, '^^^ *« ^^^^^^^ becoming rounded-quadrate with 

J •. I .1 • . 1 * n r ase. Veeetative buds, youne petioles and floral 

and it has the prominent ovary cone and collar 01 ^ ^ •> j t> f 

the latter. Another collection [McPherson 7183, ^"^«' ^"^ ^he adaxial surface and elevated primary 

CAS) from Cerro Tute, Panama, has petioles that ^^^"^ "^ immature leaves moderately to densely 

approach B. tuberculata in length, leaf blades that ^"^^""^^ ^^^^ ^ brownish scurfy indument of mealy 

are intermediate in size and shape, flowers that are i"-defined matted particles. Mature leaves of a pair 

intermediate in size, and an ovary apex that is mod- ^^^^^^ *" somewhat unequal in size, essentially gla- 

ified into a low elevated cone surrounded by widely ^''""^ «" ^^^^ surfaces; petioles 0.6-1.7 cm long; 

spaced glandular hairs reminiscent of B. calycosa. 

blades coriaceous, 6.4—12.5 X 3.2—5.8 cm, elliptic. 

Field studies are needed to better evaluate the sta- ^P^^ acuminate, base acute varying to obtuse, mar- 
lus of these enigmatic populations and to determine &"" ^""^'^^ ^o subentire, 5-nerved, the transverse 
whether hybridization and introgression are respon- secondary veins spaced 1.5-2 mm apart at the wid- 

sible for the observed patterns of variation. 

est portion of the blade. Flowers erect, 1 or 2 in 
each leaf axil of uppermost branches; peduncles 2 

5. Blakeu ehlorantha Almeda, Rhodora 82: 609 

4.5 cm long, rounded-quadrate, glabrous and len- 
1980. TYPE: Costa Rica. Puntarenas: 3-3.5 ticellate. Floral bracts sessile, outer bracts 4-6 X 
km SE of Santa Elena and 2-3 km E of Mon- ^-lO mm, fused basally for 1.5-2 mm, flaring to 

teverde on the Penas Blancas trail, Cordillera f"™ ^ skirtlike collar, depressed-ovate, apex blunt- 

de Tilardn, 1500-1540 m, 19 Dec. 1973, Al- 'y ^^^""^^ ^^ subemarginate, margin entire but 

meda et al. 2005 (holotype, DUKE; isotypes, "ndulate-involute, 3-vemed, glabrous throughout; 

inner bracts connate for their entire length to form 
an unlobed cuplike collar 6-7 mm long that closely 

CAS, CR, MO, NY, US). 

Distribution and phenology. Endemic to Costa envelops the hypanthium. Hypanthium (in post an- 

Rica where it is confined to the Cordillera de Ti- thesis) campanulale, 5-7 mm long to the torus and 

lurdn anil adjacent areas in cloud forest, elfin wood- 8-10 mm diam., glabrous. Calyx tube ca. 3 mm 

land, and windswept ridges at 900-1800 m. Col- long; free portions of calyx lobes 3^ mm long and 

lecled in flower from October through May, in fruit 4^5 ^m wide basally, rounded-truncate, margin